Nanotechnology in Animal Science

A topical collection in Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This collection belongs to the section "Animal Physiology".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
Departamento de Produccion y Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Cardenal Herrera-CEU, CEU Universities, C/ Tirant lo Blanc, 7. Alfara del Patriarca, 46115-Valencia, Spain
Interests: developmental programming; environmental effects; embryo; foetus; genetic and epigenetic regulation; prenatal and postnatal development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Collection Editor
Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Interests: ruminants; reproduction; climate change; nano-encapsulation; phytogenic; probiotic; antimicrobial alternatives; immunity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnology is an innovative multidisciplinary science, combining the sciences of physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics, as well as engineering and computer sciences. Nanotechnology aims to transform chemical molecules into small particles for in order to obtain new physiochemical properties of such molecules (greater cellular uptake, reactivity, surface area and charge, binding properties) and opens a new platform for innovation in the biosciences. Recently, the nanotechnology revolution has pervaded all fields related to animal science; however, its application in animal medicine and production is still scarce. Different nanoparticles and nanoparticles-based systems have been developed for specific purposes, such as rapid and robust disease diagnosis and treatment, drug delivery systems, animal nutrition, reproduction management, and assisted reproductive techniques. It can also provide new tools for studying molecular and cellular biology and animal genetics. The differences in nanoparticle preparation protocols, physiochemical properties, and applications make this branch of science worthy of study, aiming to better understand the benefits, limitations, and hazards of this technology when is used in the field of animal science.

In this Topical Collection, we invite original research papers and reviews or studies addressing nanotechnology applications in the fields of animal physiology, nutrition, reproduction, biotechnology, and health/disease, as well as issues related to the hazards and toxicity of nanomaterials.

Dr. Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes
Prof. Dr. Nesrein M. Hashem
Collection Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Nanotechnology
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Animal health
  • Biotechnology
  • Toxicity

Published Papers (19 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

17 pages, 2166 KiB  
Article
The Influence of a Nanoemulsion of Cardamom Essential Oil on the Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Carcass Characteristics, and Health Status of Growing Rabbits under a High Ambient Temperature
by Rehab F. S. A. Ismail, Mahmoud A. E. Hassan, Mahmoud Moustafa, Mohammed Al-Shehri, Reem S. Alazragi, Hanan Khojah, Ali Ali El-Raghi, Sameh A. Abdelnour and Alaa M. A. Gad
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182990 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1182
Abstract
Recently, nanotechnology approaches have been employed to enhance the solubility, availability, and efficacy of phytochemicals, overcoming some industrial obstacles and natural biological barriers. In this regard, 120 clinically healthy growing V-line rabbits (5 weeks old) reared during the summer season were divided randomly [...] Read more.
Recently, nanotechnology approaches have been employed to enhance the solubility, availability, and efficacy of phytochemicals, overcoming some industrial obstacles and natural biological barriers. In this regard, 120 clinically healthy growing V-line rabbits (5 weeks old) reared during the summer season were divided randomly into four equal experimental groups (30 rabbits each). The first group received a basal diet without the supplementation of the nanoemulsion of cardamom essential oil (NCEO) (0 g/kg diet) and served as a control (NCEO 0). The other groups were given diets containing NCEO at levels of 150 (NCEO 150), 300 (NCEO 300), and 600 (NCEO 600) mg/kg diet, respectively. The growth performance (higher LBW and ADG), feed utilization (lower FCR), dressing percentage, and relative weight of the liver were improved significantly in the NCEO-treated groups compared to the control group. Moreover, the dietary treatment significantly decreased the rectum temperature and respiration rate, minimizing the 350 and 325 mg NECO/kg diets. The erythrocyte count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while white blood cells were significantly diminished (p = 0.0200) in the NCEO300 and NCEO600 groups compared to the control group. Treatment with 300 or 600 mg NCEO/kg significantly increased the blood serum total protein and albumin compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the liver enzymes (AST and ALT), uric acid, and creatinine concentrations decreased significantly in the NCEO300 group compared to the control group. The concentrations of triglycerides and total cholesterol were reduced significantly by the dietary treatment. The total antioxidant capacity, dismutase activity, and glutathione concentration were significantly higher, while the malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly lower in the NCEO300 group than in the control. The inflammatory responses and immunity statuses were improved in the blood serum of the NCEO-treated rabbits compared to the control. Heat-stress-induced pathological perturbations in renal/hepatic tissues and NCEO co-treatment successfully re-established and recovered near-control renal–hepatic morphology. In conclusion, a dietary supplementation of NCEO (300 mg/kg) could effectively enhance growing rabbits’ growth indices, feed efficiency, redox balance, immunity, and inflammatory responses during the summer. Full article
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15 pages, 1750 KiB  
Article
Struggling Thermal Stress Impacts on Growth Performance and Health Status of Newly Weaned Rabbits Using Nanoemulsion of Origanum majorana Considering the Economic Efficiency of Supplementation
by Ali Ali El-Raghi, Mahmoud A. E. Hassan, Nesrein M. Hashem and Sameh A. Abdelnour
Animals 2023, 13(11), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13111772 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
With the recent trend of global warming, HS-instigated diminishing could extremely jeopardize animal health, productivity, and farm profit. Marjoram essential oil (MEOE) is a worthy source of wide range phytogenic compounds that may improve heat tolerance, redox and inflammatory homeostasis, and immunity of [...] Read more.
