Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotics in Animal Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2024) | Viewed by 26599

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Microbiology and Parasitology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbičeva 60, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: veterinary bacteriology; whole-genome sequencing; antimicrobial resistance; zoonoses; molecular diagnostics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bacterial infections are one of the most important causes of disease in humans and animals that can be treated with antimicrobial agents, mainly antibiotics. Their misuse and overuse in different areas lead to the rapid development of resistance. Of particular concern is the emergence of "superbugs" in animals—strains of bacteria that have developed resistance to many different types of antibiotics. Infections in animals caused by resistant bacteria are difficult to treat because of the limited number of veterinary-approved antimicrobials. Herds of farm animals that are part of the food chain and companion animals that live in close contact with humans can be a source of zoonotic resistant bacteria for human infections. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is also of utmost importance because of the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between commensal and pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight the epidemiology of resistant bacteria in livestock and companion animals, the transmission of zoonotic resistant bacteria to humans, the genetic background of antimicrobial resistance and resistance to critically important antimicrobial agents for human medicine. Authors are invited to submit articles describing different aspects of antimicrobial resistance in animals and representing a significant advance in knowledge.

Dr. Jana Avberšek
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • antimicrobial susceptibility testing
  • bacterial pathogens
  • companion animals
  • farm animals
  • veterinary microbiology
  • zoonoses

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 1318 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella Species Isolates from Chickens in Live Bird Markets and Boot Swabs from Layer Farms in Timor-Leste
by Abrao Pereira, Hanna E. Sidjabat, Steven Davis, Paulo Gabriel Vong da Silva, Amalia Alves, Cristibela Dos Santos, Joanita Bendita da Costa Jong, Felisiano da Conceição, Natalino de Jesus Felipe, Augusta Ximenes, Junilia Nunes, Isménia do Rosário Fária, Isabel Lopes, Tamsin S. Barnes, Joanna McKenzie, Tessa Oakley, Joshua R. Francis, Jennifer Yan and Shawn Ting
Antibiotics 2024, 13(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13020120 - 25 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
The rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a global concern, and high levels of resistance have been detected in chicken populations worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. isolated from [...] Read more.
The rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a global concern, and high levels of resistance have been detected in chicken populations worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. isolated from healthy chickens in Timor-Leste. Through a cross-sectional study, cloacal swabs and boot swabs were collected from 25 live bird markets and two layer farms respectively. E. coli and Salmonella spp. from these samples were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobials using a disk diffusion test, and a subset was tested for susceptibility to 27 antimicrobials using broth-based microdilution. E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolates showed the highest resistance towards either tetracycline or ampicillin on the disk diffusion test. E. coli from layer farms (odds ratio:5.2; 95%CI 2.0–13.1) and broilers (odds ratio:18.1; 95%CI 5.3–61.2) were more likely to be multi-drug resistant than those from local chickens. Based on the broth-based microdilution test, resistance to antimicrobials in the Timor-Leste Antimicrobial Guidelines for humans were low, except for resistance to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella spp. (47.1%). Colistin resistance in E. coli was 6.6%. Although this study shows that antimicrobial resistance in chickens was generally low in Timor-Leste, there should be ongoing monitoring in commercial chickens as industry growth might be accompanied with increased antimicrobial use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens)
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13 pages, 1003 KiB  
Article
Impact and Diversity of ESBL-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Recovered from Raw Chicken Meat Samples in Türkiye
by Cemil Kürekci, Özlem Ünaldı, Seyda Şahin, Isidro García-Meniño and Jens Andre Hammerl
Antibiotics 2024, 13(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13010014 (registering DOI) - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
The interrelationship between human, animal and environmental sectors leads to the spread of antibiotic resistance due to selective pressures, evolutionary traits and genomic evolution. In particular, the frequent use of antibiotics in livestock inevitably influences the emergence of specific resistance determinants in human [...] Read more.
