Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Bioactive Compounds Extracted from Plants

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant-Derived Antibiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 25086

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1. AquaValor – Centro de Valorização e Transferência de Tecnologia da Água – Associação, Rua Dr. Júlio Martins n.º 1, 5400-342 Chaves, Portugal
2. Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences (CITAB), Institute for Innovation, Capacity Building and Sustainability of Agri-Food Production (Inov4Agro), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: biological activities of natural products; chemical characterization of biocompounds; multidrug-resistant pathogens; food and chemical toxicology; nutraceutical and medicinal value of agro-industrial by-products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences (CITAB), Institute for Innovation, Capacity Building and Sustainability of Agri-Food Production (Inov4Agro), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: bioactivity; chemical characterization of natural products; identification, quantification, separation, and recovery of bioactive compounds from different food and agro-food byproducts; experimental design applied to extraction and process optimization of natural products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the scientific community, it has been well established that some plants have an important role in the prevention of some degenerative or cardiovascular diseases, resulting from their content in bioactive phytochemicals with several biological properties. In light of the biological properties revealed, the search for natural bioactive compounds has drawn attention to these materials, namely phenolic compounds that may have an added value to be used as an alternative to synthetic substances employed in distinct industries, such as the food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical sectors. Due to contemporary lifestyle issues, research on secondary metabolites with health-promoting effects in countering or slowing down chronic and degenerative diseases (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases) have recognized that phenols and polyphenols are beneficial for human health and are widespread and copious in dietary plant sources. Taking all this into account, and considering the growing interest in the major therapeutic role that bioactive compounds from plants can play in disease prevention in humans, the main goal is the valorization of diverse plants as a source of bioactive compounds with the capacity to influence health-related conditions. Contributions to this Special Issue may cover all research aspects related to plants (food or medicinal), including those parts from plants discarded during the agricultural and industrial processing; characterization of their biological properties, including (but not limited to) methods for their extraction, purification, comprehensive profiling characterization, and quantification; beneficial biological properties that could potentially contribute to functional food and nutraceutical development; functional properties such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, among other properties; in vitro and in vivo model systems; clinical investigations; and biotechnological applications of plants, such as nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Original research papers and review articles on these different areas are welcome.

Dr. Juliana Garcia
Dr. Irene Gouvinhas
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plants
  • phytochemicals
  • bioactive compounds
  • biological properties
  • natural products

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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29 pages, 2759 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effects of Different Samples of Five Commercially Available Essential Oils
by Răzvan Neagu, Violeta Popovici, Lucia Elena Ionescu, Viorel Ordeanu, Diana Mihaela Popescu, Emma Adriana Ozon and Cerasela Elena Gîrd
Antibiotics 2023, 12(7), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12071191 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2861
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) have gained economic importance due to their biological activities, and increasing amounts are demanded everywhere. However, substantial differences between the same essential oil samples from different suppliers are reported—concerning their chemical composition and bioactivities—due to numerous companies involved in EOs [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) have gained economic importance due to their biological activities, and increasing amounts are demanded everywhere. However, substantial differences between the same essential oil samples from different suppliers are reported—concerning their chemical composition and bioactivities—due to numerous companies involved in EOs production and the continuous development of online sales. The present study investigates the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of two to four samples of five commercially available essential oils (Oregano, Eucalyptus, Rosemary, Clove, and Peppermint oils) produced by autochthonous companies. The manufacturers provided all EOs’ chemical compositions determined through GC-MS. The EOs’ bioactivities were investigated in vitro against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The antibacterial and antibiofilm effects (ABE% and, respectively, ABfE%) were evaluated spectrophotometrically at 562 and 570 nm using microplate cultivation techniques. The essential oils’ calculated parameters were compared with those of three standard broad-spectrum antibiotics: Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, Gentamycin, and Streptomycin. The results showed that at the first dilution (D1 = 25 mg/mL), all EOs exhibited antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested, and MIC value > 25 mg/mL. Generally, both effects progressively decreased from D1 to D3. Only EOs with a considerable content of highly active metabolites revealed insignificant differences. E. coli showed the lowest susceptibility to all commercially available essential oils—15 EO samples had undetected antibacterial and antibiofilm effects at D2 and D3. Peppermint and Clove oils recorded the most significant differences regarding chemical composition and antibacterial/antibiofilm activities. All registered differences could be due to different places for harvesting the raw plant material, various technological processes through which these essential oils were obtained, the preservation conditions, and complex interactions between constituents. Full article
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15 pages, 3357 KiB  
Article
Effect of Essential Oil from Lippia origanoides on the Transcriptional Expression of Genes Related to Quorum Sensing, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
by Andrés Martínez, Elena E. Stashenko, Rodrigo Torres Sáez, German Zafra and Claudia Ortiz
Antibiotics 2023, 12(5), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12050845 - 03 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
Microbial infections resistant to conventional antibiotics constitute one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. In some bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus pathogens, biofilm formation can favor their antimicrobial resistance. These biofilm-forming bacteria produce a compact [...] Read more.