With the recent trend of global warming, HS-instigated diminishing could extremely jeopardize animal health, productivity, and farm profit. Marjoram essential oil (MEOE) is a worthy source of wide range phytogenic compounds that may improve heat tolerance, redox and inflammatory homeostasis, and immunity of newly weaned rabbits, specifically if included in the diets in a nano form. One hundred newly weaned rabbits were randomly distributed into four homogeneous groups. The first group (control group) included rabbits that received basal diet without supplementation. In contrast, the other three groups included rabbits that received basal diets supplemented with 200 (MEONE200), 400 (MEONE400), and 800 (MEONE800) mg MEONE/kg diet, respectively. Among MEONE-treated groups and control groups, MEONE400 group showed the highest (p < 0.001) growth performance traits, including final body weight, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and the performance index. Compared to the control, all MEONE-supplemented groups possessed lower rectal temperatures and respiration rates, recording the lowest values in the MEONE400 group. The oxidative stress biomarkers and immunoglobulins G and M were significantly improved in the MEONE400 and MEONE800 compared with the control and MEONE200 groups. The addition of MEONE (400 or 800 mg/kg) decreased the concentrations of serum interleukin-4 (p = 0.0003), interferon gamma (p = 0.0004), and tumor necrosis factor-α (p < 0.0001) but significantly elevated (p < 0.001) the activity of nitric oxide, amyloid A and lysozyme. Liver functions (lower concentrations of liver enzymes) were significantly improved in all MEONE-treated groups compared to the control group. There was a considerable significant effect of dietary supplementation of MEONE400 on economic efficiency. In conclusion, the addition of 400 mg/kg to the diets of newly weaned rabbits can be recommended as an affective intervention to mitigate the negative impacts of HS. Full article
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19 pages, 1530 KiB  
Review
Old Antibiotics Can Learn New Ways: A Systematic Review of Florfenicol Use in Veterinary Medicine and Future Perspectives Using Nanotechnology
by Emilia Trif, Constantin Cerbu, Diana Olah, Sergiu Dan Zăblău, Marina Spînu, Adrian Valentin Potârniche, Emoke Pall and Florinel Brudașcă
Animals 2023, 13(10), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13101695 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
Florfenicol is a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotic used exclusively in veterinary medicine in order to treat the pathology of farm and aquatic animals. It is a synthetic fluorinated analog of thiamphenicol and chloramphenicol that functions by inhibiting ribosomal activity, which disrupts bacterial protein synthesis [...] Read more.
Florfenicol is a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotic used exclusively in veterinary medicine in order to treat the pathology of farm and aquatic animals. It is a synthetic fluorinated analog of thiamphenicol and chloramphenicol that functions by inhibiting ribosomal activity, which disrupts bacterial protein synthesis and has shown over time a strong activity against Gram-positive and negative bacterial groups. Florfenicol was also reported to have anti-inflammatory activity through a marked reduction in immune cell proliferation and cytokine production. The need for improvement came from (1) the inappropriate use (to an important extent) of this antimicrobial, which led to serious concerns about florfenicol-related resistance genes, and (2) the fact that this antibiotic has a low water solubility making it difficult to formulate an aqueous solution in organic solvents, and applicable for different routes of administration. This review aims to synthesize the various applications of florfenicol in veterinary medicine, explore the potential use of nanotechnology to improve its effectiveness and analyze the advantages and limitations of such approaches. The review is based on data from scientific articles and systematic reviews identified in several databases. Full article
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15 pages, 3595 KiB  
Article
Effect of TiO2 Nanoparticle on Bioaccumulation of ndl-PCBs in Mediterranean Mussels (Mitilus galloprovincialis)
by Federica Gallocchio, Alessandra Moressa, Francesco Pascoli, Alessia Vetri, Anna Toffan, Tobia Pretto, Giuseppe Arcangeli, Roberto Angeletti and Antonia Ricci
Animals 2023, 13(7), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13071208 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The interaction of nanomaterials with pollutants in the marine environment might alter bioavailability, as well as toxicity, of both nanomaterials and pollutants, representing a risk, not only for marine organisms, but also for consumers through the marine food chain.The aim of this study [...] Read more.
