Antibiotics and Infectious Respiratory Diseases, 2nd Volume

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotic Therapy in Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 July 2024 | Viewed by 4905

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University of Bari, 70121 Bari, Italy
Interests: HIV; tuberculosis; NTM; malaria; antimicrobial resistance; HCV; HBV; SARS CoV2; COVID-19; infectious diseases
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Guest Editor
Director of Respiratory Infectious Diseases Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases “L. Spallanzani” IRCCS, 00149 Rome, Italy
Interests: infectious diseases; respiratory infectious diseases; pulmonary tuberculosis; COVID-19 pneumonia; antibiotic use and resistance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Respiratory Infectious Diseases Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases “L. Spallanzani” IRCCS, 00149 Rome, Italy
Interests: infectious diseases; respiratory infectious diseases; pulmonary tuberculosis; COVID-19 pneumonia; antibiotic use and resistance; NTM
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Infectious respiratory diseases (IRD) continue to be among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally, and in the age of the COVID-19 pandemic, they have gained prominence in the scientific community and the global health approach. They can be caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, or opportunistic infections; nevertheless, indiscriminate antibiotic usage in their treatment has resulted in the development of antimicrobial resistance. The effective management of respiratory infectious illnesses in order to lessen their burden and avoid antibiotic misuse has become a major therapeutic and public health concern. Manuscripts covering all areas of IRD prevention, diagnosis, management, and therapy are encouraged. We are interested in either reviews (literature reviews or systematic reviews), prospective or retrospective studies or case studies.

Manuscripts addressing the following topics are also welcome:

  1. Antimicrobial resistance and bacterial host resistance;
  2. New antibiotics for MDR infection;
  3. HAP (hospital-acquired pneumonia), VAP (ventilator-associated pneumonia), and CAP (community-acquired pneumonia) are the three types of pneumonia;
  4. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and tuberculosis;
  5. SARS CoV2 interstitial pneumonia and viral pneumonia;
  6. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial prescription education;
  7. Infection with pneumonia in immunocompetent and immunocompromised people.

Dr. Francesco Di Gennaro
Dr. Fabrizio Palmieri
Dr. Gina Gualano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • infectious respiratory diseases
  • pulmonary tuberculosis
  • COVID-19 pneumonia
  • antibiotic use and resistance
  • gram negative
  • gram positive
  • pneumonia opportunistic infection
  • multidrug resistance (MDR)
  • medical education
  • infection prevention control

Published Papers (3 papers)