The interrelationship between human, animal and environmental sectors leads to the spread of antibiotic resistance due to selective pressures, evolutionary traits and genomic evolution. In particular, the frequent use of antibiotics in livestock inevitably influences the emergence of specific resistance determinants in human strains, associated with reduced treatment options in clinical therapy. In this study, ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from chicken meat samples were evaluated for public health implications in Türkiye. Whole-genome sequencing was used for genetic dissection and phylogenetic comparison of their genomes. The isolates were assigned to four MLST types (ST147, ST37, ST2747 and ST219); two of them were found to represent the ST147 clone associated with severe human infections worldwide. In addition to cephalosporins, high resistance levels to quinolones/fluoroquinolones were identified phenotypically, caused by acquired resistance genes and chromosomal point variations. One isolate was also found to carry the qacE∆1 efflux transporter gene, which confers tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds. The detection of virulence genes (i.e., that coding for enterobactin) associated with the pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae suggests a public health impact. Thus, comprehensive information on the occurrence and impact of K. pneumoniae from livestock is needed to derive appropriate management strategies for consumer protection. In this study, it was shown that poultry meat serves as a reservoir of clinically emerging multidrug-resistant high-risk clones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens)
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18 pages, 1331 KiB  
Article
Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Species and Their Mobile Genetic Elements from Poultry Farm Environments in Malaysia
by Syahidiah Syed Abu Thahir, Sakshaleni Rajendiran, Rafiza Shaharudin and Yuvaneswary Veloo
Antibiotics 2023, 12(8), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12081330 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
The prevalence and persistent outbreaks of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella in low-income countries have received growing attention among the public and scientific community. Notably, the excessive use of antibiotics in chicken feed for the purpose of treatment or as prophylaxis in the poultry industry [...] Read more.
The prevalence and persistent outbreaks of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella in low-income countries have received growing attention among the public and scientific community. Notably, the excessive use of antibiotics in chicken feed for the purpose of treatment or as prophylaxis in the poultry industry have led to a rising rate of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the presence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella species and its mobile genetic elements from soil and effluent samples of 33 randomly selected poultry farms in Selangor, Malaysia. Salmonella species were isolated on selective media (CHROMagar™ Salmonella). VITEK® 2 system was used to identify the isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Subsequently, eight isolates were subjected to the whole genome sequencing (WGS). Based on the results, Salmonella spp. was detected in 38.1% (24/63) of samples, with the highest resistance to ampicillin (62.5%), followed by ampicillin/sulbactam (50.0%) and ciprofloxacin (45.8%). Meanwhile, the identified serovars were Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Weltevreden (S. Weltevreden), S. Jedburgh, and S. Brancaster. The most prevalent resistance genes detected include qnrS1, blaTEM-176, dfrA14, and tet(A). The IncX1 plasmid, with encoded resistance genes, was also detected in four isolates. Furthermore, mutations in the quinolone resistant-determining regions (QRDR) were discovered, specifically in the gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes. In short, surveillance such as continuous monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and emerging trends in resistance patterns through farm environmental samples could provide information to formulate public health interventions for effective infection prevention and disease control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens)
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18 pages, 1384 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci (MRS) and Mammaliicocci (MRM) in Dromedary Camels from Algeria: First Detection of SCCmec-mecC Hybrid in Methicillin-Resistant Mammaliicoccus lentus
by Chahrazed Belhout, Filip Boyen, Nick Vereecke, Sebastiaan Theuns, Nadia Taibi, Marc Stegger, Pedro Yoelvys de la Fé-Rodríguez, Leila Bouayad, Rachid Elgroud and Patrick Butaye
Antibiotics 2023, 12(4), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12040674 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
Dromedary camels are an important source of food and income in many countries. However, it has been largely overlooked that they can also transmit antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to identify the Staphylococcaceae bacteria composition of the nasal flora in [...] Read more.
Dromedary camels are an important source of food and income in many countries. However, it has been largely overlooked that they can also transmit antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to identify the Staphylococcaceae bacteria composition of the nasal flora in dromedary camels and evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Mammaliicoccus (MRM) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) in dromedary camels in Algeria. Nasal swabs were collected from 46 camels from seven farms located in two different regions of Algeria (M’sila and Ouargla). We used non-selective media to determine the nasal flora, and antibiotic-supplemented media to isolate MRS and MRM. The staphylococcal isolates were identified using an Autoflex Biotyper Mass Spectrometer (MALDI-TOF MS). The mecA and mecC genes were detected by PCR. Methicillin-resistant strains were further analysed by long-read whole genome sequencing (WGS). Thirteen known Staphylococcus and Mammaliicoccus species were identified in the nasal flora, of which half (49.2%) were coagulase-positive staphylococci. The results showed that four out of seven farms were positive for MRS and/or MRM, with a total of 16 isolates from 13 dromedary camels. The predominant species were M. lentus, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus. Three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were found to be ST6 and spa type t304. Among methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), ST61 was the predominant ST identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed clonal relatedness among M. lentus strains, while S. epidermidis strains were not closely related. Resistance genes were detected, including mecA, mecC, ermB, tet(K), and blaZ. An SCCmec type VIII element was found in a methicillin-resistant S. hominis (MRSH) belonging to the ST1 strain. An SCCmec-mecC hybrid element was detected in M. lentus, similar to what was previously detected in M. sciuri. This study highlights that dromedary camels may be a reservoir for MRS and MRM, and that they contain a specific set of SCCmec elements. This emphasizes the need for further research in this ecological niche from a One Health perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens)
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12 pages, 1714 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Penicillin-Binding Proteins Alterations and β-Lactams Non-Susceptibility of Diseased Pig-Isolated Streptococcus suis
by Kamonwan Lunha, Wiyada Chumpol, Surasak Jiemsup, Sukuma Samngamnim, Pornchalit Assavacheep and Suganya Yongkiettrakul
Antibiotics 2023, 12(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12010158 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing disease in both animals and humans, and the emergence of increasingly resistant bacteria to antimicrobial agents has become a significant challenge globally. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic basis for declining susceptibility [...] Read more.
Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing disease in both animals and humans, and the emergence of increasingly resistant bacteria to antimicrobial agents has become a significant challenge globally. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic basis for declining susceptibility to penicillin and other β-lactams among S. suis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and penicillin-binding proteins (PBP1a, PBP2a, PBP2b, and PBP2x) sequence analysis were performed on 225 S. suis isolated from diseased pigs. This study found that a growing trend of isolates displayed reduced susceptibility to β-lactams including penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and cephalosporins. A total of 342 substitutions within the transpeptidase domain of four PBPs were identified, of which 18 substitutions were most statistically associated with reduced β-lactams susceptibility. Almost all the S. suis isolates which exhibited penicillin-non-susceptible phenotype (71.9%) had single nucleotide polymorphisms, leading to alterations of PBP1a (P409T) and PBP2a (T584A and H588Y). The isolates may manifest a higher level of penicillin resistance by additional mutation of M341I in the 339STMK active site motif of PBP2x. The ampicillin-non-susceptible isolates shared the mutations in PBP1a (P409T) and PBP2a (T584A and H588Y) with additional alterations of PBP2b (T625R) and PBP2x (T467S). The substitutions, including PBP1a (M587S/T), PBP2a (M433T), PBP2b (I428L), and PBP2x (Q405E/K/L), appeared to play significant roles in mediating the reduction in amoxicillin/clavulanic acid susceptibility. Among the cephalosporins, specific mutations strongly associated with the decrease in cephalosporins susceptibility were observed for ceftiofur: PBP1a (S477D/G), PBP2a (E549Q and A568S), PBP2b (T625R), and PBP2x (Q453H). It is concluded that there was genetically widespread presence of PBPs substitutions associated with reduced susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens)
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14 pages, 1258 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Two Pig Farms: Longitudinal Study of LA-MRSA
by Majda Golob, Mateja Pate, Darja Kušar, Urška Zajc, Bojan Papić, Matjaž Ocepek, Irena Zdovc and Jana Avberšek
Antibiotics 2022, 11(11), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11111532 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Pigs were identified as the most important reservoir of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA), mostly belonging to the emergent zoonotic clonal complex (CC) 398. Here, we investigated the presence of MRSA in sows and piglets over a period of several months in two [...] Read more.
Pigs were identified as the most important reservoir of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA), mostly belonging to the emergent zoonotic clonal complex (CC) 398. Here, we investigated the presence of MRSA in sows and piglets over a period of several months in two pig farms (intensive farm A and family-run farm B). Isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR characterization and spa typing. We collected 280 samples, namely 206 nasal swabs from pigs and 74 environmental samples from pig housings at 12 consecutive time points. A total of 120/161 (74.5%) and 75/119 (63.0%) samples were MRSA-positive in farms A and B, respectively. All isolates harbored mecA but lacked mecC and PVL-encoding genes. The identified spa types (t571, t034, t1250 and t898 in farm A, t1451 and t011 in farm B) were indicative of CC398. Antimicrobial resistance patterns (all multidrug resistant in farm A, 57.2% in farm B) depended on the farm, suggesting the impact of farm size and management practices on the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA. Due to the intermittent colonization of pigs and the high contamination of their immediate environment, MRSA status should be determined at the farm level when considering preventive measures or animal trade between farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens)
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14 pages, 1233 KiB  
Article
Environmental Bovine Mastitis Pathogens: Prevalence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Sensitivity to Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus serpyllum L., and Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oils
by Dragana Tomanić, Biljana Božin, Nebojša Kladar, Jovan Stanojević, Ivana Čabarkapa, Nebojša Stilinović, Jelena Apić, Dragana D. Božić and Zorana Kovačević
Antibiotics 2022, 11(8), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11081077 - 09 Aug 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2999
Abstract
Mastitis is considered to be one of the most important diseases of dairy cows in terms of health, production, and economy. Being the most common cause of antibiotic consumption in dairy cows, treatment of this disease is one of the biggest challenges in [...] Read more.