The interaction of nanomaterials with pollutants in the marine environment might alter bioavailability, as well as toxicity, of both nanomaterials and pollutants, representing a risk, not only for marine organisms, but also for consumers through the marine food chain.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) in terms of bioaccumulation and toxicity on Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to six-indicator non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl-PCBs). Mussels were exposed to ndl-PCBs (20 µg/mL) (groups 3–4) or to a combination of ndl-PCBs (20 µg/mL) and TiO2NPs (100 µg/mL) (groups 5–6) for four consecutive days. TiO2NPs was detected in groups 5–6 (3247 ± 567 and 1620 ± 223 µg/kg respectively), but their presence did not affect ndl-PCBs bioaccumulation in mussels. In fact, in groups 3–4, the concentration of ndl-PCBs (ranging from 3818.4 ± 166.0–10,176 ± 664.3 µg/kg and 2712.7 ± 36.1–9498.0 ± 794.1 µg/kg respectively) was not statistically different from that of groups 5–6 (3048.6 ± 24.0–14,635.9 ± 1029.3 and 5726.0 ± 571.0–9931.2 ± 700.3 µg/kg respectively). Histological analyses showed alterations to the structure of the gill tissue with respect to the control groups, with more severe and diffuse dilatation of the central hemolymphatic vessels of the gill lamellae in groups 5–6 (treated with TiO2NPs and ndl-PCBs concurrently) compared to groups 3–4 (ndl-PCBs only). Finally, in mussels submitted to a seven-day depuration process, most TiO2NPs were eliminated, and NPs had a synergistic effect on ndl-PCBs elimination; as a matter of fact, in groups 5–6, the percentage of concentration was statically inferior to the one observed in groups 3–4. In any case, consumers might be exposed to TiO2NPs and ndl-PCBs (both concurrently and separately) if edible mussels, harvested in a contaminated environment, are consumed without a proper depuration process. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

13 pages, 589 KiB  
Article
Nanodelivery System for Ovsynch Protocol Improves Ovarian Response, Ovarian Blood Flow Doppler Velocities, and Hormonal Profile of Goats
by Nesrein M. Hashem, Hossam R. EL-Sherbiny, Mohamed Fathi and Elshymaa A. Abdelnaby
Animals 2022, 12(11), 1442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111442 - 03 Jun 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
Fifteen cyclic, multiparous goats were equally stratified and received the common Ovsynch protocol (GPG: intramuscular, IM, injection of 50 mg gonadorelin, followed by an IM injection of 125 µg cloprostenol 7 days later, and a further IM injection of 50 mg gonadorelin 2 [...] Read more.
Fifteen cyclic, multiparous goats were equally stratified and received the common Ovsynch protocol (GPG: intramuscular, IM, injection of 50 mg gonadorelin, followed by an IM injection of 125 µg cloprostenol 7 days later, and a further IM injection of 50 mg gonadorelin 2 days later) or the Ovsynch protocol using nanofabricated hormones with the same dosages (NGPG) or half dosages (HNGPG) of each hormone. The ovarian structures and ovarian and luteal artery hemodynamic indices after each injection of the Ovsynch protocol using B-mode, color, and spectral Doppler scanning were monitored. Levels of blood serum progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2), and nitric oxide (NO) were determined. After the first gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection, the number of large follicles decreased (p = 0.02) in NGPG and HNGPG, compared with GPG. HNGPG resulted in larger corpus luteum (CL) diameters (p = 0.001), and improved ovarian and luteal blood flow, compared with GPG and NGPG. Both NGPG and HNGPG significantly increased E2 and NO levels compared with GPG. HNGPG increased (p < 0.001) P4 levels compared with GPG, whereas NGPG resulted in an intermediate value. After prostaglandin F (PGF) injection, HNGPG had the largest diameter of CLs (p = 0.001) and significantly improved ovarian blood flow compared with GPG and NGPG. Both NGPG and HNGPG increased (p = 0.007) NO levels, compared with GPG. E2 level was increased (p = 0.028) in HNGPG, compared with GPG, whereas NGPG resulted in an intermediate value. During the follicular phase, HNGPG increased (p = 0.043) the number of medium follicles, shortened (p = 0.04) the interval to ovulation, and increased (p < 0.001) ovarian artery blood flow and levels (p < 0.001) of blood serum P4, E2, and NO, compared with GPG and NGPG. During the luteal phase, the numbers of CLs were similar among different experimental groups, whereas the diameter of CLs, luteal blood flow, and levels of blood serum P4 and NO increased (p < 0.001) in HNGPG, compared with GPG and NGPG. Conclusively, the nanodelivery system for the Ovsynch protocol could be recommended as a new strategy for improving estrous synchronization outcomes of goats while enabling lower hormone dose administration. Full article
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18 pages, 1627 KiB  
Article
Improving Rabbit Doe Metabolism and Whole Reproductive Cycle Outcomes via Fatty Acid-Rich Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract Supplementation in Free and Nano-Encapsulated Forms
by Nagwa I. El-Desoky, Nesrein M. Hashem, Ahmed G. Elkomy and Zahraa R. Abo-Elezz
Animals 2022, 12(6), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12060764 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3302
Abstract
The effects of free and nano-encapsulated ME supplementations on the metabolism, immunity, milk production and composition, and reproductive performance of rabbit does during premating, mating, pregnancy, and lactation were investigated. Multiparous rabbit does (n = 26 per group) received 50 mg of [...] Read more.
