Bacterial-Associated Infections: Epidemiology, Antimicrobial Resistance and Its Impact on Health

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2024) | Viewed by 8542

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
I.P—National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research (INIAV), Vairão, Portugal
Interests: bacterial infections; biofilm; virulence; antimicrobial resistance; Escherichia coli; gene expression; probiotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária, I.P. National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinary Research, Rua dos Lagidos - Lugar da Madalena, 4485-655 Vairão, Vila do Conde, Portugal
Interests: infections diseases; Candida species; Bacteria species; virulence factors; antifungal resistance; host interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. I.P – National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research (INIAV), Vairão, Portugal
2. Centre of Biological Engineering (CEB), Laboratory of Research in Biofilms Rosário Oliveira (LIBRO), Campus de Gualtar, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
3. LABBELS–Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: food microbiology; pet animal infections; medical biotechnology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bacterial infections have significantly increased in recent decades, not only in humans but also in pets and livestock animals. Additionally, the lack of success in treating infections is related to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, which have clinical implications in both human and veterinary medicine. In recent years, multidrug-resistant microorganisms have emerged as a major public health problem, as treatment often fails when classical antimicrobials are used. As such, studies on epidemiology, antimicrobial profile, and the virulence of bacterial pathogens are essential to shed new light on the understanding of the development of infections. Moreover, the scarcity of new classes of antimicrobials highlights the need for new strategies to manage these infections. For that reason, exploring alternative strategies to treat these infections is an urgent necessity.

The main objective of this Special Issue is to improve our understanding of the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial infections. For this purpose, this Special Issue considers all aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacterial-associated pathogens. Submissions regarding resistance mechanisms, epidemiology, the application of molecular diagnostic and genome sequencing, virulence determinants, and the biological implications of resistance in virulence of bacterial-associated pathogens are encouraged. In addition, manuscripts concerning the clinical and economic burden of multidrug resistance in bacterial infections and novel therapeutics approaches to overcome this challenge are especially welcome.

Dr. Joana Castro
Dr. Daniela Araújo
Dr. Sónia Silva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antibiotics
  • antibiotic resistance
  • human health
  • companion and livestock animals health
  • epidemiology
  • novel antimicrobial therapies

