Advances in Veterinary Pathology

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 20532

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Animal Science, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Spain
Interests: animal science; veterinary; pathology
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Guest Editor
The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London WC1E 7HU, UK
Interests: anatomic, comparative, and diagnostic pathology; dermatopathology; ocular pathology; domestic and laboratory animals; exotic, zoo and wildlife pathology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Science, Universitat de Lleida, 25198 Lleida, Spain
Interests: comparative neuropathology; neuromuscular diseases; neuro-oncology; veterinary neuropathology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Veterinary pathologists are at the forefront of fighting diseases in all species and have a fundamental role in the discovery of emerging diseases that affect both humans and nonhuman animals, more evident than ever today in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Veterinary pathologists respond diligently and with leadership to the changing needs within their remit of knowledge through continuous education and active interactions with other disciplines. Identifying and characterizing the alterations that appear in known or emerging diseases is a fundamental part of our daily work. 

In this Special Issue on “Advances in Veterinary Pathology” of Animals, we aim to present state-of-the-art research and future directions on the pathology of diseases in domestic animals, laboratory animals and wildlife species. We encourage the submission of original research, reviews, case series or unique case reports focusing on recent advances in veterinary pathology diagnostics, new and emerging diseases, the molecular pathology and biology of animal diseases, the assessment of biomarkers in anatomic and clinical pathology practice, and the use of genomics for understanding and classifying animal diseases, as well as experimental studies enhancing the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of specific processes or the host immune response. Comparative pathology, translational research, and the development and application of software in digital pathology are also welcome.

This Special Issue will expand our current knowledge on the veterinary pathology of domestic, laboratory and wild animals, advancing new information on several aspects in a joint effort of veterinary clinicians, pathologists and other researchers.

Dr. Gustavo A. Ramirez
Dr. Alejandro Suárez-Bonnet
Dr. Jéssica Molín
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pathology
  • emerging
  • biomarkers
  • pathogenesis
  • digital pathology
  • one health

