Epidemiology, Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Therapy: A Shared Effort against Infectious Diseases

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotic Therapy in Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 September 2024 | Viewed by 640

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier, 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: microbiology; epidemiology and control of healthcare-associated infections; immunosuppression and immunomodulators; natural and syntetic compounds with antimicrobial and antitumor activity; biofilm

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As reported by the WHO, national, supranational and global plans are ongoing for the control and prevention of infectious diseases, which still fall among the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Particular attention in this area is paid to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In fact, AMR microorganisms can cause severe diseases, especially in frail and hospitalized individuals, leading to a prolonged length of hospital stay and increased mortality or long-term disability, with a relevant impact on the individual quality of life and on the financial aspects of health management. The extensive and incorrect use of antimicrobials exerts a selective pressure, favouring the emergence and spread of microbial strains often resistant to multiple drugs at the same time, i.e., the multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. The new technologies strongly support microbiological diagnostics, allowing the identification of these new microbial strains and mutations that have occurred in them; however, sometime the discordance between genotypic and phenotypic methods makes the interpretation of results difficult. In this context, it seems urgent to strengthen a synergistic interaction among epidemiologists, microbiologists, basic researchers and clinicians to successfully counteract possibly life-threating infections in our real world, actually characterized by increasing conflicts and social inequalities. The aim of this Special Issue is to collect the most recent experiences in the field by all the professionals involved in this area.

Dr. Francesca Pica
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • microbes and antimicrobials
  • bacteria, fungi and viruses
  • antibiotics, antifungals and antivirals
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • rapid diagnostics
  • genotypic and phenotypic resistance
  • epidemiology
  • public health
  • infectious diseases
  • hospital-acquired infections (HAIs)
  • community infections
  • natural and synthetic antimicrobial compounds

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

8 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
Whooping Cough Cases Increase in Central Italy after COVID-19 Pandemic
by Giulia Linardos, Luana Coltella, Stefania Ranno, Velia Chiara Di Maio, Luna Colagrossi, Elisabetta Pandolfi, Maria Beatrice Chiarini Testa, Leonardo Genuini, Francesca Stoppa, Matteo Di Nardo, Annalisa Grandin, Renato Cutrera, Corrado Cecchetti, Alberto Villani, Massimiliano Raponi, Paola Bernaschi, Cristina Russo, Carlo Federico Perno and Rossana Scutari
Antibiotics 2024, 13(5), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13050464 - 19 May 2024
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Abstract
Pertussis continues to be a highly contagious respiratory infection, especially in children, with cyclical peaks of disease spread every three to five years. Here, we report relevant cases of B. pertussis infection between August 2023 and January 2024, and compare them with B. [...] Read more.
Pertussis continues to be a highly contagious respiratory infection, especially in children, with cyclical peaks of disease spread every three to five years. Here, we report relevant cases of B. pertussis infection between August 2023 and January 2024, and compare them with B. pertussis prevalence in pediatric patients admitted to the Reference Italian Pediatric Hospital, located in Rome, from January 2015 to July 2023. A total of 5464 tests for B. pertussis were performed during the study period, and 6.9% were positive. At the time of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a sharp decrease in the presence of B. pertussis, which reappeared only in August 2023, recording five new cases. All five children presented with paroxysmal cough 5 to 10 days before admission. Four patients had other mild respiratory symptoms and moderate B. pertussis DNA levels (Ct mean: 26). Only one child, with very high B. pertussis DNA levels (Ct: 9), presented with severe respiratory failure. The patients with mild/moderate infection achieved clinical recovery while the patient with the severe manifestation died of cardiac arrest. These observations highlight the reemergence of pertussis even in vaccinated countries and its association with morbidity and mortality especially in young children. This emphasizes the importance of rapid diagnosis to immediately implement appropriate treatment and monitoring of immune status. Full article
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