Microbial infections resistant to conventional antibiotics constitute one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. In some bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus pathogens, biofilm formation can favor their antimicrobial resistance. These biofilm-forming bacteria produce a compact and protective matrix, allowing their adherence and colonization to different surfaces, and contributing to resistance, recurrence, and chronicity of the infections. Therefore, different therapeutic alternatives have been investigated to interrupt both cellular communication routes and biofilm formation. Among these, essential oils (EO) from Lippia origanoides thymol-carvacrol II chemotype (LOTC II) plants have demonstrated biological activity against different biofilm-forming pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we determined the effect of LOTC II EO on the expression of genes associated with quorum sensing (QS) communication, biofilm formation, and virulence of E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 29213. This EO was found to have high efficacy against biofilm formation, decreasing—by negative regulation—the expression of genes involved in motility (fimH), adherence and cellular aggregation (csgD), and exopolysaccharide production (pgaC) in E. coli. In addition, this effect was also determined in S. aureus where the L. origanoides EO diminished the expression of genes involved in QS communication (agrA), production of exopolysaccharides by PIA/PNG (icaA), synthesis of alpha hemolysin (hla), transcriptional regulators of the production of extracellular toxins (RNA III), QS and biofilm formation transcriptional regulators (sarA) and global regulators of biofilm formation (rbf and aur). Positive regulation was observed on the expression of genes encoding inhibitors of biofilm formation (e.g., sdiA and ariR). These findings suggest that LOTCII EO can affect biological pathways associated with QS communication, biofilm formation, and virulence of E. coli and S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations and could be a promising candidate as a natural antibacterial alternative to conventional antibiotics. Full article
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18 pages, 2633 KiB  
Article
Aegle marvels (L.) Correa Leaf Essential Oil and Its Phytoconstituents as an Anticancer and Anti-Streptococcus mutans Agent
by Alhussain H. Aodah, Mohamed F. Balaha, Talha Jawaid, Mohammed Moizuddin Khan, Mohammad Javed Ansari and Aftab Alam
Antibiotics 2023, 12(5), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12050835 - 30 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
Aegle mamelons (A. marmelos) or Indian Bael leaves possess anti-cancerous and antibacterial properties and are used in the traditional medicine system for the treatment of oral infections. In the present study, the essential oil of the leaves of A. marmelos was [...] Read more.
Aegle mamelons (A. marmelos) or Indian Bael leaves possess anti-cancerous and antibacterial properties and are used in the traditional medicine system for the treatment of oral infections. In the present study, the essential oil of the leaves of A. marmelos was explored for its anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-cariogenic properties. The hydro-distilled oil of A. marmelos leaves was analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Monoterpene limonene (63.71%) was found to have the highest percentage after trans-2-Hydroxy-1,8-cineole and p-Menth-2,8-dien-1-ol. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was used to investigate the anticancer activity of the extracted oil against human oral epidermal carcinoma (KB), and the results showed significantly higher (**** p < 0.0001) anticancer activity (45.89%) in the doxorubicin (47.87%) when compared to the normal control. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated using methods of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)). The results showed a significant (*** p < 0.001) percentage of inhibition of DPPH-induced free radical (70.02 ± 1.6%) and ABTS-induced free radical (70.7 ± 1.32%) at 100 µg/mL with IC50, 72.51 and 67.33 µg/mL, respectively, comparatively lower than standard compound ascorbic acid. The results of the molecular docking study of the significant compound limonene with the receptors tyrosinase and tyrosine kinase 2 supported the in vitro antioxidant potential. The anti-cariogenic activity was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Results showed a significant minimum inhibitor concentration of 0.25 mg/mL and the killing time was achieved at 3 to 6 h. The molecular-docking study showed that limonene inhibits the surface receptors of the S. mutans c-terminal domain and CviR protein. The study found that A. marmelos leaves have potential anti-carcinoma, antioxidant, and anti-cariogenic effects on human oral epidermal health, making them a valuable natural therapeutic agent for managing oral cancer and infections. Full article
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13 pages, 551 KiB  
Article
Study of Essential Oil Isolated from Achiote (Bixa orellana) Leaves: Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution and Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities
by Eduardo Valarezo, Silvia Torres-Torres, Nohely Pineda-Guarnizo, Ximena Jaramillo-Fierro, Luis Cartuche, Vladimir Morocho and Miguel Angel Meneses
Antibiotics 2023, 12(4), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12040710 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Bixa orellana is a native and cultivated species of Ecuador commonly known as achiote (annatto), this species is very versatile with a wide variety of uses and applications of its leaves, fruits and seeds. In this study, the chemical composition, enantiomeric distribution and [...] Read more.
