Advances in Diagnostic and Treatment Methods for Joint Diseases in Dogs and Cats

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 25304

Special Issue Editors


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Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80137 Naples, Italy
Interests: general surgery; orthopedic and neurosurgery; small animal; ruminants
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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via F. Delpino 1, 80137 Naples, Italy
Interests: animal and comparative pathology; cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis; metabolic flexibility in veterinary oncology; bovine and buffalo mastitis

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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Parma, Via del Taglio, 8, I-43126 Parma, Italy
Interests: canine and feline orthopedics; fracture and joint surgery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Joint pathologies represent the most frequent cause of lameness in dogs and cats; sometimes, physical disabilities in dogs and cats, even at a young age, risk being the reason for owners resorting to extreme actions.

The reasons for the spread of these diseases are often connected to a selection, based on phenotypic aspects, which aims to search for accentuated aesthetic peculiarities without paying any attention to potentially correlated pathologies.

For many joint diseases, early diagnosis and treatment represent one of the most successful solutions, making the disease compatible with an acceptable quality of life for the patient.

Currently, the development of an adequate clinical sensitivity and the availability of advanced diagnostic tools make it possible to identify articular pathological conditions with sufficient precocity, which are otherwise destined to an evolution with devastating and irreversible effects on normal functioning.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to collect innovative scientific contributions related to clinical and instrumental diagnostics and techniques for treating joint diseases in dogs and cats.

Prof. Dr. Gerardo Fatone
Prof. Dr. Brunella Restucci
Prof. Dr. Filippo Maria Martini 
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • dog
  • cat
  • joint
  • osteoarthrosis
  • osteoarthritis
  • orthopedic disease
  • lameness

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 16086 KiB  
Article
A 3D Printed Anatomically Pre-Contoured Plate for the Treatment of Y-T Humeral Condylar Fractures: A Feline Cadaveric Study
by Piotr Trębacz, Jan Frymus, Anna Barteczko, Mateusz Pawlik, Aleksandra Kurkowska and Michał Czopowicz
Animals 2024, 14(4), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14040537 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 541
Abstract
(1) Background: Anatomically pre-contoured plates usually require only minimal or even no intraoperative contouring. For complex cases, such plates also assist the surgeon as an anatomical template during fracture reduction. In this study, we present our experience of using a 3D printing technology [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Anatomically pre-contoured plates usually require only minimal or even no intraoperative contouring. For complex cases, such plates also assist the surgeon as an anatomical template during fracture reduction. In this study, we present our experience of using a 3D printing technology for the treatment of bicondylar humeral fractures in feline cadavers. (2) Methods: Surgeries were performed on 15 pairs of front limbs amputated at the scapula. The limbs were obtained from 15 adult cats without obvious pathology of the skeleton. After flexion of the elbow and subperiosteal elevation of the anconeus muscle, the humeral Y-T fractures were created using a bone chisel and mallet. A custom-made anatomically pre-contoured interlocking plate was used to reduce and stabilise the medial aspect of the humeral condyle to the humeral diaphysis. After reduction of the humeral condyle, a positional locking screw was then inserted from the medial to the lateral side and a straight 2.4/2.7 interlocking bone plate was used to stabilise the lateral part of the condyle to the humeral diaphysis. (3) Results: The length of the humerus ranged from 98.2 to 107.0 mm and did not differ significantly between the left and right bone. The diameter of the isthmus of the humeral condyle ranged from 5.2 to 5.5 mm and did not differ significantly between the left and right bone. In all 30 limbs, bicondylar fracture was accompanied by epicondylar comminution. In 7/30 limbs (4 left, 3 right) the fracture of the humeral shaft was also present. In the left limbs, the postoperative articular surface defect of the humeral condyle was small (<1 mm) in 11/15 cases, moderate (1–2 mm) in 2/15 cases and large (>2 mm) in 2/15 cases in which the condylar screw was incorrectly inserted. In the right limbs, the postoperative articular surface defect of the humeral condyle was small (<1 mm) in 14/15 cases and moderate (1–2 mm) in 1 case. (4) Conclusions: 3D printing and the technology of metal powder sintering offers a wide range of possibilities for the development of new surgical implants. The anatomically pre-contoured bone plate appears to be a valuable tool in the reduction and stabilisation of Y-T humeral fractures in adult domestic cats weighing 3.0 to 4.5 kg. Full article