The effects of free and nano-encapsulated ME supplementations on the metabolism, immunity, milk production and composition, and reproductive performance of rabbit does during premating, mating, pregnancy, and lactation were investigated. Multiparous rabbit does (n = 26 per group) received 50 mg of free ME (FME) daily, 25 mg of nano-encapsulated ME (HNME), or 10 mg of nano-encapsulated ME (LNME) per kilogram of body weight or were not supplemented (C) during a whole reproductive cycle. The ME contained 30 fatty acids with 54.27% total unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs). The fatty acid encapsulation efficiency of alginate nanoparticles was 70.46%. Compared with the C group, rabbits in all ME treatments had significantly increased body weight, feed intake, and glucose concentration and significantly decreased non-esterified free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Rabbits supplemented with ME also had significantly increased white blood cell counts, phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity, and immunoglobulin G and decreased interleukin-1β concentrations. Moreover, ME supplementation significantly increased the concentrations of colostrum immunoglobulins, milk yield and energy content, and milk USFAs (omega-3 and 6). Rabbit does in the ME treatments had significantly higher conception and parturition rates and better litter characteristics than the C rabbit does. These results demonstrate the positive role of ME fatty acids on the health status and productive and reproductive performance of rabbit does at different physiological stages. Compared with the FME treatment, these parameters were further improved in rabbits that received nano-encapsulated ME at lower doses, illustrating how nano-encapsulation technology improves the bioavailability of ME. Full article
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13 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Chitosan Nanoparticles Containing Lipoic Acid with Antioxidant Properties as a Potential Nutritional Supplement
by Katrin Quester, Sarahí Rodríguez-González, Laura González-Dávalos, Carlos Lozano-Flores, Adriana González-Gallardo, Santino J. Zapiain-Merino, Armando Shimada, Ofelia Mora and Rafael Vazquez-Duhalt
Animals 2022, 12(4), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12040417 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2357
Abstract
The addition of the antioxidant α-lipoic acid (ALA) to a balanced diet might be crucial for the prevention of comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity. Due to its low half-life and instability under stomach-like conditions, α-lipoic acid was encapsulated into chitosan [...] Read more.
The addition of the antioxidant α-lipoic acid (ALA) to a balanced diet might be crucial for the prevention of comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity. Due to its low half-life and instability under stomach-like conditions, α-lipoic acid was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles (Ch-NPs). The resulting chitosan nanoparticles containing 20% w/w ALA (Ch-ALA-NPs) with an average diameter of 44 nm demonstrated antioxidant activity and stability under stomach-like conditions for up to 3 h. Furthermore, fluorescent Ch-ALA-NPs were effectively internalized into 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and were able to cross the intestinal barrier, as evidenced by everted intestine in vitro experiments. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticles seem to be an attractive administration method for antioxidants, or other sensible additives, in food. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

17 pages, 1616 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium Isolated from Laying Hens, Table Eggs, and Humans with Respect to Antimicrobial Activity of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles
by Rasha M. M. Abou Elez, Ibrahim Elsohaby, Nashwa El-Gazzar, Hala M. N. Tolba, Eman N. Abdelfatah, Samah S. Abdellatif, Ahmed Atef Mesalam and Asmaa B. M. B. Tahoun
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123554 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3950
Abstract
Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness worldwide. Contaminated poultry products, especially meat and eggs are the main sources of human salmonellosis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine prevalence, antimicrobial resistance profiles, virulence, and [...] Read more.
Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness worldwide. Contaminated poultry products, especially meat and eggs are the main sources of human salmonellosis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine prevalence, antimicrobial resistance profiles, virulence, and resistance genes of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) and Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) isolated from laying hens, table eggs, and humans, in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. The antimicrobial activity of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) was also evaluated. Salmonella spp. were found in 19.3% of tested samples with laying hens having the highest isolation rate (33.1%). S. Enteritidis) (5.8%), and S. Typhimurium (2.8%) were the dominant serotypes. All isolates were ampicillin resistant (100%); however, none of the isolates were meropenem resistant. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) was detected in 83.8% of the isolates with a multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.21 to 0.57. Most isolates (81.1%) had at least three virulence genes (sopB, stn, and hilA) and none of the isolates harbored the pefA gene; four resistance genes (blaTEM, tetA, nfsA, and nfsB) were detected in 56.8% of the examined isolates. The AgNPs biosynthesized by Aspergillus niveus exhibit an absorption peak at 420 nm with an average size of 27 nm. AgNPs had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 5 µg/mL against S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium isolates and a minimum bactericidal concentration of 6 and 8 µg/mL against S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium isolates, respectively. The bacterial growth and gene expression of S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium isolates treated with AgNPs were gradually decreased as storage time was increased. In conclusion, this study indicates that S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium isolated from laying hens, table eggs, and humans exhibits resistance to multiple antimicrobial classes. The biosynthesized AgNPs showed potential antimicrobial activity against MDR S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium isolates. However, studies to assess the antimicrobial effectiveness of the biosynthesized AgNPs in laying hen farms are warranted. Full article
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14 pages, 4944 KiB  
Article
Anisotropic Silver Nanoparticles Gel Exhibits Antibacterial Action and Reduced Scar Formation on Wounds Contaminated with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in a Mice Model
by Saengrawee Thammawithan, Oranee Srichaiyapol, Pawinee Siritongsuk, Sakda Daduang, Sompong Klaynongsruang, Nuvee Prapasarakul and Rina Patramanon
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123412 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2409
Abstract