Bixa orellana is a native and cultivated species of Ecuador commonly known as achiote (annatto), this species is very versatile with a wide variety of uses and applications of its leaves, fruits and seeds. In this study, the chemical composition, enantiomeric distribution and biological activity of essential oil isolated from the leaves of Bixa orellana were determined. Hydrodistillation was used to isolate the essential oil. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to determine the qualitative composition, a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used to determine quantitative composition and gas chromatography on an enantioselective column was used to determine enantiomeric distribution. Antibacterial activity was determined using the broth microdilution method, for which we used three Gram-positive cocci bacteria, a Gram-positive bacilli bacterium and three Gram-negative bacilli bacteria. 2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic (ABTS) acid radical cation and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydryl (DPPH) free radical were used as reagents for determining the antioxidant activity of the essential oil. The spectrophotometric method was used to analyze acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect of the essential oil. The yield of leaves in essential oil was 0.13 ± 0.01% (v/w). A total of 56 chemical compounds, which represent 99.25% of the total composition, were identified in the essential oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the most representative group in number of compounds and relative abundance with 31 compounds and 69.06%, respectively. The principal constituents were found to germacrene D (17.87 ± 1.20%), bicyclogermacrene (14.27 ± 0.97%), caryophyllene < (E)– > (8.56 ± 1.24%) and pinene <α-> (6.34 ± 0.13%). Six pairs of enantiomers were identified in the essential oil of Bixa orellana. The essential oil presented strong activity against the Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 27270) with an MIC of 250 μg/mL and weak activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19433) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) with an MIC of 1000 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was strong according to ABTS methods with a SC50 of 61.49 ± 0.04 µg/mL and was moderate in DPPH with a SC50 of 224.24 ± 6,4 µg/mL. Additionally, the essential oil reported moderate anticholinesterase activity with an IC50 of 39.45 ± 1.06 µg/mL. Full article
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15 pages, 8509 KiB  
Article
Antifungal and Antibiofilm Activity of Colombian Essential Oils against Different Candida Strains
by Jennifer Ruiz-Duran, Rodrigo Torres, Elena E. Stashenko and Claudia Ortiz
Antibiotics 2023, 12(4), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12040668 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
Most Candida species are opportunistic pathogens with the ability to form biofilms, which increases their resistance to antifungal drug therapies and the host immune response. Essential oils (EOs) are an alternative for developing new antimicrobial drugs, due to their broad effect on cellular [...] Read more.
Most Candida species are opportunistic pathogens with the ability to form biofilms, which increases their resistance to antifungal drug therapies and the host immune response. Essential oils (EOs) are an alternative for developing new antimicrobial drugs, due to their broad effect on cellular viability, cell communication, and metabolism. In this work, we evaluated the antifungal and antibiofilm potential of fifty EOs on C. albicans ATCC 10231, C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, and Candida auris CDC B11903. The EOs’ antifungal activity was measured by means of a broth microdilution technique to determine the minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MICs/MFCs) against the different Candida spp. strains. The effects on biofilm formation were determined by a crystal violet assay using 96-well round-bottom microplates incubated for 48 h at 35 °C. The EOs from Lippia alba (Verbenaceae family) carvone-limonene chemotype and L. origanoides exhibited the highest antifungal activity against C. auris. The L. origanoides EOs also presented antifungal and antibiofilm activity against all three Candida spp., thus representing a promising alternative for developing new antifungal products focused on yeast infections, especially those related to biofilm formation, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance. Full article
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16 pages, 7087 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of β-Lapachone by Modulating the Catalase Enzyme
by Mushtaq Ahmad Mir, Somaya Ahmed Altuhami, Sukanta Mondal, Nasreena Bashir, Ayed A. Dera and Mohammad A. Alfhili
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030576 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Background: Bacterial infections constantly have a large impact on public health, because of increased rates of resistance and reduced frequency of development of novel antibiotics. The utility of conventional antibiotics for treating bacterial infections has become increasingly challenging. The aim of the study [...] Read more.