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 3734 KiB  
Article
Goats Naturally Infected with the Spanish Goat Encephalitis Virus (SGEV): Pathological Features and An Outbreak
by Ana Balseiro, Claudia Pérez-Martínez, Mark P. Dagleish, Luis J. Royo, Laura Polledo and Juan F. García Marín
Animals 2023, 13(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13010072 - 24 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1578
Abstract
In autumn 2011, a disease outbreak caused by Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV) was reported in a herd of goats from Asturias (north-western Spain), expanding the known geographic distribution of tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. The virus was classified as a new subtype (subspecies) [...] Read more.
In autumn 2011, a disease outbreak caused by Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV) was reported in a herd of goats from Asturias (north-western Spain), expanding the known geographic distribution of tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. The virus was classified as a new subtype (subspecies) within the Louping-ill virus species of the mammalian tick-borne flavivirus group. The aims of the present study were to describe the pathology in goats naturally infected with SGEV, as well as discuss the pathogenesis of the disease in that outbreak. A total of 22/85 (25.88%) goats (20 adults and 2 kids) died between October 2011 and June 2012, showing neurological clinical signs. Over three years, the mortality rate in the herd reached 100%. Neuropathological lesions caused by SGEV were severe and widespread throughout the central nervous system but were more severe and numerous in the proximal cervical spinal cord, medulla oblongata, pons and cerebellar cortex. They consisted of neuron necrosis, neuronophagia, mononuclear inflammatory cell perivascular cuffs (lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages) and gliosis. The distribution of viral antigens was restricted to the cytoplasm of neurons in several brain areas but not associated with inflammatory foci nor inflammatory cells. SGEV should be considered a significant pathogen of goats that results in severe neurological clinical disease and high mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Pathology)
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11 pages, 1227 KiB  
Article
Renal Lesions in Horses with Oleander (Nerium oleander) Poisoning
by Chelsea A. Sykes, Francisco A. Uzal, Aslı Mete, Jennine Ochoa, Michael Filigenzi, Robert H. Poppenga and Javier Asin
Animals 2022, 12(11), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111443 - 3 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
A presumptive postmortem diagnosis of oleander (Nerium oleander) poisoning is made based on the histological observation of cardiomyocyte degeneration and necrosis, which is considered to be a reliable diagnostic marker, and can be confirmed via the detection of oleandrin in tissues [...] Read more.
A presumptive postmortem diagnosis of oleander (Nerium oleander) poisoning is made based on the histological observation of cardiomyocyte degeneration and necrosis, which is considered to be a reliable diagnostic marker, and can be confirmed via the detection of oleandrin in tissues or fluids. However, cardiac lesions may not be present in every case, and autolysis can often preclude the identification of subtle changes in the cardiomyocytes. Several studies of experimental oleander poisoning have noted the presence of renal lesions in multiple mammalian species, and case studies of accidental exposure have found similar, although more variably severe, renal abnormalities. Kidney pathology in horses with oleander poisoning has been only briefly mentioned. In this study, we reviewed 21 cases of spontaneous oleander poisoning in horses, evaluated the kidneys microscopically, and compared the renal microscopic lesions with those detected in 10 horses that died or were euthanized due to other causes to assess if histological renal changes could serve as an additional diagnostic marker for oleander poisoning in horses. We found that microscopic renal lesions, principally mild to moderate tubular changes such as hyaline cast formation, neutrophilic casts, epithelial attenuation and necrosis, as well as mineralization and congestion, occur in horses with oleander poisoning. Most of these changes match the descriptions of lesions previously noted in other species, although with less frequency and severity. Similar lesions were found in horses that died spontaneously due to different causes or were euthanized. We concluded that microscopic renal lesions may be detected in horses with oleander poisoning but they cannot be used as a diagnostic marker that allows differentiation from other disease processes or causes of death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Pathology)
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17 pages, 8734 KiB  
Article
Pathological Findings in African Pygmy Hedgehogs Admitted into a Portuguese Rehabilitation Center
by Gabriela Fernandes Silva, Alexandra Rêma, Sílvia Teixeira, Maria dos Anjos Pires, Marian Taulescu and Irina Amorim
Animals 2022, 12(11), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111361 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3470
Abstract
Most of the pathologies that affect hedgehogs are diagnosed postmortem; thus, it is essential to share knowledge between clinicians and pathologists in order to recognize predispositions to diseases and to establish adequate diagnostic and therapeutic plans. This study aimed to describe the most [...] Read more.
Most of the pathologies that affect hedgehogs are diagnosed postmortem; thus, it is essential to share knowledge between clinicians and pathologists in order to recognize predispositions to diseases and to establish adequate diagnostic and therapeutic plans. This study aimed to describe the most relevant postmortem pathological conditions in a group of six rescued African pygmy hedgehogs, performed over a period of four months. Hedgehogs were submitted to necropsy examinations and subsequent histopathological analyses. Microscopically, all the studied hedgehogs revealed alterations in one or more organ systems. Although a significant and diverse number of pathological conditions were obtained, this study focused on less common or more relevant pathologies found in African pygmy hedgehogs—namely, wobbly hedgehog syndrome, squamous cell carcinoma and mast cell tumors. Furthermore, this study constitutes the first report of Mycobacterium spp. in hedgehogs in Portugal, the second report of follicular thyroid carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog, the description of a lipoid pneumonia for the first time in this species and a lung adenocarcinoma—a pathology rarely reported in African pygmy hedgehogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Pathology)
