Advances in Ruminants Disease Prevention and Control

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2024) | Viewed by 12004

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Professor of Animal Science, Small Animal Research Facility, College of Agriculture, Environmental & Human Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, 1220 Chestnut Street, Jefferson City, MO 65012, USA
Interests: ruminant disease; parasites in ruminants; infectious disease detection; laminitis and foot rot outbreak monitoring; genetic marker-assisted selection
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Small and large ruminants are main domestic animal species for meat, milk and fiber production and consumption on world-wide scales. There are various diseases inflected by viral, bacterial, fungal, and internal or external parasitic pathogens in ruminants, which impede livestock production, product supply and safety. Therefore, an advancement in investigation, development and implantation of disease control and prevention in ruminant species are critical for animal welfare, health, production and food safety. This special issue will focus and update on disease control and prevention system and technologies developed effectively in ruminant species including sheep, goat, cattle, camel, camelid, and farmed deer. These articles required to be specific to deal topic of a disease or pathogen, such as Johne’s disease, mastitis, brucellosis, laminitis and helminthiasis that effect animal health or impede production, and /or specific livestock species. New biotechnology, flock or herd health surveillance, rapid or real-time diagnostic methodology and systematic evaluation studies also be considered for publication. However, there were no limit for any scope or size of the research and studies, which can be either of a significance in state, region, country or world scale. All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process.

Dr. Tumen Wuliji
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ruminants
  • sheep
  • goat
  • cattle
  • camelid
  • farmed deer
  • diseases
  • pathogen