Background: Bacterial infections constantly have a large impact on public health, because of increased rates of resistance and reduced frequency of development of novel antibiotics. The utility of conventional antibiotics for treating bacterial infections has become increasingly challenging. The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial effect of β-Lapachone (β-Lap), a novel synthetic compound. Methods: The antibacterial activity of the β-Lap compound was examined against laboratory strains by agar well diffusion method and broth dilution assay. Growth kinetics in presence of β-Lap on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) were assessed by microplate alamarBlue assay. Crystal violet blue assay was used for biofilm inhibition and biofilm eradication. P. aeruginosa catalase (KatA) complexed with β-Lap was modeled using molecular docking approach. Results: β-Lap exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against laboratory strains of bacteria with MIC of 0.2 mM for S. saprophyticus and Staphylococcus aureus, and 0.04 mM for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The inhibition of catalase enzyme was found to be the cause for its antibacterial activity. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that β-Lap can inhibit KatA activity by interacting with catalase proximal active site and heme binding site. The activity of some commercial antibiotics was enhanced in association with β-Lap. In addition, β-Lap inhibited the biofilm formation and eradicated the already formed and ultra-mature biofilms of aforesaid bacterial strains. Conclusion: These observations indicated that β-Lap could be a promising antibacterial agent for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Full article
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12 pages, 4314 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Glyceryl 1,3-Distearate Identified from Clinacanthus nutans Extract against Bovine Mastitis Pathogens
by Saruda Thongyim, Salinee Chiangchin, Hataichanok Pandith, Yingmanee Tragoolpua, Siriphorn Jangsutthivorawat and Aussara Panya
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030549 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Clinacanthus nutans is widely used as a traditional medicine in Thailand and other countries in Southeast Asia. Although its effectiveness is well documented, its therapeutic use is limited to the treatment of only a few diseases; mostly it is used as an anti-viral [...] Read more.
Clinacanthus nutans is widely used as a traditional medicine in Thailand and other countries in Southeast Asia. Although its effectiveness is well documented, its therapeutic use is limited to the treatment of only a few diseases; mostly it is used as an anti-viral agent against varicella-zoster and herpes simplex virus infections. Herein, we demonstrate the therapeutic activity of C. nutans extracts in lowering inflammation in a model of bovine mastitis caused by bacterial infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a gram-negative bacterial component, caused inflammation activation in bovine endothelial cells (CPAE) through the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6 and IL1β) and chemokines (CXCL3 and CXCL8) gene expression, partially leading to cell death. Treatment with C. nutans crude extract significantly diminished these responses in a dose-dependent manner. The solvent fractionation of C. nutans extract revealed that the ethyl acetate (C4H8O2) fractions had a high potential to protect against cell death and diminished IL1β, IL6, CXCL3, and CXCL8 levels to less than 0.45 folds relative to the LPS-treated control. Glyceryl 1,3-distearate (C39H76O5) was identified as a bioactive compound responsible for the anti-inflammation activity but not the anti-cell death activity of C. nutans extract. This study highlighted the efficiency of C. nutans extracts as an alternative therapeutic option for the natural-product sustainable development of bovine mastitis treatment. Full article
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12 pages, 2648 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Evaluation of Nanoemulsion of Citronella Essential Oil with Improved Antimicrobial and Anti-Cancer Properties
by Talha Jawaid, Ali Mohammed Alaseem, Mohammed Moizuddin Khan, Beenish Mukhtar, Mehnaz Kamal, Razique Anwer, Saif Ahmed and Aftab Alam
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030478 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3000
Abstract
The development of new pharmaceutical solutions for treating various diseases results from a growing understanding of the benefits of using essential oils. One of the most often used volatile materials among essential oils is the oil of the citronella plant, termed citronella essential [...] Read more.