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16 pages, 1939 KiB  
Article
Dogs with Bilateral Medial Coronoid Disease Can Be Clinically Sound after Unilateral Arthroscopic Fragment Removal—Preliminary Study
by Sophia Seidler, Johannes Siedenburg, Michaela Rhode, Holger A. Volk and Oliver Harms
Animals 2023, 13(24), 3803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243803 - 09 Dec 2023
Viewed by 987
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of dogs with bilateral medial coronoid disease (MCD) treated with arthroscopic intervention for the clinically more severely affected side and conservative management for the contralateral side. The medical records of dogs with bilateral [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of dogs with bilateral medial coronoid disease (MCD) treated with arthroscopic intervention for the clinically more severely affected side and conservative management for the contralateral side. The medical records of dogs with bilateral medial coronoid disease diagnosed using computed tomography (CT) and treated using arthroscopic intervention on one elbow and conservative management on the other elbow were retrospectively reviewed. The outcome evaluation included clinical re-examination; follow-up radiographic-visible osteophytic lesions; as well as sclerotic changes and Liverpool osteoarthritis in a dogs questionnaire. Data from 48 clinically affected elbow joints (24 dogs) with bilateral MCD diagnosed using CT were included. Every dog underwent arthroscopic intervention on the elbow joint, which was clinically more severely affected, and the other side was treated with conservative management. A fragment of the medial coronoid was diagnosed using CT in all elbows, whereas 19 elbows (39.4%) showed a dislocation of the fragment and the other 29 elbows (60.4%) did not. There are no findings regarding the radioulnar Incongruence. Initially, 86% of all radiographs had the same degree of osteophytes. At the time of follow-up, the arthroscopic-treated limbs had more severe radiological changes in comparison to the conservatively treated limbs. Lameness improved after arthroscopic therapy in walking. The conservative group showed a largely unchanged gait pattern. Radiological changes do not necessarily reflect the severity of clinical signs. Arthroscopic intervention showed an improvement of the clinical gait pattern, even though the radiographic changes worsened. Full article
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10 pages, 972 KiB  
Article
Multiparametric Comparison of Two TTA-Based Surgical Techniques in Dogs with Cranial Cruciate Ligament Tears
by Pedro Figueirinhas, José Manuel Gonzalo-Orden, Oliver Rodriguez, Marta Regueiro-Purriños, Ivan Prada, José Manuel Vilar and José Rodríguez-Altónaga
Animals 2023, 13(22), 3453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13223453 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 915
Abstract
Tearing of the cranial cruciate ligament causes hindlimb lameness in dogs. Different surgical procedures have been proposed to treat this condition. In this study, two different TTA-based techniques and implants were compared. A total of 30 dogs were separated into two groups according [...] Read more.
Tearing of the cranial cruciate ligament causes hindlimb lameness in dogs. Different surgical procedures have been proposed to treat this condition. In this study, two different TTA-based techniques and implants were compared. A total of 30 dogs were separated into two groups according to the technique and implant used (Porous TTA® or Model Xgen®). The aim of the study was to assess whether one of these techniques has better functional recovery of the joint, better bone consolidation after the osteotomy procedure and fewer osteoarthritic changes. We compared both groups up to 3 months after surgery. No significant differences were found in any of the assessed parameters. Thus, both procedures were found to be equally effective and safe. Full article
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11 pages, 1071 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Two Preoperative Radiographic Methods for Assessing Tibial Tuberosity Advancement to Achieve a Postoperative Patella Tendon Angle of 90° in Dogs
by Federica Aragosa, Giovanni Della Valle, Chiara Caterino, Barbara Lamagna, Sara Buonocore, Francesco Lamagna and Gerardo Fatone
Animals 2023, 13(14), 2310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13142310 - 14 Jul 2023
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Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that the preoperative methods used to plan tibial tuberosity advancement in dogs may result in under-advancement. Therefore, this cadaveric study compared the effectiveness of the common tangent method and the tibial-anatomy-based method for achieving a target patellar tendon angle [...] Read more.