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14 pages, 1369 KiB  
Article
Impact of a Pro-Active Infectious Disease Consultation on the Management of a Multidrug-Resistant Organisms Outbreak in a COVID-19 Hospital: A Three-Months Quasi-Experimental Study
by Davide Fiore Bavaro, Nicolò De Gennaro, Alessandra Belati, Lucia Diella, Roberta Papagni, Luisa Frallonardo, Michele Camporeale, Giacomo Guido, Carmen Pellegrino, Maricla Marrone, Alessandro Dell’Erba, Loreto Gesualdo, Nicola Brienza, Salvatore Grasso, Giuseppe Columbo, Antonio Moschetta, Giovanna Elisiana Carpagnano, Antonio Daleno, Anna Maria Minicucci, Giovanni Migliore and Annalisa Saracinoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Antibiotics 2023, 12(4), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12040712 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Background: Antimicrobial and diagnostic stewardship (AS/DS) principles are crucial for the management of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) infections. We evaluated the impact of a pro-active Infectious Disease (ID) consultation on the mortality risk of patients during an MDROs outbreak in a COVID-19 hospital. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Antimicrobial and diagnostic stewardship (AS/DS) principles are crucial for the management of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) infections. We evaluated the impact of a pro-active Infectious Disease (ID) consultation on the mortality risk of patients during an MDROs outbreak in a COVID-19 hospital. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital, including patients with suspected/confirmed infection and/or colonization by MDROs, which were managed as follows: (i) according to the standard of care during the pre-phase and (ii) in collaboration with a dedicated ID team performing a pro-active bedside evaluation every 48–72 h in the post-phase. Results: Overall, 112 patients were included (pre-phase = 89 and post-phase = 45). The AS interventions included the following: therapy optimization (33%), de-escalation to narrow the spectrum (24%) or to lessen toxic drugs (20%), and discontinuation of antimicrobials (64%). DS included the request of additional microbiologic tests (82%) and instrumental exams (16%). With the Cox model, after adjusting for age, sex, COVID-19 severity, infection source, etiological agents, and post-phase attendance, only age predicted an increased risk of mortality, while attendance in the post-phase resulted in a decreased risk of mortality. Conclusions: Implementation of AS and DS intervention through a pro-active ID consultation may reduce the risk of 28-day mortality of COVID-19 patients with MDROs infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Infectious Respiratory Diseases, 2nd Volume)
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10 pages, 874 KiB  
Article
Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on the Management of Clostridioides difficile Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Dania Comparcini, Valentina Simonetti, Francesco Vladimiro Segala, Francesco Di Gennaro, Davide Fiore Bavaro, Maria Antonietta Pompeo, Annalisa Saracino and Giancarlo Cicolini
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030529 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Clostridioides difficile is, worldwide, the leading cause of hospital-acquired infection. Outbreaks are largely related to antibiotic exposure and contact contamination, but little is known about C. difficle infection (CDI) awareness in the nurse population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to study Italian nurses, [...] Read more.
Clostridioides difficile is, worldwide, the leading cause of hospital-acquired infection. Outbreaks are largely related to antibiotic exposure and contact contamination, but little is known about C. difficle infection (CDI) awareness in the nurse population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to study Italian nurses, based on CDI guidelines. We recruited 200 nurses working in 14 Italian hospitals. Using a one-way analysis of variance of knowledge scores, female nurses (mean 9.67 (standard deviation ± 1.63), p = 0.03), and nurses with a higher level of university education (mean 9.79 (SD ± 1.67), p = 0.04) were demonstrated to have better knowledge about CDI. In addition, 92.5% (n = 184) of the sample declared that they did not have specific postgraduate training about CDI. Seventy-four percent (n = 149) of the respondents declared that they used procedures, protocols and guidelines about CDI in their workplace, but only 46.5% (n = 93) reported using C. difficile-specific bundles during their daily practice. In conclusion, our study highlights a lack of knowledge concerning CDI clinical guidelines among Italian nurses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Infectious Respiratory Diseases, 2nd Volume)
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Case Report
Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in a Case of Chronic Urticaria following Omalizumab Therapy
by Alberto Zolezzi, Gina Gualano, Maria A. Licata, Silvia Mosti, Paola Mencarini, Roberta Papagni, Antonella Vulcano, Angela Cannas, Alberta Villanacci, Fabrizio Albarello, Franca Del Nonno, Daniele Colombo and Fabrizio Palmieri
Antibiotics 2023, 12(12), 1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12121655 - 24 Nov 2023
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Abstract
In Italy, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the last decade has remained constant at under 10 cases/100,000 inhabitants. In the Philippines, TB annual incidence is greater than 500 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Omalizumab is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of chronic spontaneous [...] Read more.
In Italy, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the last decade has remained constant at under 10 cases/100,000 inhabitants. In the Philippines, TB annual incidence is greater than 500 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Omalizumab is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria. We report the case of a 32-year-old Filipino woman who suffered from chronic urticaria, treated with topic steroids since June 2022 and systemic steroids for 2 weeks. In November 2022, she started omalizumab therapy at a monthly dose of 300 mg; she was not screened for TB infection. In the same month, a left laterocervical lymphadenopathy arose, which worsened in February 2023 (diameter: 3 cm). The patient recovered in April 2023 in INMI “Lazzaro Spallanzani” in Rome for suspected TB. Chest CT showed a “tree in bud” pattern at the upper-right pulmonary lobe. The patient tested positive for lymph node biopsy molecular tuberculosis. The patient started standard antituberculosis therapy. She discontinued omalizumab. To our knowledge, this is the second diagnosed TB case during omalizumab treatment, which suggests that attention should be paid to the known risk of TB during biotechnological treatments. Even if current guidelines do not recommend screening for TB before starting anti-IgE therapy, further data should be sought to assess the relationship between omalizumab treatment and active TB. Our experience suggests that screening for TB should be carried out in patients from highly tuberculosis-endemic countries before starting omalizumab therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Infectious Respiratory Diseases, 2nd Volume)
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