Mastitis is considered to be one of the most important diseases of dairy cows in terms of health, production, and economy. Being the most common cause of antibiotic consumption in dairy cows, treatment of this disease is one of the biggest challenges in the veterinary profession as an increasing number of pathogens develop resistance to antibiotics used in the treatment. Therefore, new alternative approaches for limiting the use of antibiotics in livestock are required. For this reason, our study aimed to investigate prevalence of environmental mastitis associated bacterial strains, as well as the sensitivity of isolated strains to different antibiotics. Additionally, the therapeutic potential of three essential oils (EOs) was tested against bovine Serratia spp. and Proteus spp. mastitis pathogens, based on their chemical composition, as well as antibacterial potential. The study was carried out on 81 milk samples collected from dairy cows with mastitis. In order to determine prevalence of S. marcescens and P. mirabilis, microbiological isolation and identification were performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method and the microdilution method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of selected EOs. In the oregano EO, a total of 23 compounds were detected, with carvacrol as a dominant component (78.94%). A total of 26 components were present in the EO of common thyme, where thymol was the most abundant compound (46.37%). Thymol also dominated (55.11%) the wild thyme EO. All tested EOs displayed antibacterial activity against all strains to different extents, while wild and common thyme EOs were the most effective. It could be concluded that the tested EOs represent promising therapeutic candidates for effective non-antibiotic treatment of mastitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens)
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18 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
Genomic Analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Carrying OXA-23 and OXA-58 Genes from Animals Reveals ST1 and ST25 as Major Clonal Lineages
by Lisa Jacobmeyer, Torsten Semmler, Ivonne Stamm and Christa Ewers
Antibiotics 2022, 11(8), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11081045 - 03 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii is increasingly being recognized as a relevant pathogen for animals with a putative zoonotic impact. This study aimed at identifying and characterizing carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii from animals. Among 503 A. baumannii, mainly isolated from dogs/cats (75.7%) between 2013 and 2018, [...] Read more.
Acinetobacter baumannii is increasingly being recognized as a relevant pathogen for animals with a putative zoonotic impact. This study aimed at identifying and characterizing carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii from animals. Among 503 A. baumannii, mainly isolated from dogs/cats (75.7%) between 2013 and 2018, 42 isolates from 22 veterinary clinics (VCs) harboured blaOXA-58 (n = 29) or blaOXA-23 (n = 13). The blaOXA-58 gene was located on plasmids (11.4–21.1 kb) within different genetic surroundings (patterns A–D). BlaOXA-23 was embedded in Tn2006 on the chromosome (n = 4; pattern a) or Tn2008 on plasmids (n = 9; 41.2–71.3 kb; patterns b–e). The predominant IC1-ST1P-OXA-58 (66.7%; 96.4% cgMLST complex type (CT)-1808) was disseminated among 11 VCs in Germany. Resistance islands AbaR3-like (n = 15) and AbaR10 (n = 1) have emerged among ST1-isolates since 2016. IC7-ST25P-OXA-23 isolates (21.4%) occurred in seven VCs in Germany, France and Italy and differed in their resistance gene patterns from those of OXA-58 isolates. They were separated into six CTs, basically according to their regional origin. Other STs observed were ST10, ST578 and ST602. In conclusion, OXA-23 and OXA-58 were linked with ST1 and ST25, two globally distributed lineages in humans. The suggested transmission of certain lineages within and among VCs together with the acquisition of AbaR islands hints at a successful dissemination of multidrug-resistant strains in the VC environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens)
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15 pages, 1280 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Streptococcus suis Isolated from Diseased Pigs in Thailand, 2018–2020
by Kamonwan Lunha, Wiyada Chumpol, Sukuma Samngamnim, Surasak Jiemsup, Pornchalit Assavacheep and Suganya Yongkiettrakul
Antibiotics 2022, 11(3), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11030410 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4007
Abstract
Streptococcus suis is a porcine and zoonotic pathogen that causes severe systemic infection in humans and pigs. The treatment of S. suis infection relies on antibiotics; however, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent global problem, pushing research attention on the surveillance of antibiotic-resistant [...] Read more.