Previous studies have suggested that the preoperative methods used to plan tibial tuberosity advancement in dogs may result in under-advancement. Therefore, this cadaveric study compared the effectiveness of the common tangent method and the tibial-anatomy-based method for achieving a target patellar tendon angle (PTA) of 90° after the modified Maquet procedure. Twenty stifle joints of mesomorphic dogs were randomly assigned to the two measurement methods. Radiographs taken in the mediolateral projection were used to measure tibial tuberosity advancement, and the wedge size was selected accordingly. For each surgical procedure, a custom-made three-dimensional wedge matched to an OrthoFoam wedge was used as a spacer. Postoperative radiographs were used to measure the PTA and to evaluate the position of the wedge. The measured advancement was not significantly different between the two methods. For 60% of the cases, the advancement measured using the common tangent method was <5.3 mm and the wedge size was increased to match that of commercially available wedges. Consequently, there was a significant difference between the measurements and wedges selected between the two procedures. The postoperative PTA did not differ significantly between the two methods and was 90° ± 5° in 80% of the stifles. The position of the wedge relative to the osteotomy was not significantly different between the methods. In conclusion, the advancement determined using the tibial-anatomy-based method was generally consistent with the size of commercially available wedges, and the method yielded a mean postoperative PTA of 90°. Full article
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13 pages, 1893 KiB  
Article
Effects of Autologous Microfragmented Adipose Tissue on Healing of Tibial Plateau Levelling Osteotomies in Dogs: A Prospective Clinical Trial
by Luca Pennasilico, Caterina Di Bella, Sara Sassaroli, Alberto Salvaggio, Francesco Roggiolani and Angela Palumbo Piccionello
Animals 2023, 13(13), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13132084 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of autologous microfragmented adipose tissue (MFAT) applied after mechanical fragmentation and assess these effects radiographically in bone healing in dogs subjected to tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). Twenty dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of autologous microfragmented adipose tissue (MFAT) applied after mechanical fragmentation and assess these effects radiographically in bone healing in dogs subjected to tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). Twenty dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease were enrolled and randomly assigned to the treatment group (MFAT) or the control group (NT). The MFAT group underwent TPLO and autologous MFAT intra-articular administration, while the NT group underwent TPLO alone. Adipose tissue was collected from the thigh region, and MFAT was obtained by mechanical fragmentation at the end of the surgery. The patients were subjected to X-ray examination preoperatively, immediately postoperatively (T0), and at 4 (T1) and 8 (T2) weeks postoperatively. Two radiographic scores that had previously been described for the evaluation of bone healing after TPLO were used. A 12-point scoring system (from 0 = no healing to 12 = complete remodelling) was used at T0, T1, and T2, while a 5-point scoring system (from 0 = no healing to 4 = 76–100% of healing) was used at T1 and T2. The median healing scores were significantly higher at T1 and T2 for the MFAT group compared with the NT group for the 12-point (p < 0.05) and 5-point (p < 0.05) scoring systems. The intra-articular injection of autologous microfragmented adipose tissue can accelerate bone healing after TPLO without complications. Full article
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9 pages, 211 KiB  
Article
Internet-Based Survey on Physical Activity and Incidence of Injury in Active Working Dogs
by Giuseppe Spinella, Simona Valentini and Mirella Lopedote
Animals 2023, 13(10), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13101647 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
A survey with 100 multiple choice and open-ended questions was proposed by free access to working dogs’ handlers. One hundred and nine respondents were recorded and their dates processed. The most represented breeds were: Belgian Malinois, Labrador, Border Collie and German Shepherds. Of [...] Read more.