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (S. pseudintermedius) infected wounds can cause seriously delayed wound healing processes in animals. Antimicrobial agents that have antimicrobial and wound healing efficacy have become an essential tool for overcoming this problem. In our previous study, anisotropic AgNPs have been [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (S. pseudintermedius) infected wounds can cause seriously delayed wound healing processes in animals. Antimicrobial agents that have antimicrobial and wound healing efficacy have become an essential tool for overcoming this problem. In our previous study, anisotropic AgNPs have been reported to have antimicrobial efficiency against animal and human pathogens, and could be suitable as antimicrobial agents for infected wounds. Here, antimicrobial and wound healing activities of anisotropic AgNPs gels were assessed in vivo. BALB/cAJcl mice wounds were infected by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Then, antibacterial and wound healing activities were evaluated by bacterial cell count, wound contraction, digital capture, and histology. The results show that anisotropic AgNPs gels could eliminate all bacterial cell infected wounds within 7 days, the same as povidone iodine. Wound healing activity was evaluated by wound contraction (%). The results showed 100% wound contraction in groups treated with anisotropic AgNPs gels within 14 days that was not significantly different from povidone iodine and control gel without AgNPs. However, the digital capture of wounds on day 4 showed that anisotropic AgNPs gel prevented pus formation and reduced scar appearance within 21 days. The histology results exhibit improved collagen fiber alignment that supports scar disappearance. In conclusion, these results indicate that anisotropic AgNPs gels are suitable for treating infected wounds. The gel is effective in eliminating bacteria that supports the natural process of wound repair and also causes reduced scar formation. Full article
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12 pages, 1887 KiB  
Article
Impact of Nano-Bromocriptine on Egg Production Performance and Prolactin Expression in Layers
by Ahmed Dawod, Noha Osman, Hanim S. Heikal, Korany A. Ali, Omaima M. Kandil, Awad A. Shehata, Hafez M. Hafez and Hamada Mahboub
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102842 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
The current study aimed to investigate the potential use of nano-bromocriptine in improving the laying performance of late laying hens by modulating the prolactin gene expression. A total of 150 NOVOgen brown laying hens aged 70 weeks were randomly allocated into three groups [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to investigate the potential use of nano-bromocriptine in improving the laying performance of late laying hens by modulating the prolactin gene expression. A total of 150 NOVOgen brown laying hens aged 70 weeks were randomly allocated into three groups of 50 birds each. The first group was kept as a control, while the second and the third groups were treated with bromocriptine and nano-bromocriptine, respectively, at a dose of 100 µg/kg body weight per week. The pause days, egg production, feed per dozen egg, and Haugh unit were determined on a monthly basis. Also, the relative prolactin gene expression in the pituitary gland was quantified using qPCR and the number of the ovarian follicles was determined after slaughtering at the 84th week of age. It was found that nano-bromocriptine and bromocriptine improved egg laying performance with minimal pause days, reduced feed per dozen egg, and depressed the relative prolactin gene expression; however, nano-bromocriptine treatment was significantly effective compared to bromocriptine. In conclusion, nano-bromocriptine might be beneficial for elongating sequences and reducing pauses. Full article
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13 pages, 7029 KiB  
Article
Modified Spirulina maxima Pectin Nanoparticles Improve the Developmental Competence of In Vitro Matured Porcine Oocytes
by Pantu-Kumar Roy, Ahmad-Yar Qamar, Bereket-Molla Tanga, Seonggyu Bang, Gyeonghwan Seong, Xun Fang, Ghangyong Kim, Shan-Lakmal Edirisinghe, Mahanama De Zoysa, Do-Hyung Kang, Islam M. Saadeldin and Jongki Cho
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092483 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3870
Abstract
Molecular approaches have been used to determine metabolic substrates involved in the early embryonic processes to provide adequate culture conditions. To investigate the effect of modified Spirulina maxima pectin nanoparticles (MSmPNPs) on oocyte developmental competence, cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved from pig slaughterhouse ovaries [...] Read more.
Molecular approaches have been used to determine metabolic substrates involved in the early embryonic processes to provide adequate culture conditions. To investigate the effect of modified Spirulina maxima pectin nanoparticles (MSmPNPs) on oocyte developmental competence, cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved from pig slaughterhouse ovaries were subjected to various concentrations of MSmPNPs (0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 µg/mL) during in vitro maturation (IVM). In comparison to the control, MSmPNPs-5.0, and MSmPNPs-10 groups, oocytes treated with 2.5 µg/mL MSmPNPs had significantly increased glutathione (GSH) levels and lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Following parthenogenetic activation, the MSmPNPs-2.5 group had a considerably higher maturation and cleavage rates, blastocyst development, total cell number, and ratio of inner cell mass/trophectoderm (ICM:TE) cells, when compared with those in the control and all other treated groups. Furthermore, similar findings were reported for the developmental competence of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived embryos. Additionally, the relative quantification of POU5F1, DPPA2, and NDP52 mRNA transcript levels were significantly higher in the MSmPNPs-2.5 group than in the control and other treated groups. Taken together, the current findings suggest that MSmPNP treatment alleviates oxidative stress and enhances the developmental competence of porcine in vitro matured oocytes after parthenogenetic activation and SCNT. Full article
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15 pages, 4302 KiB  
Article
In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Dietary Supplementation of Both Natural or Nano-Zeolite in Goat Diets: Effects on Ruminal Fermentation and Nutrients Digestibility
by Amr El-Nile, Mahmoud Elazab, Hani El-Zaiat, Kheir El-Din El-Azrak, Alaa Elkomy, Sobhy Sallam and Yosra Soltan
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082215 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4572