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

14 pages, 571 KiB  
Article
Impact of Genital Infections and Antibiotic Use on Incidence of Preterm Birth: A Retrospective Observational Study
by Daniela Teodora Marti, Felix Bratosin, Ovidiu Rosca, Roxana Folescu, Cosmin Citu, Adrian Ratiu and Zoran Laurentiu Popa
Antibiotics 2024, 13(3), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13030240 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
This study investigates the complex interplay among genital infections, antibiotic usage, and preterm birth. This study aims to identify common genital pathogens associated with preterm births, assess the impact of various antibiotic treatments on pregnancy outcomes, and understand antibiotic resistance patterns among these [...] Read more.
This study investigates the complex interplay among genital infections, antibiotic usage, and preterm birth. This study aims to identify common genital pathogens associated with preterm births, assess the impact of various antibiotic treatments on pregnancy outcomes, and understand antibiotic resistance patterns among these pathogens. This study included 71 pregnant women who experienced preterm birth and 94 women with genital infections who delivered at term. Various maternal characteristics, medical history, signs and symptoms, gestational weight, gestational age, type of birth, vaginal pH, Nugent scores, and vaginal flora were analyzed. Antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated microorganisms were also examined. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and genital herpes was significantly higher in the preterm group. Preterm births were associated with fever, pelvic pain, vaginal spotting, and fatigue. Vaginal pH levels and Nugent scores were significantly higher in the preterm group, indicating disturbed vaginal flora. The presence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) was a particularly strong risk factor, increasing by more than four times the odds of preterm birth (OR = 4.45, p = 0.001). Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) presence was another critical factor, with a four-fold increase in the odds of preterm birth (OR = 4.01, p = 0.034). The overall presence of Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) organisms significantly increased the odds of preterm birth (OR = 3.73, p = 0.001). Specific pathogens like Chlamydia trachomatis (OR = 3.12, p = 0.020) and Mycoplasma hominis (OR = 3.64, p = 0.006) were also identified as significant risk factors. Ureaplasma urealyticum also showed a significantly higher risk of preterm birth (OR = 2.76, p = 0.009). This study highlights the importance of screening for and treating genital infections during pregnancy, especially STDs and genital herpes, as they can significantly increase the risk of preterm birth. Additionally, the presence of specific microorganisms and antibiotic resistance patterns plays an essential role in preterm birth risk. Early detection and targeted antibiotic treatment may help mitigate this risk and improve pregnancy outcomes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2217 KiB  
Article
Novel Antibacterial Agents SAAP-148 and Halicin Combat Gram-Negative Bacteria Colonizing Catheters
by Nesrine Bouhrour, Tanny J. K. van der Reijden, Michella M. Voet, Bep Schonkeren-Ravensbergen, Robert A. Cordfunke, Jan Wouter Drijfhout, Farida Bendali and Peter H. Nibbering
Antibiotics 2023, 12(12), 1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12121743 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1367
Abstract
The antibiotic management of catheter-related infections (CRIs) often fails owing to the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains and/or biofilm/persister apparitions. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of two novel antimicrobial agents, i.e., the synthetic peptide SAAP-148 and the novel antibiotic halicin, against Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) [...] Read more.
The antibiotic management of catheter-related infections (CRIs) often fails owing to the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains and/or biofilm/persister apparitions. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of two novel antimicrobial agents, i.e., the synthetic peptide SAAP-148 and the novel antibiotic halicin, against Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) colonizing catheters. The antibacterial, anti-biofilm, and anti-persister activities of both agents were evaluated against Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. The enrolled strains were isolated from catheters and selected based on their resistance to at least three antibiotic classes and biofilm formation potential. Furthermore, the hemolysis and endotoxin neutralization abilities of these agents were explored. The bactericidal activity of both agents was reduced in urine and plasma as compared to buffered saline. In a dose-dependent manner, SAAP-148 and halicin reduced bacterial counts in 24 h preformed biofilms on silicone elastomer discs and eliminated persisters originating from antibiotic-exposed mature 7-day biofilms, with halicin being less effective than SAAP-148. Importantly, SAAP-148 and halicin acted synergistically on E. coli and K. pneumoniae biofilms but not on A. baumannii biofilms. The peptide, but not halicin, decreased the production of IL-12p40 upon exposure to UV-killed bacteria. This preliminary study showed that SAAP-148 and halicin alone/in combination are promising candidates to fight GNB colonizing catheters. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