A survey with 100 multiple choice and open-ended questions was proposed by free access to working dogs’ handlers. One hundred and nine respondents were recorded and their dates processed. The most represented breeds were: Belgian Malinois, Labrador, Border Collie and German Shepherds. Of these, 71.6% were intact dogs and 28.4% were spayed or neutered, with a median age range of 3–4 years. Furthermore, 55.5% had undergone early radiographic examinations for hip or elbow dysplasia diagnosis. The dogs performed the following activities: search and rescue on surface (59%), search and rescue on rubble (37%), Internationale Gebrauchshund Pruefung (IGP) (9%), man trailing (5%), sled dog (5%), search on avalanche (4%), dog towing (3%), canine shows (3%), hunting (2%), water rescue (1%), pet therapy (1%), wildlife conservation dog (1%), Mondioring (1%). Only 36.4% of respondents submitted their dogs to a specific sports medical examination and 55.5% to an orthopaedic examination. An injury incidence of 45.5% was recorded, generally related to mild musculoskeletal trauma. A limited number of handlers routinely performed warm-up and/or cool-down activities. A positive assessment emerged of the need for many respondents to attend and request education courses and updates on the proper health management of their dogs. Full article
16 pages, 11328 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Digital Radiography, Computed Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Canine Spontaneous Degenerative Stifle Joint Osteoarthritis
by Cheng-Shu Chung, Yi-Ju Tu and Lee-Shuan Lin
Animals 2023, 13(5), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13050849 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2747
Abstract
Canine stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by damage and degeneration of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone, bony hypertrophy at the margins, and synovial joint membrane changes. Non-invasive imaging modalities, such as digital radiography (DR), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging [...] Read more.
Canine stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by damage and degeneration of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone, bony hypertrophy at the margins, and synovial joint membrane changes. Non-invasive imaging modalities, such as digital radiography (DR), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can be used to describe these changes. However, the value of MRI in diagnosing spontaneous canine OA and the comparison of different imaging modalities have seldom been addressed. This study compared multiple noninvasive imaging modalities in canine spontaneous stifle OA cases. Four client-owned dogs with five spontaneously affected OA stifle joints were recruited and underwent DR, CT, and MRI. Information on osteophytes/enthesophytes, ligament/tendon lesions, synovial effusion and membrane thickening, subchondral bone lesions, and meniscal and cartilage lesions were scored and compared. The results showed that MRI provides the most comprehensive and superior lesion detection sensitivity for ligament, meniscus, cartilage, and synovial effusions. DR provides adequate bony structure information, while CT provides the most delicate images of bony structure lesions. These imaging findings may provide further understanding of the disease and help clinicians draft a more precise treatment plan. Full article
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15 pages, 3229 KiB  
Article
Surgical Treatment of Nonmineralized Supraspinatus Tendinopathy in Dogs: A Retrospective Long-Term Follow-Up
by Lisa Adele Piras, Matteo Olimpo, Pilar Lafuente, Anna Tomba, Sara Del Magno, Elena Lardone, Bruno Peirone and Davide Mancusi
Animals 2023, 13(4), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13040592 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2452
Abstract
(1) Background: two forms of supraspinatus tendinopathy (ST) have been reported in dogs: mineralized and non-mineralized. Surgical treatment consists of longitudinal incisions (splitting) in the tendon of insertion of the supraspinatus muscle. The purpose of this retrospective study is to describe the diagnostic [...] Read more.
(1) Background: two forms of supraspinatus tendinopathy (ST) have been reported in dogs: mineralized and non-mineralized. Surgical treatment consists of longitudinal incisions (splitting) in the tendon of insertion of the supraspinatus muscle. The purpose of this retrospective study is to describe the diagnostic workout, the surgical procedure and the short and long term follow up of dogs treated for non-mineralized ST. (2) Methods: medical records (2010–2017) of dogs diagnosed with non-mineralized ST that underwent surgical treatment were reviewed. Data retrieved were: signalment, history, clinical signs, orthopaedic examination findings, diagnostic imaging findings, surgical treatment, histopathologic diagnosis and clinical outcome. (3) Results: A total of 27 dogs met the inclusion criteria. The most consistent clinical findings were intermittent lameness accompanied by pain on palpation of the insertion of the supraspinatus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 27 shoulders distended sheaths of the biceps tendon (10/27), compression of the biceps brachii tendon sheaths (5/27) and enlargement of the supraspinatus tendon (3/27) were observed. The most prominent histologic finding was severe myxomatous degeneration in all 27 samples. Resolution of lameness was achieved in 80% of the cases surgically treated without any further lameness episodes in the long-term follow-up. (4) Conclusions: the surgical splitting of the non-mineralized supraspinatus tendon is an effective procedure with no intra-operative complications and a low incidence of minor (18%) and major (4%) complications. Full article
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10 pages, 2009 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Femur Positioning on Measurement of Tibial Plateau Angle: An In Vitro Study
by Alan Danielski, Miguel Angel Solano and Russell Yeadon
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233419 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
Five canine cadaveric pelvic limbs with intact cranial cruciate ligaments were used to quantify the effect of variation in limb positioning on the radiographic measurement of the tibial plateau angle (TPA) with reference to the degree of femoral condyle superimposition. Intra-osseous pin placement [...] Read more.