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1882 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Autophagy in Damaged Laminar Tissue of Acute Laminitis Induced by Oligofructose Overloading in Dairy Cows
by Muhammad Abid Hayat, Jiafeng Ding, Xianhao Zhang, Tao Liu, Jiantao Zhang, Shehla Gul Bokhari, Hamid Akbar and Hongbin Wang
Animals 2023, 13(15), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13152478 - 31 Jul 2023
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Abstract
This study was aimed at determining the autophagy activity in the laminar tissue of dairy cows with oligofructose-induced laminitis. Twelve healthy non-pregnant Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of six cows each, entitled the control group and the oligofructose overload group [...] Read more.
This study was aimed at determining the autophagy activity in the laminar tissue of dairy cows with oligofructose-induced laminitis. Twelve healthy non-pregnant Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of six cows each, entitled the control group and the oligofructose overload group (OF group), respectively. At 0 h, cows in the OF group were gavaged with oligofructose (17 g/kg BW) dissolved in warm deionized water (20 mL/kg BW) through an oral rumen tube, and the dairy cows in the control group were gavaged with the same volume of deionized water by the same method. At −72 h before, as well as 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, 60 h, and 72 h after perfusion, clinical evaluations of both groups were monitored. After 72 h, the laminar tissues of the dairy cows in both groups were collected to examine the genes and proteins. The gene expression of ATG5, ATG12, and Beclin1 significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas that of P62 and mTOR significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the OF group relative to the control group. The protein expression of Beclin-1 significantly increased (p < 0.05), while that of LC3II significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the OF group relative to the control group. However, the protein expression of P62 non-significantly reduced (p > 0.05) in the OF group comparative to the control group. Furthermore, the distribution of the Beclin1 protein in the laminar tissue significantly increased (p < 0.01), while that of the P62 protein significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the OF group than the control group. These findings indicate that the imbalanced gene and protein-level status of autophagy-related markers may be the basic cause for the failure of the epidermal attachment. However, a more detailed gene and protein-level study is needed to further clarify the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of bovine laminitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ruminants Disease Prevention and Control)
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14 pages, 1837 KiB  
Article
Variations in the Physical Properties and Microbial Community of Dairy Cow Manure—Implications for Testing and Efficacy of Footbathing Products
by Maeve A. Palmer, Martin J. Garland, Linda D. Stewart, Sarah J. Helyar and Niamh E. O’Connell
Animals 2023, 13(14), 2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13142386 - 22 Jul 2023
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Abstract
Footbaths containing disinfectants are used on dairy farms to reduce the spread of digital dermatitis; however, they commonly become contaminated with manure. This trial investigated the physical properties and microbial composition of dairy cow manure from two production systems and examined whether the [...] Read more.
Footbaths containing disinfectants are used on dairy farms to reduce the spread of digital dermatitis; however, they commonly become contaminated with manure. This trial investigated the physical properties and microbial composition of dairy cow manure from two production systems and examined whether the source of manure impacted the efficacy of footbathing disinfectants. Manure was collected from eighteen dairy cows, nine housed and fed grass silage (HOUSED) and nine at pasture (PASTURE). The pH and dry matter content was determined, total DNA was extracted and the region v3-v4 of the 16s rRNA gene sequenced. The efficacy of formalin and two trial products (TP1: peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide; TP2: chlorocresol and triamine) was evaluated when mixed with manure from the two production systems. Production system differences were found in manure dry matter content, bacterial microbiome and the efficacy of both trial footbathing products but not formalin. The properties of manure affected the results of laboratory testing and therefore have the potential to influence footbathing disinfectant efficacy when footbaths are contaminated with manure. Further research into the impact of organic contaminants on the efficacy of disinfectants could facilitate the development of improved testing programmes and disinfectant products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ruminants Disease Prevention and Control)
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11 pages, 6302 KiB  
Communication
A Postmortem Case Study—An Analysis of microRNA Patterns in a Korean Native Male Calf (Bos taurus coreanae) That Died of Fat Necrosis
by Sang-Joon Lee, Ho-Seong Cho, Sanghyun Noh, Young Hun Kim, Hwi-Won Seo and Yeonsu Oh
Animals 2023, 13(13), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13132149 - 29 Jun 2023
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Abstract
Korean native cattle are highly valued for their rich marbling and flavor. Nonetheless, endeavors to enhance marbling levels can result in obesity, a prevalent contributor to fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is characterized by the formation of necrotic fat masses in the abdominal cavity, [...] Read more.
Korean native cattle are highly valued for their rich marbling and flavor. Nonetheless, endeavors to enhance marbling levels can result in obesity, a prevalent contributor to fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is characterized by the formation of necrotic fat masses in the abdominal cavity, which physically puts pressure on affected organs, causing physical torsion or obstruction, resulting in death and consequent economic loss. Pancreatic injuries or diabetes mellitus were reported as factors of fat necrosis in humans; however, the pathogenesis in animals has not been established. In this study, we identified fat necrosis in a 6-month-old Korean native cow and investigated its potential underlying causes. Serum samples were utilized for a microarray analysis of bovine miRNA. Comparative examination of miRNA expression levels between cattle afflicted with fat necrosis and healthy cattle unveiled notable variances in 24 miRNAs, such as bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-29a, bta-miR-30a-5p and bta-miR-181a. Upon conducting miRNA-mediated KEGG pathway analysis, several pathways including the prolactin signal pathway, insulin resistance, autophagy, the insulin-signaling pathway and the FoxO-signaling pathway were found to be significantly enriched in the calf affected by fat necrosis. As a result, this study potentially indicates a potential connection between fat necrosis and diabetes in Korean native cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ruminants Disease Prevention and Control)
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8 pages, 2129 KiB  
Communication
Leucoderma in Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the Amazon Biome
by José Diomedes Barbosa, Bruno Igor de Oliveira Possidonio, Janayna Barroso dos Santos, Hanna Gabriela da Silva Oliveira, Ananda Iara de Jesus Sousa, Camila Cordeiro Barbosa, Edsel Alves Beuttemmuller, Natália da Silva e Silva Silveira, Marilene Farias Brito and Felipe Masiero Salvarani
Animals 2023, 13(10), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13101665 - 17 May 2023
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Abstract
Leucoderma is a condition that affects the skin and hair of animals, causing depigmentation and acromotrichia. In buffaloes, this condition results in significant economic losses for the production chain due to its impact on the leather trade. This study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Leucoderma is a condition that affects the skin and hair of animals, causing depigmentation and acromotrichia. In buffaloes, this condition results in significant economic losses for the production chain due to its impact on the leather trade. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinicopathological aspects of leucoderma in buffaloes in the Amazon biome and describe the prophylactic treatment to control the disease. The study included 40 buffaloes, 16 males and 24 females, aged between 1 and 10 years, and were of the Murrah, Jafarabadi, Mediterranean, and Murrah × Mediterranean crossbreed breeds. The animals were raised without mineral supplementation. The clinical signs observed in the animals included acromotrichia and depigmentation, with varying degrees and distribution of skin lesions. Histological examination of the epidermis showed interrupted melanin production, mild dermal fibrosis, mild perivascular mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate, and pigmentary incontinence. None of the animals had the genotype for albinism. After 120 days of mineral supplementation based on the use of copper sulfate, the clinical signs of leucoderma regressed. There was no predisposition by breed, sex, or age for the occurrence of the disease. The regression of skin lesions after proper mineral supplementation suggests that copper deficiency may be considered an important factor for the occurrence of leucoderma in buffaloes in the Amazon biome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ruminants Disease Prevention and Control)
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Review