Streptococcus suis is a porcine and zoonotic pathogen that causes severe systemic infection in humans and pigs. The treatment of S. suis infection relies on antibiotics; however, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent global problem, pushing research attention on the surveillance of antibiotic-resistant S. suis to the fore. This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 246 S. suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in Thailand from 2018–2020. The major sources of S. suis strains were lung and brain tissues. PCR-based serotyping demonstrated that the most abundant serotype was serotype 2 or ½, followed by serotypes 29, 8, 9, and 21. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the distribution of AMR S. suis serotype 29 in diseased pigs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 35 antimicrobial agents. The results showed that important antimicrobial agents for human use, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, daptomycin, ertapenem, meropenem, and vancomycin, were the most effective drugs. However, a slight decrease in the number of S. suis strains susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and vancomycin raised awareness of the AMR problem in the future. The data indicated a tendency of reduced efficacy of available veterinary medicines, including ampicillin, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, gentamicin, penicillin, and tiamulin, for the treatment of S. suis infection, thus emphasizing the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics. The widespread of multidrug-resistant S. suis strains was identified in all serotypes and from different time periods and different regions of the country, confirming the emergence of the AMR problem in the diseased pig-isolated S. suis population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens)
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Review

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12 pages, 1184 KiB  
Review
Bovine Colostrum: Human and Animal Health Benefits or Route Transmission of Antibiotic Resistance—One Health Perspective
by Carla Miranda, Gilberto Igrejas and Patrícia Poeta
Antibiotics 2023, 12(7), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12071156 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2539
Abstract
After calving, bovine colostrum is obtained from the mammary gland of the dam in the first days and fed to newborn ruminant to prevent microbial infections. Each bovine colostrum has a unique biochemical composition with high nutraceutical value compared to milk. However, bovine [...] Read more.
After calving, bovine colostrum is obtained from the mammary gland of the dam in the first days and fed to newborn ruminant to prevent microbial infections. Each bovine colostrum has a unique biochemical composition with high nutraceutical value compared to milk. However, bovine colostrum is influenced by various factors, such as environmental, individual, and genetic factors, as well as processing methods. Proper colostrum management is crucial for obtaining high-quality colostrum and mitigating bacterial contamination. This is important not only for the health and survival of calves but also for the health of humans who consume colostrum and its co-products. It is essential to ensure that the consumed colostrum is free of pathogens to reap its benefits. Health-promoting products based on colostrum have gained significant interest. However, colostrum can contain pathogens that, if not eliminated, can contribute to their transmission and spread, as well as antibiotic resistance. The aim of this review was to promote the animal and human health benefits of bovine colostrum by improving its microbial quality and highlighting potential routes of dissemination of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Implementing hygienic measures is one of the key factors in mitigating colostrum bacterial contamination and obtaining safe and high-quality colostrum. This helps reduce the exposure of pathogens to newborn calves, other animals, and humans, in a One Health analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens)
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26 pages, 3748 KiB  
Review
Potential of Aromatic Plant-Derived Essential Oils for the Control of Foodborne Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance in Animal Production: A Review
by Lianhua Zhang, Fei Gao, Junwei Ge, Hui Li, Fei Xia, Hongtong Bai, Xiangshu Piao and Lei Shi
Antibiotics 2022, 11(11), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11111673 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance has become a severe public threat to human health worldwide. Supplementing antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) at subtherapeutic levels has been a commonly applied method to improve the production performance of livestock and poultry, but the misuse of antibiotics in animal production [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance has become a severe public threat to human health worldwide. Supplementing antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) at subtherapeutic levels has been a commonly applied method to improve the production performance of livestock and poultry, but the misuse of antibiotics in animal production plays a major role in the antibiotic resistance crisis and foodborne disease outbreaks. The addition of AGPs to improve production performance in livestock and poultry has been prohibited in some countries, including Europe, the United States and China. Moreover, cross-resistance could result in the development of multidrug resistant bacteria and limit therapeutic options for human and animal health. Therefore, finding alternatives to antibiotics to maintain the efficiency of livestock production and reduce the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks is beneficial to human health and the sustainable development of animal husbandry. Essential oils (EOs) and their individual compounds derived from aromatic plants are becoming increasingly popular as potential antibiotic alternatives for animal production based on their antibacterial properties. This paper reviews recent studies in the application of EOs in animal production for the control of foodborne pathogens, summarizes their molecular modes of action to increase the susceptibility of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and provides a promising role for the application of nanoencapsulated EOs in animal production to control bacteria and overcome antibiotic resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens)
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