Pulmonary Infections: Pathogenesis and Antimicrobial Treatment

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotic Therapy in Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2024 | Viewed by 3494

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
The Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina, Sremska Kamenica, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
Interests: acute illness; ARDS; COPD; lung function

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pulmonary infections remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet their underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The severity of clinical presentation depends on a complex host–microbe interaction, immune resistance, tissue resilience, and changes in microbiome. In the last two years, we have witnessed a dramatic worldwide increase in hospitalizations for pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection with high mortality rates. SARS-CoV-2 as well as other viral infections may also predispose patients to potentially fatal secondary bacterial or fungal infections. Furthermore, the increasing antimicrobial resistance is a major challenge as respiratory infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are associated with a greater likelihood of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy and poor clinical outcomes. This Special Issue welcomes submissions of original and review articles that investigate the etiologies, pathogenesis, immunology, treatments, and outcomes of respiratory infections.

Dr. Marija Vukoja
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • respiratory infections
  • pathogenesis
  • antibiotics
  • treatment
  • outcomes

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 998 KiB  
Article
A Multicentric Observational Study to Determine Myocardial Injury in Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia (sCAP)
by Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Giampaolo Maggi, Emili Diaz, Judith Marín-Corral, Alfonso Guedea, Marcos I. Restrepo, Luis F. Reyes and Alejandro Rodríguez
Antibiotics 2023, 12(12), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12121710 - 8 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Background: Severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) is the most frequent admission for acute respiratory failure in intensive care medicine. Observational studies have found a correlation between patients who were admitted with CAP and the development of cardiovascular events. The risk of acute myocardial damage [...] Read more.
Background: Severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) is the most frequent admission for acute respiratory failure in intensive care medicine. Observational studies have found a correlation between patients who were admitted with CAP and the development of cardiovascular events. The risk of acute myocardial damage in patients with CAP is particularly high within the first 30 days of hospitalization. Research design and methods: Multicenter prospective cohort analysis conducted in consecutive patients admitted to an ICU with microbiologically confirmed diagnoses of sCAP. The aim was to determine any structural cardiac damage detected by advanced imagining techniques (cardiac MRI) and cardiac biomarkers in patients with sCAP. The patients were stratified, according to their etiology, into pneumococcal or not-pneumococcal sCAP. The primary outcome was cardiac damage at day 5 and 7 of clinical presentation. Results: A total of 23 patients were consecutively and prospectively enrolled for two winter periods. No significant differences were observed between the median troponin when comparing the pneumococcal vs. non-pneumococcal. The incidence of myocardial damage was numerically higher in the pneumococcal subgroup (70% vs. 50%, p = 0.61) on day 5 and on day 7 (53% vs. 40%, p = 0.81) but did not achieve significance. Confirming a correlation between the biomarkers of cell damage and the biomarkers of myocardial damage, only a positive and significant correlation was observed between h-FABP and DNA on day 1 (r = 0.74; p < 0.01) and day 3 (r = 0.83; p < 0.010). Twenty cardiac MRIs were performed on the 23 patients (87%). No presence of fibrosis was observed in any of the studies carried out within the first 15 days of admission. Conclusions: No significant myocardial damage was found in patients with sCAP independent of the bacterial etiology in accordance with biomarker alterations (Troponin and/or h-FABP) or cardiac MRI. Using cardiac MRI, we could not find any presence of myocardial fibrosis within the first 15 days of admission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Infections: Pathogenesis and Antimicrobial Treatment)
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14 pages, 1426 KiB  
Article
Impact of the SARS-CoV-2 Virus Pandemic on Patients with Bronchiectasis: A Multicenter Study
by Adrián Martínez-Vergara, Rosa Mª Girón Moreno, Casilda Olveira, María Victoria Girón, Adrián Peláez, Julio Ancochea, Grace Oscullo and Miguel Ángel Martínez-García
Antibiotics 2022, 11(8), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11081096 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
Background: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 has unquestionably had an impact on the health of patients with chronic respiratory airway diseases, such as COPD and asthma, but little information is available about its impact on patients with bronchiectasis. The objective of the present study was [...] Read more.
Background: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 has unquestionably had an impact on the health of patients with chronic respiratory airway diseases, such as COPD and asthma, but little information is available about its impact on patients with bronchiectasis. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the state of health, characteristics, and clinical severity (including the number and severity of exacerbations) of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Methods: This study was multicenter, observational, and ambispective (with data collected before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic), and included 150 patients diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Results: A significant drop was observed in the number and severity of the exacerbations (57% in all exacerbations and 50% in severe exacerbations) in the E-FACED and BSI multidimensional scores, in the pandemic, compared with the pre-pandemic period. There was also a drop in the percentage of sputum samples positive for pathogenic microorganisms in general (from 58% to 44.7%) and, more specifically, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (from 23.3% to 13.3%) and Haemophilus influenzae (from 21.3% to 14%). Conclusions: During the SARS-CoV-2 period, a significant reduction was observed in the exacerbations, severity, and isolations of pathogenic microorganisms in patients with bronchiectasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Infections: Pathogenesis and Antimicrobial Treatment)
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