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20 pages, 389 KiB  
Review
A Literature Review of Selected Bacterial Diseases in Alpacas and Llamas—Epidemiology, Clinical Signs and Diagnostics
by Kacper Konieczny and Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól
Animals 2024, 14(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14010045 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
The breeding of South American Camelids (SACs), particularly llamas and alpacas, is becoming increasingly popular in regions that are not their natural habitat, including Europe. These animals are considered to be relatively disease resistant. However, due to their growing popularity, special attention should [...] Read more.
The breeding of South American Camelids (SACs), particularly llamas and alpacas, is becoming increasingly popular in regions that are not their natural habitat, including Europe. These animals are considered to be relatively disease resistant. However, due to their growing popularity, special attention should be given to infections in llamas and alpacas. Knowledge of bacterial infections is very important to veterinarians and breeders. Many of these diseases also have zoonotic potential, so these animals must be considered as sources of potential zoonotic infections. Due to the limited information on many diseases occurring in llamas and alpacas, veterinarians often rely on data collected in other animal species, focusing on cattle, sheep and horses. This work aims to summarise the knowledge of diseases caused by Clostridium spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Manheimia haemolytica and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in llamas and alpacas, with particular attention to epidemiology, clinical signs and diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ruminants Disease Prevention and Control)

Other

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10 pages, 1750 KiB  
Case Report
Investigation and Management of an Outbreak of Lead Intoxication in an Extensively Managed Beef Herd
by Meghan M. Scrivens, David Frith, Ben Wood, Brian Burren, Andrew J. Doust and Michael R. McGowan
Animals 2023, 13(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13010174 - 02 Jan 2023
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Abstract
Fifteen hundred 12–15-month-old tropically adapted heifers inadvertently grazed a paddock which had a refuse dump in it containing burnt out vehicle batteries. The cattle grazed this paddock for approximately seven days. Subsequently these cattle were managed as two cohorts (cull and potential replacement [...] Read more.
Fifteen hundred 12–15-month-old tropically adapted heifers inadvertently grazed a paddock which had a refuse dump in it containing burnt out vehicle batteries. The cattle grazed this paddock for approximately seven days. Subsequently these cattle were managed as two cohorts (cull and potential replacement breeding animals). Deaths commenced in the cull heifer group approximately 18 days after initial exposure to the refuse dump during relocation to a feedlot. Mortalities continued for 12 days, with other heifers showing clinical signs of marked central nervous system dysfunction requiring euthanasia. Necropsy of several clinically affected cattle plus blood sampling for lead analysis confirmed a diagnosis of lead intoxication. The crude mortality rate in the cull heifers was 6.6% (n = 685). Following confirmation of the diagnosis most of the potential replacement heifers (second cohort) were also relocated to the feedlot. The estimated crude mortality rate in this cohort was 5.8% (n = 815). All possible lead intoxication deaths occurred within 34 days of initial exposure, and apparently after day 16 at the feedlot no further heifers showed any clinical signs which could be attributed to lead intoxication. Longitudinal monitoring of blood lead concentrations was used to identify cattle suitable for slaughter. Overall, 70% of heifers initially blood sampled (n = 1408) had no detectable lead in their blood, however 16% had markedly elevated blood lead concentrations (> 0.7µmol/L) which persisted, and 2% had above the maximum normal threshold 1.5 years later. These latter cattle were subsequently euthanized, and necropsy revealed that visible pieces of lead were still present in the reticulum of several animals. At no time did any of these heifers with persistently high blood lead concentrations show clinical signs of lead intoxication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ruminants Disease Prevention and Control)
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8 pages, 872 KiB  
Case Report
A Case Study of Photosensitivity Associated with Anaplasma spp. Infection in Cattle
by Alina Anton and Gheorghe Solcan
Animals 2022, 12(24), 3568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12243568 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3352
Abstract
Anaplasma infection has not previously been reported as a cause of photosensitization. This case presents a five-year-old Holstein cow in her fifth month of gestation with skin injury of nonpigmented areas clearly delimited from adjacent unaffected pigmented skin. Specific lesions included alopecia, localized [...] Read more.
Anaplasma infection has not previously been reported as a cause of photosensitization. This case presents a five-year-old Holstein cow in her fifth month of gestation with skin injury of nonpigmented areas clearly delimited from adjacent unaffected pigmented skin. Specific lesions included alopecia, localized oedema, desquamation erythema, serous exudation, thick detached skin, fissures, crusting, and necrosis, indicating photodermatitis. Hematological abnormalities were leukocytosis with neutrophilia and normocytic hypochromic anemia. Based on a hemoparasitic examination of blood smears, the organism Anaplasma spp. was observed within the red blood cells. Biochemical analyses revealed increased serum liver enzyme activity associated with hepatocellular damage and cholestasis. This cow was RT-PCR positive for Anaplasma spp. infection. After treatment with oxytetracycline started, its condition improved within 24 h, and it recovered completely within 30 days. In this case, the underlying pathogenic mechanism of Anaplasma spp. infection facilitated the impairment of bile flow and liver function, resulting in hepatogenous photosensitization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ruminants Disease Prevention and Control)
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