The development of new pharmaceutical solutions for treating various diseases results from a growing understanding of the benefits of using essential oils. One of the most often used volatile materials among essential oils is the oil of the citronella plant, termed citronella essential oil (CITEO), which has potential for use in food and medicine. Its wide use is limited due to lipophilicity, high volatility and poor physicochemical stability. With this background, the present study aims to evaluate the properties of CITEO-nanoemulsion (CITEO-NE) by analyzing its antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) and its anticancer activity against, human skin adenocarcinoma cell line (A431). The CITEO-NE was prepared and evaluated for the size range of 130 ± 5 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.127 and zeta potential −12.6 mV. The percentage % of entrapment efficiency (%EE) of nanoemulsions loaded with CIT was very high at the beginning of the study, at 95.5 ± 4.775%. The MIC was observed to be 500 µg/mL for CITEO and 250 µg/mL for CITEO-NE against S. aureus and 250 µg/mL for CITEO and 125 µg/mL for CITEO-NE against C. albicans. The time-kill assay also suggests the effectiveness of CITEO-NE against the test pathogens as a novel alternative therapy. The IC50 values of CITEO and CITEO-NE exhibited significant cytotoxic properties against the A431 cell line, with 41.20 μg/mL and 37.71 μg/mL, respectively. Hence, our findings revealed that encapsulation of CITEO increased the pharmacological properties. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

12 pages, 993 KiB  
Review
Broccoli: A Multi-Faceted Vegetable for Health: An In-Depth Review of Its Nutritional Attributes, Antimicrobial Abilities, and Anti-inflammatory Properties
by Rahamat Unissa Syed, Sivakumar Sivagurunathan Moni, Mohammed Khaled Bin Break, Weam M. A. Khojali, Mohammed Jafar, Maali D. Alshammari, Karim Abdelsalam, Soha Taymour, Khetam Saad Mutni Alreshidi, Manal Mohamed Elhassan Taha and Syam Mohan
Antibiotics 2023, 12(7), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12071157 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4605
Abstract
Broccoli, Brassica oleracea var. italica, has recently gained considerable attention due to its remarkable nutritional composition and numerous health benefits. In this review, the nutritional aspects of broccoli are examined, highlighting its rich nutrient content and essential bioactive compounds. The cruciferous vegetable broccoli [...] Read more.
Broccoli, Brassica oleracea var. italica, has recently gained considerable attention due to its remarkable nutritional composition and numerous health benefits. In this review, the nutritional aspects of broccoli are examined, highlighting its rich nutrient content and essential bioactive compounds. The cruciferous vegetable broccoli is a rich source of several important nutrients, including fiber, vitamins (A, C, and K), minerals (calcium, potassium, and iron), and antioxidants. It has also been shown to contain bioactive compounds such as glucosinolates, sulforaphane, and indole-3-carbinol, all of which have been shown to have significant health-promoting effects. These chemicals are known to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. This review article aims to comprehensively examine the diverse spectrum of nutrients contained in broccoli and explore its medicinal potential to promote human health. Full article
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15 pages, 357 KiB  
Review
Facing Resistant Bacteria with Plant Essential Oils: Reviewing the Oregano Case
by Jorge O. Fimbres-García, Marcela Flores-Sauceda, Elsa Daniela Othon-Díaz, Alfonso García-Galaz, Melvin R. Tapia-Rodríguez, Brenda A. Silva-Espinoza and Jesus F. Ayala-Zavala
Antibiotics 2022, 11(12), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11121777 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2899
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is a serious global threat, and the misuse of antibiotics is considered its main cause. It is characterized by the expression of bacterial defense mechanisms, e.g., β-lactamases, expulsion pumps, and biofilm development. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are antibiotic-resistant species that [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is a serious global threat, and the misuse of antibiotics is considered its main cause. It is characterized by the expression of bacterial defense mechanisms, e.g., β-lactamases, expulsion pumps, and biofilm development. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are antibiotic-resistant species that cause high morbidity and mortality. Several alternatives are proposed to defeat antibiotic resistance, including antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophages, and plant compounds. Terpenes from different plant essential oils have proven antimicrobial action against pathogenic bacteria, and evidence is being generated about their effect against antibiotic-resistant species. That is the case for oregano essential oil (Lippia graveolens), whose antibacterial effect is widely attributed to carvacrol, its main component; however, minor constituents could have an important contribution. The analyzed evidence reveals that most antibacterial evaluations have been performed on single species; however, it is necessary to analyze their activity against multispecies systems. Hence, another alternative is using plant compounds to inactivate hydrolytic enzymes and biofilms to potentiate antibiotics’ effects. Despite the promising results of plant terpenes, more extensive and deep mechanistic studies are needed involving antibiotic-resistant multispecies to understand their full potential against this problem. Full article
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