Five canine cadaveric pelvic limbs with intact cranial cruciate ligaments were used to quantify the effect of variation in limb positioning on the radiographic measurement of the tibial plateau angle (TPA) with reference to the degree of femoral condyle superimposition. Intra-osseous pin placement and a custom jig design allowed the controlled three-dimensional manipulation of limbs. Medio-lateral digital radiographic projections were taken with perfect femoral hemicondylar superimposition to establish a “reference” TPA (difference in position = 0 mm), and subsequently in varying degrees of supination/pronation and abduction/adduction. The lack of femoral hemicondylar superimposition for each radiograph was quantified using a tangential line technique with reference to the long tibial axis. A total of 176 radiographs were each assessed by three observers. “True” TPA was measured and it ranged within 17–25° across all limbs assessed. Variation in femoral condylar positioning ranged from −13 mm to +13 mm proximo-distally, and −11 mm to +11 mm cranio-caudally. Moreover, 3 mm non-superimposition of the femoral condyles produced 90.6% of measurements with 1° difference between measured and “true” TPA, and a sensitivity of 97.9% for a 2° difference. Further reduction in femoral condylar superimposition to 4 mm reduced the frequency of 1° difference between measured and “true” TPA to 84.9%, and to 94.8% for a 2° difference. In conclusion, measurement of TPA in large breed dogs from radiographs with greater than 3 mm variation in femoral condylar superimposition should be interpreted with caution. Full article
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11 pages, 1431 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Intra-Articular Blood Cell Secretome and Blood Cell Secretome with Triamcinolone Acetonide in Dogs with Osteoarthritis: A Crossover Study
by J. C. Alves, Ana Santos, Patrícia Jorge and L. Miguel Carreira
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3358; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233358 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a growing welfare problem for dogs and a challenge to manage for the clinician, and most therapeutic options aim to control pain. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-way, 2-period crossover study, we aimed to evaluate the use of Blood Cell [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a growing welfare problem for dogs and a challenge to manage for the clinician, and most therapeutic options aim to control pain. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-way, 2-period crossover study, we aimed to evaluate the use of Blood Cell Secretome (BCS) administrated intra-articularly, with or without the combination with triamcinolone, in dogs with bilateral hip OA. BCS is an acellular orthobiologic containing anti-inflammatory and anabolic proteins produced from the patient’s own blood through extended coagulation in a defined environment. Fifteen dogs were initially assigned to a BCS group (BCSG, n = 5), a triamcinolone group (TG, n = 5), or a combination group (BCS+TG, n = 5). All had bilateral hip OA. After a 180-day follow-up, the crossover was performed with BCSG (n = 7) and BCS+TG (n = 7). BCSG received a single intra-articular administration of 3 mL of Blood Cell Secretome, and BCS+TG received BCS plus 0.5 mL of triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/mL). The volume in BCSG was corrected to 3.5 mL with saline. In all patients, both hips were treated. For treatment follow-up, a copy of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (divided into pain interference score—PIS and Pain Severity Score—PSS), Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD), and Canine Orthopedic Index (COI, divided into function, gait, stiffness, and quality of life) was completed on days 0, 8, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180. Results were analyzed with the Mann–Whitney U test, effect size, and Kaplan–Meier estimators, followed by the log-rank test. p was set at <0.05. Patients of the sample had a mean age of 9.6 ± 2.9 years and a body weight of 29.2 ± 3.9 kg. Seven hips were classified as severe osteoarthritis, and eight were classified as moderate. No differences were found between groups at T0. Significant differences were observed in PSS scores at +8d, with BCS+TG exhibiting better results. PIS, PSS, LOAD, stiffness, and function scores were also lower in BCS+TG from +15 to +60d. The two groups showed similar improvements from +90 to +120d. Kaplan–Meier estimators showed that dogs in BCS+TG showed clinically-important differences for longer, despite a positive result in BCSG. The intra-articular administration of BCS alone was able to improve the overall condition of OA patients. Its combined use with triamcinolone acetonide lead to a faster and longer-lasting improvement in pain scores. Full article