19 pages, 978 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Impact of Streptococcal Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance on Human Health
by Raina Gergova, Vasil Boyanov, Adile Muhtarova and Alexandra Alexandrova
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040360 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 803
Abstract
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) are bacteria that can cause a range of infections, some of them life-threatening. This review examines the spread of antibiotic resistance and its mechanisms against antibiotics for streptococcal infections. Data on high-level penicillin-resistant [...] Read more.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) are bacteria that can cause a range of infections, some of them life-threatening. This review examines the spread of antibiotic resistance and its mechanisms against antibiotics for streptococcal infections. Data on high-level penicillin-resistant invasive pneumococci have been found in Brazil (42.8%) and Japan (77%). The resistance is caused by mutations in genes that encode penicillin-binding proteins. Similarly, GAS and GBS strains reported from Asia, the USA, and Africa have undergone similar transformations in PBPs. Resistance to major alternatives of penicillins, macrolides, and lincosamides has become widespread among pneumococci and streptococci, especially in Asia (70–95%). The combination of several emm types with erm(B) is associated with the development of high-level macrolide resistance in GAS. Major mechanisms are ribosomal target modifications encoded by erm genes, ribosomal alterations, and active efflux pumps that regulate antibiotic entry due to mefA/E and msrD genes. Tetracycline resistance for streptococci in different countries varied from 22.4% in the USA to 83.7/100% in China, due to tet genes. Combined tetracycline/macrolide resistance is usually linked with the insertion of ermB into the transposon carrying tetM. New quinolone resistance is increasing by between 11.5 and 47.9% in Asia and Europe. The mechanism of quinolone resistance is based on mutations in gyrA/B, determinants for DNA gyrase, or parC/E encoding topoisomerase IV. The results for antibiotic resistance are alarming, and urgently call for increased monitoring of this problem and precautionary measures for control to prevent the spread of resistant mutant strains. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 326 KiB  
Review
Reintroduction of Legacy Antibiotics in Neonatal Sepsis: The Special Role of Fosfomycin and Colistin
by Maria Baltogianni, Niki Dermitzaki, Chrysoula Kosmeri, Anastasios Serbis, Foteini Balomenou and Vasileios Giapros
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040333 - 05 Apr 2024
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a rapidly growing global problem. A significant proportion of the pathogens that commonly cause neonatal sepsis are resistant to [...] Read more.
Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a rapidly growing global problem. A significant proportion of the pathogens that commonly cause neonatal sepsis are resistant to multiple antibiotics. Therefore, for the empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis, the repurposing of older antibiotics that are effective against multidrug-resistant pathogens is being investigated. This review aims to provide an overview of current research and experience using the repurposed antibiotics colistin and fosfomycin for the empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis. Based on current knowledge, colistin and fosfomycin may be potentially helpful for the empirical treatment of sepsis in neonates due to their efficacy against a wide range of pathogens and acceptable safety profile. Full article
19 pages, 734 KiB  
Review
Swine Colibacillosis: Global Epidemiologic and Antimicrobial Scenario
by Maria Margarida Barros, Joana Castro, Daniela Araújo, Ana Maria Campos, Ricardo Oliveira, Sónia Silva, Divanildo Outor-Monteiro and Carina Almeida
Antibiotics 2023, 12(4), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12040682 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2789
Abstract
Swine pathogenic infection caused by Escherichia coli, known as swine colibacillosis, represents an epidemiological challenge not only for animal husbandry but also for health authorities. To note, virulent E. coli strains might be transmitted, and also cause disease, in humans. In the [...] Read more.
Swine pathogenic infection caused by Escherichia coli, known as swine colibacillosis, represents an epidemiological challenge not only for animal husbandry but also for health authorities. To note, virulent E. coli strains might be transmitted, and also cause disease, in humans. In the last decades, diverse successful multidrug-resistant strains have been detected, mainly due to the growing selective pressure of antibiotic use, in which animal practices have played a relevant role. In fact, according to the different features and particular virulence factor combination, there are four different pathotypes of E. coli that can cause illness in swine: enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) that comprises edema disease E. coli (EDEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Nevertheless, the most relevant pathotype in a colibacillosis scenario is ETEC, responsible for neonatal and postweaning diarrhea (PWD), in which some ETEC strains present enhanced fitness and pathogenicity. To explore the distribution of pathogenic ETEC in swine farms and their diversity, resistance, and virulence profiles, this review summarizes the most relevant works on these subjects over the past 10 years and discusses the importance of these bacteria as zoonotic agents. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

7 pages, 1174 KiB  
Case Report
First Bacteremia Due to Corynebacterium gottingense in an Immunocompromised Child: A Case Report, 16S rDNA-Based Phylogenetic Analyses and Review of the Literature
by Lucas Bouguerra, Chrystelle Dupraz, Chloé Plouzeau, Anthony Michaud, Lauranne Broutin, Julie Cremniter, Christophe Burucoa and Maxime Pichon
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030528 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
Corynebacterium gottingense is a Gram-positive bacillus that has not been reported as pathogenic in pediatric patients. Herein, a case of catheter-associated bloodstream infection by C. gottingense in a 13-year-old immunocompromised child with febrile neutropenia induced for osteosarcoma is reported. The species was identified [...] Read more.
Corynebacterium gottingense is a Gram-positive bacillus that has not been reported as pathogenic in pediatric patients. Herein, a case of catheter-associated bloodstream infection by C. gottingense in a 13-year-old immunocompromised child with febrile neutropenia induced for osteosarcoma is reported. The species was identified by Sanger sequencing of the 16s rRNA sequence of the bacterial strain and was compared phylogenetically with published sequences. As suggested in the literature, the presented strain was multi-susceptible, particularly to amoxicillin. The patient was treated with piperacillin/tazobactam for seven days in the context of a urinary co-infection, resulting in resolution of fever within 48 h and then relaunched with oral amoxicillin for 3 days (for a total of 10 days of antibiotic therapy). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rDNA demonstrated the complexity of the genus Corynebacterium spp. but failed to demonstrate a direct benefit in predicting clinical outcome based on this single information. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop