Antimicrobial Activity of Different Plant Extracts, Plant-Derived Compounds and Synthetic Derivatives of Natural Compounds on Pathogenic Microorganisms

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant-Derived Antibiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 27653

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Chemistry and Biocatalysis, The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland
Interests: flavonoids; plant extracts; natural compounds; biotransformations; antimicrobial activity; antitumor activity; antioxidant activity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Chałubińskiego 4, 50-368 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: flavonoid; natural compounds; biological activity; anticancer activity; antioxidant activity; chalcone; multidrug-resistant pathogens; food science; antimicrobial agents; cytotoxicity assays; amyloid; Crohn’s disease; AIEC; biofilm
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing resistance of microorganisms, especially among clinical strains, to popular antibiotics used in the treatment of infectious diseases is a huge global problem. The problem with MDR (multidrug-resistant) strains is associated with significant mortality caused by these pathogenic microorganisms, especially in hospital environments. The search for new compounds of natural origin is crucial in solving this problem. Extraction is a simple method to isolate various compounds from raw plant material. Furthermore, different plant extracts have high biological activity, comparable to that of known drugs. However, in search of novel plant-derived compounds characterized with stronger biological activity than plant extracts, chemical modifications of natural compounds are helpful. Additionally, articles which present alternative methods of obtaining natural compounds with antimicrobial activity, e.g., as a result of biotransformation using whole cells of microorganisms or pure enzymes, are also welcome. It will be interesting to compare the antimicrobial activity of natural compounds and their synthetic derivatives but also different plant extracts with pure compounds, which are dominant in plants. Plant extracts and compounds obtained by chemical modifications or biotransformations may be the future of effective treatment of infectious diseases.

Dr. Joanna Kozłowska
Dr. Anna Duda-Madej
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • antimicrobial activity
  • plant extracts
  • plant-derived compounds
  • synthetic derivatives
  • flavonoids
  • multidrug resistance
  • pathogenic strains

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2728 KiB  
Article
Ether Derivatives of Naringenin and Their Oximes as Factors Modulating Bacterial Adhesion
by Anna Duda-Madej, Joanna Kozłowska, Dagmara Baczyńska and Paweł Krzyżek
Antibiotics 2023, 12(6), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12061076 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Because of the close connection between adhesion and many vital cellular functions, the search for new compounds modulating the adhesion of bacteria belonging to the intestinal microbiota is a great challenge and a clinical need. Based on our previous studies, we discovered that [...] Read more.
Because of the close connection between adhesion and many vital cellular functions, the search for new compounds modulating the adhesion of bacteria belonging to the intestinal microbiota is a great challenge and a clinical need. Based on our previous studies, we discovered that O-lkyl naringenin derivatives and their oximes exhibit antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant pathogens. The current study was aimed at determining the modulatory effect of these compounds on the adhesion of selected representatives of the intestinal microbiota: Escherichia coli, a commensal representative of the intestinal microbiota, and Enterococcus faecalis, a bacterium that naturally colonizes the intestines but has disease-promoting potential. To better reflect the variety of real-life scenarios, we performed these studies using two different intestinal cell lines: the physiologically functioning (“healthy”) 3T3-L1 cell line and the disease-mimicking, cancerous HT-29 line. The study was performed in vitro under static and microfluidic conditions generated by the Bioflux system. We detected the modulatory effect of the tested O-alkyl naringenin derivatives on bacterial adhesion, which was dependent on the cell line studied and was more significant for E. coli than for E. faecalis. In addition, it was noticed that this activity was affected by the concentration of the tested compound and its structure (length of the carbon chain). In summary, O-alkyl naringenin derivatives and their oximes possess a promising modulatory effect on the adhesion of selected representatives of the intestinal microbiota. Full article
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16 pages, 3200 KiB  
Article
Vernonia polyanthes Less. (Asteraceae Bercht. & Presl), a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds with Antibiotic Effect against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
by Jordana Damasceno Gitirana de Santana, Oscar Alejandro Santos-Mayorga, Jônatas Rodrigues Florencio, Mirella Chrispim Cerqueira de Oliveira, Luísa Maria Silveira de Almeida, Julianna Oliveira de Lucas Xavier, Danielle Cristina Zimmermann-Franco, Gilson Costa Macedo, Adriana Lúcia Pires Ferreira, Orlando Vieira de Sousa, Ademar Alves da Silva Filho and Maria Silvana Alves
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030622 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Vernonia polyanthes is a medicinal plant used to treat many disorders, including infectious diseases. This study investigated the chemical constituents and the antibacterial activity of V. polyanthes leaf rinse extract (Vp-LRE). The chemical characterization of Vp-LRE was established using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography [...] Read more.
Vernonia polyanthes is a medicinal plant used to treat many disorders, including infectious diseases. This study investigated the chemical constituents and the antibacterial activity of V. polyanthes leaf rinse extract (Vp-LRE). The chemical characterization of Vp-LRE was established using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS), and glaucolide A was identified through 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass fragmentation. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The antibacterial activity was assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. Interactions between ligands and beta-lactamase were evaluated via molecular docking. UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS detected acacetin, apigenin, chrysoeriol, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin isomer, kaempferide, 3′,4′-dimethoxyluteolin, 3,7-dimethoxy-5,3′,4′-trihydroxyflavone, piptocarphin A and glaucolide A. Vp-LRE (30 µg/mL) and glaucolide A (10 and 20 μg/mL) were cytotoxic against RAW 264.7 cells. Glaucolide A was not active, but Vp-LRE inhibited the Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Salmonella Choleraesuis and Typhimurium, with a bacteriostatic effect. The compounds (glaucolide A, 3′,4′-dimethoxyluteolin, acacetin and apigenin) were able to interact with beta-lactamase, mainly through hydrogen bonding, with free energy between −6.2 to −7.5 kcal/mol. These results indicate that V. polyanthes is a potential natural source of phytochemicals with a significant antibiotic effect against MRSA strains. Full article
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16 pages, 4644 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Efficacy of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Essential Oil against Foodborne Illness Pathogens, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Bacillus cereus
by Daniela Sateriale, Giuseppina Forgione, Giuseppa Anna De Cristofaro, Chiara Pagliuca, Roberta Colicchio, Paola Salvatore, Marina Paolucci and Caterina Pagliarulo
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030485 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
Nowadays, the wide spread of foodborne illness and the growing concerns about the use of synthetic food additives have shifted the focus of researchers towards essential oils (EOs) as possible antimicrobials and preservatives of natural origin. Thanks to their antimicrobial properties against pathogenic [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the wide spread of foodborne illness and the growing concerns about the use of synthetic food additives have shifted the focus of researchers towards essential oils (EOs) as possible antimicrobials and preservatives of natural origin. Thanks to their antimicrobial properties against pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms, EOs have shown good potential for use as alternative food additives, also to counteract biofilm-forming bacterial strains, the spread of which is considered to be among the main causes of the increase in foodborne illness outbreaks. In this context, the aim of this study has been to define the antibacterial and antibiofilm profile of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil (TEO) against widespread foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Bacillus cereus. TEO chemical composition was analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Preliminary in vitro antibacterial tests allowed to qualitatively verify TEO efficacy against the tested foodborne pathogens. The subsequent determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values allowed to quantitatively define the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of TEO. To evaluate the ability of essential oils to inhibit biofilm formation, a microplate assay was performed for the bacterial biofilm biomass measurement. Results suggest that TEO, rich in bioactive compounds, is able to inhibit the growth of tested foodborne bacteria. In addition, the highlighted in vitro anti-biofilm properties of TEO suggest the use of this natural agent as a promising food preservative to counteract biofilm-related infections in the food industry. Full article
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14 pages, 1354 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Capacity of Bacteria Isolated from Stingless Bee (Scaptotrigona aff. postica) Honey Cultivated in Açai (Euterpe oleracea) Monoculture
by Iago Castro da Silva, Eveson Oscar Almeida Conceição, Daniel Santiago Pereira, Hervé Rogez and Nilton Akio Muto
Antibiotics 2023, 12(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12020223 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
Many antimicrobial compounds have been seeking to protect the human body against pathogenic microbial infections. In recent times, there has been considerable growth of pathogens resistant to existing drugs due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics. In the present study, bacteria isolated from [...] Read more.
Many antimicrobial compounds have been seeking to protect the human body against pathogenic microbial infections. In recent times, there has been considerable growth of pathogens resistant to existing drugs due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics. In the present study, bacteria isolated from the honey of stingless bees native to the Amazon called Scaptotrigona aff. postica and Apis mellifera were used to determine their potential antimicrobial properties and characterize the medium cultivated with isolated bacteria. The results showed inhibition of nine isolates. Among these isolates, SCA12, SCA13, and SCA15 showed inhibitory activity similar to that of vancomycin, which was used as a positive control. The SCA13 strain obtained the best results with antimicrobial extract against the tested pathogens; the species was identified as Enterococcus faecalis, and its lyophilized extract was characterized by temperature, pH, and trypsin, in which they showed antimicrobial activity. This work shows that bacteria isolated from the stingless bee honey, Scaptotrigona aff. postica, have the potential to produce antimicrobial substances. Full article
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13 pages, 1961 KiB  
Article
An In Vitro and In Silico Investigation about Monteverdia ilicifolia Activity against Helicobacter pylori
by Mariana Nascimento de Paula, Taísa Dalla Valle Rörig Ribeiro, Raquel Isolani, Daniela Cristina de Medeiros Araújo, Augusto Santos Borges, Gisele Strieder Philippsen, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro Gonçalves, Rodrigo Rezende Kitagawa, Flavio Augusto Vicente Seixas and João Carlos Palazzo de Mello
Antibiotics 2023, 12(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12010046 - 28 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1614
Abstract
Monteverdia ilicifolia is a Brazilian native plant, traditionally used to treat gastric diseases that are now associated with Helicobacter pylori and are commonly associated with several human diseases. We point out the M. ilicifolia extract as active against H. pylori. The crude [...] Read more.
Monteverdia ilicifolia is a Brazilian native plant, traditionally used to treat gastric diseases that are now associated with Helicobacter pylori and are commonly associated with several human diseases. We point out the M. ilicifolia extract as active against H. pylori. The crude extract produced with acetone:water presented the best H. pylori inhibitory activity of all five extracts (MIC 64 µg/mL). The ethyl-acetate fractions from crude extracts produced with ethanol and acetone showed a MIC of 64 µg/mL. Both ethyl-acetate fractions and the crude extract produced with acetone showed an antioxidant capacity of between 14.51 and 19.48 µg/mL in the DPPH assay. In the FRAP assay, two ethyl-acetate fractions (EAF2 and EAF4) presented the antioxidant capacity of 5.40 and 5.15 mM Trolox/g of extract. According to the results obtained from the antioxidant and antibacterial assays, two fractions (EAF2 and nBF5) were analyzed by mass spectrometry and confirmed the presence of monomeric, dimeric, trimeric tannins, and glycosylated flavonoids. Some compounds were tested using bioinformatics to evaluate the best enzyme inhibitors and the molecular interaction between the enzyme and the tested ligands. The presence of these polyphenol compounds could play an important role in antioxidant and inhibitory capacities against H. pylori and can be used to assist in the treatment or prevention of infection by H. pylori. Full article
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25 pages, 3625 KiB  
Article
Essential Oils of Aromatic Plant Species from the Atlantic Rainforest Exhibit Extensive Chemical Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity
by Crislene V. Perigo, Lenita L. Haber, Roselaine Facanali, Maria A. R. Vieira, Roseli B. Torres, Luís C. Bernacci, Elsie F. Guimarães, João B. Baitello, Marcos E. G. Sobral, Vera Quecini and Marcia Ortiz M. Marques
Antibiotics 2022, 11(12), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11121844 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
Microbial resistance, caused by the overuse or inadequate application of antibiotics, is a worldwide crisis, increasing the risk of treatment failure and healthcare costs. Plant essential oils (EOs) consist of hydrophobic metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial potential of the chemical diversity of [...] Read more.
Microbial resistance, caused by the overuse or inadequate application of antibiotics, is a worldwide crisis, increasing the risk of treatment failure and healthcare costs. Plant essential oils (EOs) consist of hydrophobic metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial potential of the chemical diversity of plants from the Atlantic Rainforest remains scarcely characterized. In the current work, we determined the metabolite profile of the EOs from aromatic plants from nine locations and accessed their antimicrobial and biocidal activity by agar diffusion assays, minimum inhibitory concentration, time-kill and cell-component leakage assays. The pharmacokinetic properties of the EO compounds were investigated by in silico tools. More than a hundred metabolites were identified, mainly consisting of sesqui and monoterpenes. Individual plants and botanical families exhibited extensive chemical variations in their EO composition. Probabilistic models demonstrated that qualitative and quantitative differences contribute to chemical diversity, depending on the botanical family. The EOs exhibited antimicrobial biocidal activity against pathogenic bacteria, fungi and multiple predicted pharmacological targets. Our results demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of EOs from rainforest plants, indicate novel macromolecular targets, and contribute to highlighting the chemical diversity of native species. Full article
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13 pages, 1031 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Effect of Brassica Tissues on the Mycotoxigenic Cereal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum
by Samina Ashiq, Simon Edwards, Andrew Watson, Emma Blundell and Matthew Back
Antibiotics 2022, 11(9), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11091249 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
Fusarium graminearum is a globally important cereal pathogen, causing head blight in wheat, resulting in yield losses and mycotoxin contamination. Currently, triazole fungicides are used to suppress Fusarium graminearum, however, the declining effectiveness of triazoles and concerns over the safety of pesticides [...] Read more.
Fusarium graminearum is a globally important cereal pathogen, causing head blight in wheat, resulting in yield losses and mycotoxin contamination. Currently, triazole fungicides are used to suppress Fusarium graminearum, however, the declining effectiveness of triazoles and concerns over the safety of pesticides have led to the pursuit of safe alternative crop protection strategies such as biofumigation. In the present study, species belonging to Brassicaceae (Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus, Eruca sativa) were assessed for their biofumigation potential against F. graminearum and the glucosinolate profile of the brassicas was determined. In Petri dishes, mycelial plugs of Fusarium graminearum were exposed to frozen/defrosted leaf discs of brassicas collected at early-leaf, stem-extension, and early-bud stages. Additionally, F. graminearum inoculum was incubated in soil amended with chopped tissues of brassicas in a closed jar experiment. Glucosinolate analysis of the leaf tissue of brassicas revealed that the total glucosinolate concentration of B. juncea ‘Brons’ increased with advancing growth stage (24.5–51.9 µmol g−1). Brassica juncea leaf discs were effective against mycelial growth, while the sinigrin content in the leaf tissue corresponded to the level of suppression. At the stem-extension and early-bud stages, B. juncea ‘Brons’ showed 87–90% suppression with four leaf discs, and 100% suppression with eight leaf discs. Brassica juncea ‘Caliente Rojo’ leaf discs collected at the stem-extension stage showed 94% inhibition with eight discs. In the closed jar experiment, each brassica species significantly suppressed F. graminearum inoculum by 41–55%. The findings suggest that the brassica species investigated in the present study could be effective in reducing the inoculum of F. graminearum in soil prior to cereal production. Full article
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13 pages, 1537 KiB  
Article
Rhodiola rosea Reduces Intercellular Signaling in Campylobacter jejuni
by Ajda Kunčič, Franz Bucar and Sonja Smole Možina
Antibiotics 2022, 11(9), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11091220 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen and the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, i.e., campylobacteriosis. Besides searching for novel antimicrobials, identification of new targets for their action is becoming increasingly important. Rhodiola rosea has long been used in traditional medicine. Ethanolic extracts [...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen and the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, i.e., campylobacteriosis. Besides searching for novel antimicrobials, identification of new targets for their action is becoming increasingly important. Rhodiola rosea has long been used in traditional medicine. Ethanolic extracts from the roots and rhizomes of the plant contain a wide range of bioactive compounds with various pharmacological activities. In this study, cultivated plant materials have been used, i.e., “Mattmark” and “Rosavine”. Through optimized protocols, we obtained fractions of the initial ethanolic extracts rich in most important bioactive compounds from R. rosea, including salidroside, rosavins, proanthocyanidins (PACs), and flavonoids. The antimicrobial activity in relation to the chemical composition of the extracts and their fractions was studied with an emphasis on C. jejuni AI-2-mediated intercellular signaling. At concentration 15.625 mg/L, bioluminescence reduction rates varied from 27% to 72%, and the membrane remained intact. Fractions rich in PACs had the strongest antimicrobial effect against C. jejuni, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (M F3 40%: 62.5 mg/L; R F3 40%: 250 mg/L) and the highest intercellular signaling reduction rates (M F3 40%: 72%; R F3 40%: 65%). On the other hand, fractions without PACs were less effective (MICs: M F5 PVP: 250 mg/L; R F5 PVP: 1000 mg/L and bioluminescence reduction rates: M F5 PVP: 27%; R F5 PVP: 43%). Additionally, fractions rich in flavonoids had strong antimicrobial activity (MICs: M F4 70%: 125 mg/L; R F4 70%: 250 mg/L and bioluminescence reduction rates: M F4 70%: 68%; R F4 70%: 50%). We conclude that PACs and flavonoids are crucial compound groups responsible for the antimicrobial activity of R. rosea roots and rhizomes in C. jejuni. Full article