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo dietary supplementation with different levels of natural or nano-zeolite forms on rumen fermentation patterns and nutrient digestibility. In the in vitro experiment, a basal diet (50% concentrate: 50% forage) was incubated without additives [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo dietary supplementation with different levels of natural or nano-zeolite forms on rumen fermentation patterns and nutrient digestibility. In the in vitro experiment, a basal diet (50% concentrate: 50% forage) was incubated without additives (control) and with natural zeolite (10, 20, 30 g/kg DM) or nano-zeolite (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg DM) for 24 h to assess their effect on ruminal fermentation, feed degradability, and gas and methane production using a semi-automatic system of in vitro gas production (GP). The most effective doses obtained from the in vitro experiment were evaluated in vivo using 30 Barki goats (26 ± 0.9 SE kg body weight). Goats were allocated into three dietary treatments (n = 10/treatment) as follows: control (basal diet without any supplementations), natural zeolite (20 g/kg DM diet), and nano-zeolite (0.40 g/kg DM diet). The in vitro results revealed that only the nano-zeolite supplementation form quadratically (p= 0.004) increased GP, and the level of 0.5 g/kg DM had the highest GP value compared to the control. Both zeolite forms affected the CH4 production, linear, and quadratic reductions (p < 0.05) in CH4 (mL/g DM), consistent with linear increases in truly degraded organic matter (TDOM) (p = 0.09), and propionate molar proportions (p = 0.007) were observed by nano zeolite treatment, while the natural form of zeolite resulted in a linear CH4 reduction consistent with a linear decrease (p = 0.004) in NH3-N, linear increases in TDOM (p = 0.09), and propionate molar proportions (p = 0.004). Results of the in vivo experiment demonstrated that the nutrient digestibility was similar among all treatments. Nano zeolite enhanced (p < 0.05) the total short-chain fatty acids and butyrate concentrations, while both zeolite forms decreased (p < 0.001) NH3-N compared to the control. These results suggested that both zeolite supplementation forms favorably modified the rumen fermentation in different patterns. Full article
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18 pages, 2013 KiB  
Review
The Mechanistic Action of Biosynthesised Silver Nanoparticles and Its Application in Aquaculture and Livestock Industries
by Catrenar De Silva, Norazah Mohammad Nawawi, Murni Marlina Abd Karim, Shafinaz Abd Gani, Mas Jaffri Masarudin, Baskaran Gunasekaran and Siti Aqlima Ahmad
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072097 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4856
Abstract
Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing field due to the emergence of various resistant pathogens and the failure of commercial methods of treatment. AgNPs have emerged as one of the best nanotechnology metal nanoparticles due to their large surface-to-volume ratio and success and efficiency [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing field due to the emergence of various resistant pathogens and the failure of commercial methods of treatment. AgNPs have emerged as one of the best nanotechnology metal nanoparticles due to their large surface-to-volume ratio and success and efficiency in combating various pathogens over the years, with the biological method of synthesis being the most effective and environmentally friendly method. The primary mode of action of AgNPs against pathogens are via their cytotoxicity, which is influenced by the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of the AgNPs gives rise to various theorized mechanisms of action of AgNPs against pathogens such as activation of reactive oxygen species, attachment to cellular membranes, intracellular damage and inducing the viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of pathogens. This review will be centred on the various theorized mechanisms of actions and its application in the aquaculture, livestock and poultry industries. The application of AgNPs in aquaculture is focused around water treatment, disease control and aquatic nutrition, and in the livestock application it is focused on livestock and poultry. Full article
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22 pages, 5486 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Potential of Biosynthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles against Poultry-Associated Foodborne Pathogens: An In Vitro Study
by Hidayat Mohd Yusof, Nor’Aini Abdul Rahman, Rosfarizan Mohamad, Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan and Anjas Asmara Samsudin
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2093; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072093 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 6901
Abstract
Since the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the poultry industry is currently a serious threat, there is an urgent need to develop a more efficient and alternative antibacterial substance. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have exhibited antibacterial efficacy against a wide range of [...] Read more.
Since the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the poultry industry is currently a serious threat, there is an urgent need to develop a more efficient and alternative antibacterial substance. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have exhibited antibacterial efficacy against a wide range of microorganisms. Although the in vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs has been studied, little is known about the antibacterial mechanisms of ZnO NPs against poultry-associated foodborne pathogens. In the present study, ZnO NPs were successfully synthesized using Lactobacillus plantarum TA4, characterized, and their antibacterial potential against common avian pathogens (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) was investigated. Confirmation of ZnO NPs by UV-Visual spectroscopy showed an absorption band center at 360 nm. Morphologically, the synthesized ZnO NPs were oval with an average particle size of 29.7 nm. Based on the dissolution study of Zn2+, ZnO NPs released more ions than their bulk counterparts. Results from the agar well diffusion assay indicated that ZnO NPs effectively inhibited the growth of the three poultry-associated foodborne pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed using various concentrations of ZnO NPs, which resulted in excellent antibacterial activity as compared to their bulkier counterparts. S. aureus was more susceptible to ZnO NPs compared to the other tested bacteria. Furthermore, the ZnO NPs demonstrated substantial biofilm inhibition and eradication. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular material leakage was quantified to determine the underlying antibacterial mechanisms, whereas a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the morphological changes of tested bacteria treated with ZnO NPs. The findings suggested that ROS-induced oxidative stress caused membrane damage and bacterial cell death. Overall, the results demonstrated that ZnO NPs could be developed as an alternative antibiotic in poultry production and revealed new possibilities in combating pathogenic microorganisms. Full article
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19 pages, 1491 KiB  
Review
Nanotechnology and Reproductive Management of Farm Animals: Challenges and Advances
by Nesrein M. Hashem and Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071932 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 7616
Abstract
Reproductive efficiency of farm animals has central consequences on productivity and profitability of livestock farming systems. Optimal reproductive management is based on applying different strategies, including biological, hormonal, nutritional strategies, as well as reproductive disease control. These strategies should not only guarantee sufficient [...] Read more.