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16 pages, 2738 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Study of Clinical and Histopathological Features of 81 Cases of Canine Apocrine Gland Adenocarcinoma of the Anal Sac: Independent Clinical and Histopathological Risk Factors Associated with Outcome
by Hannah Wong, Stephanie Byrne, Roberta Rasotto, Randi Drees, Angela Taylor, Simon L. Priestnall and Chiara Leo
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113327 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4587
Abstract
Canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASAC) is a malignant tumour with variable clinical progression. The objective of this study was to use robust multivariate models, based on models employed in human medical oncology, to establish clinical and histopathological risk factors of poor [...] Read more.
Canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASAC) is a malignant tumour with variable clinical progression. The objective of this study was to use robust multivariate models, based on models employed in human medical oncology, to establish clinical and histopathological risk factors of poor survival. Clinical data and imaging of 81 cases with AGASAC were reviewed. Tissue was available for histological review and immunohistochemistry in 49 cases. Tumour and lymph node size were determined using the response evaluation criteria in the solid tumours system (RECIST). Modelling revealed tumour size over 2 cm, lymph node size grouped in three tiers by the two thresholds 1.6 cm and 5 cm, surgical management, and radiotherapy were independent clinical variables associated with survival, irrespective of tumour stage. Tumour size over 1.3 cm and presence of distant metastasis were independent clinical variables associated with the first progression-free interval. The presence of the histopathological variables of tumour necrosis, a solid histological pattern, and vascular invasion in the primary tumour were independent risk factors of poor survival. Based upon these independent risk factors, scoring algorithms to predict survival in AGASAC patients are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Pathology)
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13 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Concordance of the Histopathologic Diagnosis of Concurrent Duodenal and Ileal Biopsy Specimens in Dogs
by Sarah Caulfield, Simon L. Priestnall and Aarti Kathrani
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2938; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102938 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
Histopathologic discordance between gastrointestinal (GI) locations in canine chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE) has prompted recommendations to biopsy both the duodenum and ileum, while further evaluation is required for non-CIE. We aimed to determine the concordance of histopathologic diagnosis between duodenal and ileal endoscopic [...] Read more.
Histopathologic discordance between gastrointestinal (GI) locations in canine chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE) has prompted recommendations to biopsy both the duodenum and ileum, while further evaluation is required for non-CIE. We aimed to determine the concordance of histopathologic diagnosis between duodenal and ileal endoscopic or full-thickness biopsy specimens for all dogs with CIE and GI neoplasia and to assess the association between histopathologic discordance between GI locations with clinicopathologic variables. Seventy-nine dogs were eligible, with endoscopic (74) or full-thickness (5) biopsy specimens. Clinicopathological data were recorded for all dogs. Concordance of histopathologic diagnosis was retrospectively assessed for concurrent duodenal and ileal biopsy specimens by a single board-certified veterinary pathologist using the modified World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Gastrointestinal Standardization Group guidelines. Sixty-seven dogs were diagnosed with CIE and 5 with enteric-associated T-cell lymphoma-2 (EATL-2). Concordance of histologic diagnosis between duodenal and ileal sites was similar between endoscopic (73.0%) and full-thickness (80.0%) biopsy groups. For the CIE cases, lymphoplasmacytic enteritis had the highest concordance (73.0%) and eosinophilic enteritis the least (16.7%). Of the 5 neoplastic cases, 5/5 (100%) were present at the duodenum but only 3/5 (60%) in the ileum. No clinicopathologic variables demonstrated a statistically significant association with discordance. We conclude that the level of discordance necessitates concurrent biopsy of both duodenum and ileum in all dogs with chronic GI signs. The rate of EATL-2 was lower than rates reported for cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Pathology)

Review

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12 pages, 2239 KiB  
Review
Feline Soft Tissue Sarcomas: A Review of the Classification and Histological Grading, with Comparison to Human and Canine
by Melanie Dobromylskyj
Animals 2022, 12(20), 2736; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12202736 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4212
Abstract
Soft tissue sarcomas are one of the most commonly diagnosed tumours arising in the skin and subcutis of our domestic cats, and are malignant neoplasms with a range of histological presentations and potential biological behaviours. However, unlike their canine and human counterparts, there [...] Read more.
Soft tissue sarcomas are one of the most commonly diagnosed tumours arising in the skin and subcutis of our domestic cats, and are malignant neoplasms with a range of histological presentations and potential biological behaviours. However, unlike their canine and human counterparts, there is no well-established histological grading system for pathologists to apply to these tumours, in order to provide a more accurate and refined prognosis. The situation is further complicated by the presence of feline injection site sarcomas as an entity, as well as confusion over terminology for this group of tumours and which histological types should be included. There is also an absence of large scale studies. This review looks at these tumours in domestic cats, their classification and histological grading, with comparisons to the human and canine grading system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Pathology)
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