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18 pages, 1842 KiB  
Article
Campylobacter jejuni Biofilm Control with Lavandin Essential Oils and By-Products
by Dina Ramić, Janja Ogrizek, Franz Bucar, Barbka Jeršek, Miha Jeršek and Sonja Smole Možina
Antibiotics 2022, 11(7), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070854 - 25 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
The food industry is constantly struggling with one of the most prevalent biofilm-forming and food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Campylobacter jejuni. Different approaches are used to control biofilms in the food production chain, but none is fully effective. In this study, we aim to [...] Read more.
The food industry is constantly struggling with one of the most prevalent biofilm-forming and food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Campylobacter jejuni. Different approaches are used to control biofilms in the food production chain, but none is fully effective. In this study, we aim to produce and determine the chemical profile of essential oils (EOs), ethanolic extracts of flowers prior to distillation (EFs), and ethanolic extracts of post-distillation waste material (EWMs) from Lavandula × intermedia ‘Bila’, ‘Budrovka’ St Nicholas and ‘Budrovka’, which were further used to reduce C. jejuni intercellular signaling, adhesion, and biofilm formation, as well as to test their antioxidant activity. Glycosides of hydroxycinnamic acids were the major constituents of both types of lavandin ethanolic extract, while linalool, linalyl acetate, 1,8-cineol, and camphor were the major compounds found in lavandin EOs. Tested EOs showed the best antibacterial activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.25 mg/mL. Lavandin EFs proved more effective in reducing C. jejuni intercellular signaling and adhesion compared to lavandin EOs and EWMs, while lavandin EOs showed a slightly better effect against biofilm formation. Interestingly, the best antioxidant activity was determined for lavandin EWMs. A positive and moderate correlation was found between the reduction of C. jejuni intercellular signaling and adhesion, as well as between adhesion and biofilm formation. These findings mean novel bacterial targets are of interest for biofilm control with alternative natural agents throughout the whole food production chain. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

22 pages, 1181 KiB  
Review
Carvacrol—A Natural Phenolic Compound with Antimicrobial Properties
by Wanda Mączka, Martyna Twardawska, Małgorzata Grabarczyk and Katarzyna Wińska
Antibiotics 2023, 12(5), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12050824 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3050
Abstract
The main purpose of this article is to present the latest research related to selected biological properties of carvacrol, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity. As a monoterpenoid phenol, carvacrol is a component of many essential oils and is usually found in [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this article is to present the latest research related to selected biological properties of carvacrol, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity. As a monoterpenoid phenol, carvacrol is a component of many essential oils and is usually found in plants together with its isomer, thymol. Carvacrol, either alone or in combination with other compounds, has a strong antimicrobial effect on many different strains of bacteria and fungi that are dangerous to humans or can cause significant losses in the economy. Carvacrol also exerts strong anti-inflammatory properties by preventing the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by inducing SOD, GPx, GR, and CAT, as well as reducing the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the body. It also affects the body’s immune response generated by LPS. Carvacrol is considered a safe compound despite the limited amount of data on its metabolism in humans. This review also discusses the biotransformations of carvacrol, because the knowledge of the possible degradation pathways of this compound may help to minimize the risk of environmental contamination with phenolic compounds. Full article
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21 pages, 2250 KiB  
Review
Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil and Plant-Derived Natural Compounds against Aspergillus flavus
by Fei Tian, So Young Woo, Sang Yoo Lee, Su Been Park, Yaxin Zheng and Hyang Sook Chun
Antibiotics 2022, 11(12), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11121727 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4388
Abstract
Aspergillus flavus is a facultative parasite that contaminates several important food crops at both the pre- and post-harvest stages. Moreover, it is an opportunistic animal and human pathogen that causes aspergillosis diseases. A. flavus also produces the polyketide-derived carcinogenic and mutagenic secondary metabolite [...] Read more.