Reproductive efficiency of farm animals has central consequences on productivity and profitability of livestock farming systems. Optimal reproductive management is based on applying different strategies, including biological, hormonal, nutritional strategies, as well as reproductive disease control. These strategies should not only guarantee sufficient reproductive outcomes but should also comply with practical and ethical aspects. For example, the efficiency of the biological- and hormonal-based reproductive strategies is mainly related to several biological factors and physiological status of animals, and of nutritional strategies, additional factors, such as digestion and absorption, can contribute. In addition, the management of reproductive-related diseases is challenged by the concerns regarding the intensive use of antibiotics and the development of antimicrobial resistant strains. The emergence of nanotechnology applications in livestock farming systems may present innovative and new solutions for overcoming reproductive management challenges. Many drugs (hormones and antibiotics), biological molecules, and nutrients can acquire novel physicochemical properties using nanotechnology; the main ones are improved bioavailability, higher cellular uptake, controlled sustained release, and lower toxicity compared with ordinary forms. In this review, we illustrate advances in the most common reproductive management strategies by applying nanotechnology, considering the current challenges of each strategy. Full article
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22 pages, 1084 KiB  
Review
Nanominerals: Fabrication Methods, Benefits and Hazards, and Their Applications in Ruminants with Special Reference to Selenium and Zinc Nanoparticles
by Sameh A. Abdelnour, Mahmoud Alagawany, Nesrein M. Hashem, Mayada R. Farag, Etab S. Alghamdi, Faiz Ul Hassan, Rana M. Bilal, Shaaban S. Elnesr, Mahmoud A. O. Dawood, Sameer A. Nagadi, Hamada A. M. Elwan, Abeer G. ALmasoudi and Youssef A. Attia
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071916 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 8602
Abstract
Nanotechnology is one of the major advanced technologies applied in different fields, including agriculture, livestock, medicine, and food sectors. Nanomaterials can help maintain the sustainability of the livestock sector through improving quantitative and qualitative production of safe, healthy, and functional animal products. Given [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is one of the major advanced technologies applied in different fields, including agriculture, livestock, medicine, and food sectors. Nanomaterials can help maintain the sustainability of the livestock sector through improving quantitative and qualitative production of safe, healthy, and functional animal products. Given the diverse nanotechnology applications in the animal nutrition field, the use of nanomaterials opens the horizon of opportunities for enhancing feed utilization and efficiency in animal production. Nanotechnology facilitates the development of nano vehicles for nutrients (including trace minerals), allowing efficient delivery to improve digestion and absorption for better nutrient metabolism and physiology. Nanominerals are interesting alternatives for inorganic and organic minerals for animals that can substantially enhance the bioavailability and reduce pollution. Nanominerals promote antioxidant activity, and improve growth performance, reproductive performance, immune response, intestinal health, and the nutritional value of animal products. Nanominerals are also helpful for improving assisted reproductive technologies (ART) outcomes by enriching media for cryopreservation of spermatozoa, oocytes, and embryos with antioxidant nanominerals. Despite the promising positive effects of nanominerals on animal performance and health, there are various challenges related to nanominerals, including their metabolism and fate in the animal’s body. Thus, the economic, legal, and ethical implications of nanomaterials must also be considered by the authority. This review highlights the benefits of including nanominerals (particularly nano-selenium and nano-zinc) in animal diets and/or cryopreservation media, focusing on modes of action, physiological effects, and the potential toxicity of their impact on human health. Full article
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11 pages, 1339 KiB  
Article
Silver and Copper Nanoparticles Inhibit Biofilm Formation by Mastitis Pathogens
by Agata Lange, Agnieszka Grzenia, Mateusz Wierzbicki, Barbara Strojny-Cieslak, Aleksandra Kalińska, Marcin Gołębiewski, Daniel Radzikowski, Ewa Sawosz and Sławomir Jaworski
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071884 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3579
Abstract
Bovine mastitis is a common bovine disease, frequently affecting whole herds of cattle. It is often caused by resistant microbes that can create a biofilm structure. The rapidly developing scientific discipline known as nanobiotechnology may help treat this illness, thanks to the extraordinary [...] Read more.
