Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Antimicrobial Treatment of Hospital-Acquired Infections

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotic Therapy in Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 233

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
Interests: antimicrobial stewardship; infection control; infectious diseases; medical mycology; infectious diseases in immunocompromised patients
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. School of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
2. Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, 71110 Heraklion, Greece
Interests: clinical microbiology; infectious diseases; endocarditis; mycoses; fungal infections; HIV-AIDS
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hospital-acquired infections frequently complicate the course of hospitalized patients and may cause significant morbidity and mortality. The most frequent hospital-acquired infections are those of the bloodstream, the respiratory tract, and the urinary tract. Currently, the field of hospital-acquired infections is rapidly changing due to the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance, which leads to thousands of deaths worldwide, mainly due to infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales, extensively-drug resistant and pan-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This often leaves clinicians with few therapeutic options, leading to the revival of older antibiotics and the use of antimicrobial combinations in problematic infectctions caused by these resistant pathogens.

This Special Issue aims to bring together original studies and literature reviews related to the epidemiology, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of hospital-acquired infections. Studies providing evidence on this topic, as well as on the topic of infection control and antimicrobial stewardship in hospital-acquired infections, are very welcome.

Prof. Dr. Diamantis P. Kofteridis
Dr. Petros Ioannou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hospital-acquired infection
  • bacteremia
  • bloodstream infection
  • pneumonia
  • ventilator-associated pneumonia
  • urinary tract infection

Published Papers

This special issue is now open for submission, see below for planned papers.

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Antimicrobial resistance among Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from human specimens submitted to diagnostic laboratories in South Africa, 2012–2017
Authors: Themba T. Sigudu, Nenene D. Qekwana and James W. Oguttu
Affiliation: South Africa
Abstract: Background Antimicrobial drug resistance is of public importance given that it limits treatment options and increases health care costs. However, there is a dearth of studies that have investigated the phenomenon of antimicrobial drug resistance in low to medium income countries. Objective(s) Records from diagnostic laboratories were used to characterise staphylococcal isolates from human to assess the temporal trends and predictors of AMR and multidrug resistance (MDR) among Staphylococcus isolates. Method and materials Retrospective data of 404 217 diagnostic laboratory records collected between 2012 and 2017 were included in this study. Isolates were assessed for antimicrobial drug resistance against 35 antimicrobials. Descriptive statistics, the Cochran-Armitage test and logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. Significance was assessed at < 0.05. Results Overall, 74.4% of Staphylococcus species isolated were S. aureus. Of these, 80.2% were AMR, while 40.2% were MDR. The highest resistance was observed against ampicillin (72.1%), while the lowest resistance was against linezolid (0.3%). A significant (p < 0.05) decreasing trend in AMR was observed over the study period. In contrast, an increasing temporal trend in MDR (p < 0.05) was observed over the same period. A Significant (p < 0.05) association was observed between age, species of organism and province of origin with AMR outcome. Significant (p < 0.05) associations were observed between specimen type and age, with MDR. Discussion and recommendations The observed high proportions of AMR and increasing temporal trend in MDR is of public health concern, and clinicians should consider these two findings when designing intervention strategies. Continued monitoring of AMR among Staphylococcus spp. and judicious use of antimicrobials in human medicine should be promoted.

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