Aspergillus flavus is a facultative parasite that contaminates several important food crops at both the pre- and post-harvest stages. Moreover, it is an opportunistic animal and human pathogen that causes aspergillosis diseases. A. flavus also produces the polyketide-derived carcinogenic and mutagenic secondary metabolite aflatoxin, which negatively impacts global food security and threatens human and livestock health. Recently, plant-derived natural compounds and essential oils (EOs) have shown great potential in combatting A. flavus spoilage and aflatoxin contamination. In this review, the in situ antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic properties of EOs are discussed. The mechanisms through which EOs affect A. flavus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis are then reviewed. Indeed, several involve physical, chemical, or biochemical changes to the cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, and related metabolic enzymes and genes. Finally, the future perspectives towards the application of plant-derived natural compounds and EOs in food protection and novel antifungal agent development are discussed. The present review highlights the great potential of plant-derived natural compounds and EOs to protect agricultural commodities and food items from A. flavus spoilage and aflatoxin contamination, along with reducing the threat of aspergillosis diseases. Full article
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22 pages, 3215 KiB  
Review
Naringenin and Its Derivatives—Health-Promoting Phytobiotic against Resistant Bacteria and Fungi in Humans
by Anna Duda-Madej, Jakub Stecko, Jakub Sobieraj, Natalia Szymańska and Joanna Kozłowska
Antibiotics 2022, 11(11), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11111628 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3114
Abstract
Naringenin is a trihydroxyflavanone present in large amount in different citrus fruits, e.g., oranges, pomelos, grapefruits, but also in tomatoes, fenugreek and coffee. It has a wide range of pharmacological and biological effects beneficial to human health. Its antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and [...] Read more.
Naringenin is a trihydroxyflavanone present in large amount in different citrus fruits, e.g., oranges, pomelos, grapefruits, but also in tomatoes, fenugreek and coffee. It has a wide range of pharmacological and biological effects beneficial to human health. Its antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antimicrobial activity is frequently reported in scientific literature. In this review we presented the current state of knowledge on the antimicrobial activity of naringenin and its natural and synthetic derivatives as a phytobiotic against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi in humans. Most of the data reported here have been obtained from in vitro or in vivo studies. Over the past few years, due to the overuse of antibiotics, the occurrence of bacteria resistant to all available antibiotics has been growing. Therefore, the main focus here is on antibiotic resistant strains, which are a significant, worldwide problem in the treatment of infectious diseases. The situation is so alarming that the WHO has listed microbial resistance to drugs on the list of the 10 most important health problems facing humanity. In addition, based on scientific reports from recent years, we described the potential molecular mechanism of action of these bioflavonoids against pathogenic strains of microorganisms. As plant-derived substances have been pushed out of use with the beginning of the antibiotic era, we hope that this review will contribute to their return as alternative methods of preventing and treating infections in the epoch of drug resistance. Full article
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