Bovine mastitis is a common bovine disease, frequently affecting whole herds of cattle. It is often caused by resistant microbes that can create a biofilm structure. The rapidly developing scientific discipline known as nanobiotechnology may help treat this illness, thanks to the extraordinary properties of nanoparticles. The aim of the study was to investigate the inhibition of biofilms created by mastitis pathogens after treatment with silver and copper nanoparticles, both individually and in combination. We defined the physicochemical properties and minimal inhibitory concentration of the nanoparticles and observed their interaction with the cell membrane, as well as the extent of biofilm reduction. The results show that the silver–copper complex was the most active of all nanomaterials tested (biofilm was reduced by nearly 100% at a concentration of 200 ppm for each microorganism species tested). However, silver nanoparticles were also effective individually (biofilm was also reduced by nearly 100% at a concentration of 200 ppm, but at concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm, the extent of reduction was lower than for the complex). Nanoparticles can be used in new alternative therapies to treat bovine mastitis. Full article
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21 pages, 1609 KiB  
Review
Modulation of Bovine Endometrial Cell Receptors and Signaling Pathways as a Nanotherapeutic Exploration against Dairy Cow Postpartum Endometritis
by Ayodele Olaolu Oladejo, Yajuan Li, Xiaohu Wu, Bereket Habte Imam, Jie Yang, Xiaoyu Ma, Zuoting Yan and Shengyi Wang
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061516 - 23 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3734
Abstract
In order to control and prevent bovine endometritis, there is a need to understand the molecular pathogenesis of the infectious disease. Bovine endometrium is usually invaded by a massive mobilization of microorganisms, especially bacteria, during postpartum dairy cows. Several reports have implicated the [...] Read more.
In order to control and prevent bovine endometritis, there is a need to understand the molecular pathogenesis of the infectious disease. Bovine endometrium is usually invaded by a massive mobilization of microorganisms, especially bacteria, during postpartum dairy cows. Several reports have implicated the Gram-negative bacteria in the pathogenesis of bovine endometritis, with information dearth on the potentials of Gram-positive bacteria and their endotoxins. The invasive bacteria and their ligands pass through cellular receptors such as TLRs, NLRs, and biomolecular proteins of cells activate the specific receptors, which spontaneously stimulates cellular signaling pathways like MAPK, NF-kB and sequentially triggers upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The cascade of inflammatory induction involves a dual signaling pathway; the transcription factor NF-κB is released from its inhibitory molecule and can bind to various inflammatory genes promoter. The MAPK pathways are concomitantly activated, leading to specific phosphorylation of the NF-κB. The provision of detailed information on the molecular pathomechanism of bovine endometritis with the interaction between host endometrial cells and invasive bacteria in this review would widen the gap of exploring the potential of receptors and signal transduction pathways in nanotechnology-based drug delivery system. The nanotherapeutic discovery of endometrial cell receptors, signal transduction pathway, and cell biomolecules inhibitors could be developed for strategic inhibition of infectious signals at the various cell receptors and signal transduction levels, interfering on transcription factors activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes expression, which may significantly protect endometrium against postpartum microbial invasion. Full article
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14 pages, 5676 KiB  
Article
Efficiency of GnRH–Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles for Inducing LH Secretion and Fertile Ovulations in Protocols for Artificial Insemination in Rabbit Does
by Eman M. Hassanein, Nesrein M. Hashem, Kheir El-Din M. El-Azrak, Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes, Gamal A. Hassan and Mohamed H. Salem
Animals 2021, 11(2), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020440 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3279
Abstract
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)–loaded chitosan nanoparticles (GnRH–ChNPs) were used at different doses and routes of administration to induce ovulation in rabbits as an attempt to improve artificial insemination (AI) procedures and outcomes. In this study, the characteristics (size, polydispersity, loading efficiency, and zeta-potential) of [...] Read more.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)–loaded chitosan nanoparticles (GnRH–ChNPs) were used at different doses and routes of administration to induce ovulation in rabbits as an attempt to improve artificial insemination (AI) procedures and outcomes. In this study, the characteristics (size, polydispersity, loading efficiency, and zeta-potential) of GnRH–ChNPs and the GnRH release pattern were determined in an in vitro study. A first in vivo study assessed the pituitary and ovarian response to different GnRH–ChNPs doses and routes of administration (two i.m. doses, Group HM = 0.4 µg and Group QM = 0.2 µg, and two intravaginal doses, Group HV = 4 µg and Group QV = 2 µg) against a control group (C) receiving bare GnRH (0.8 µg). The HM, QM, and HV treatments induced an earlier LH-surge (90 min) than that observed in group C (120 min), whilst the QV treatment failed to induce such LH surge. The number of ovulation points was similar among treatments, except for the QV treatment (no ovulation points). A second in vivo study was consequently developed to determine the hormonal (progesterone, P4, and estradiol, E2) profile and pregnancy outcomes of both HM and HV treatments against group C. The treatment HM, but not the treatment HV, showed adequate P4 and E2 concentrations, conception and parturition rates, litter size, litter weight, and viability rate at birth. Overall, the use of GnRH–ChNPs allows for a reduction in the conventional intramuscular GnRH dose to half without compromising fertility. However, the addition of GnRH–ChNPs to semen extenders, although successfully inducing ovulation, has negative impacts on fertility. Thus, more studies are needed to explore this point and allow further adjustments. Full article
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