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16 pages, 2629 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Four Clinical Metrology Instruments for the Assessment of Osteoarthritis in Dogs
by João C. Alves, Ana Santos, Patrícia Jorge, Catarina Lavrador and Luís Miguel Carreira
Animals 2022, 12(20), 2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12202808 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most commonly diagnosed joint disease in companion animals, and proper tools are necessary to assess patients and response to treatment. We aimed to perform the psychometric evaluation of several clinical metrology instruments (CMI), developed to evaluate pain and assess [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most commonly diagnosed joint disease in companion animals, and proper tools are necessary to assess patients and response to treatment. We aimed to perform the psychometric evaluation of several clinical metrology instruments (CMI), developed to evaluate pain and assess outcome. Fifty police working dogs with bilateral hip OA were assessed in a prospective, randomised, double-blinded study. Patients were evaluated using a stance analyser in six different moments divided over a 180-day period. Pedometer step count, weight-bearing symmetry index and deviation from normal weight-bearing were calculated and used for criterion validity. In each evaluation moment, a copy of the Hudson Visual Analogue Scale (HVAS), Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD) and Canine Orthopaedic Index (COI) were completed by the dogs’ handlers. Correlations between CMIs were evaluated as construct validity. Further evaluation was performed with the Kaiser–Meyer–Olin measure of sampling adequacy, Eigenvalue and scree-plot analysis. Internal consistency was tested with Cronbach’s α. Significant weak correlation was found between all CMIs and stance analysis symmetry index measure and deviation, indicating criterion validity. Significant weak correlation was also found between pedometer count and LOAD plus COI. Cronbach’s α was 0.80 for HVAS, 0.98 for CBPI, 0.97 for LOAD and 0.98 for COI. Significant strong correlation was observed between CMIs, indicating construct validity. We present criterion and construct validity of these CMIs, which are able to capture various dimensions of OA. They can be used for the evaluation of osteoarthritis and response to treatment in dogs. Full article
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11 pages, 1799 KiB  
Article
Development of Real-Time Kinematic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (kMRI) Techniques for Studying the Kinematics of the Spine and Joints in Dogs—Preliminary Study on Cadavers
by Sara Canal, Roberto Tamburro, Ilaria Falerno, Francesca Del Signore, Francesco Simeoni, Francesco De Pasquale, Andrea De Bonis, Annamaria Maraone, Andrea Paolini, Amanda Bianchi, Martina Rosto and Massimo Vignoli
Animals 2022, 12(20), 2790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12202790 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Kinematic MRI (kMRI) is a novel human imaging technique that couples the excellent soft tissue contrast and multiplanar capabilities of traditional MRI with kinematic potential. The study’s goals are: (1) testing the feasibility of spinal cord and joints real-time kMRI; and (2) evaluating [...] Read more.
Kinematic MRI (kMRI) is a novel human imaging technique that couples the excellent soft tissue contrast and multiplanar capabilities of traditional MRI with kinematic potential. The study’s goals are: (1) testing the feasibility of spinal cord and joints real-time kMRI; and (2) evaluating the quality of these kinematic studies as a new diagnostic option in veterinary medicine. Standard and real-time kinematic MRI were performed on cervical spine, elbow, and stifle joints of seven cadavers. Studies were repeated after a surgical insult aimed to create a certain degree of joint instability. A total of 56 MRI were performed—7 cervical spinal tracts, 3 elbow joints, and 4 stifle joints were examined. The technique was feasible in all the three regions examined. The images were considered of excellent quality for the stifle joint, good to fair for the cervical spine, whereas two of three elbow studies were considered to have unacceptable image quality. Additionally, real-time kMRI provided good to excellent information about stifle instability. Therefore we consider kMRI a promising technique in veterinary medicine. Further studies and an in vivo setting are needed to increase the quality of the kMRI images, and to fully evaluate clinical usefulness. Full article
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Review

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19 pages, 1984 KiB  
Review
Etiopathogenesis of Canine Cruciate Ligament Disease: A Scoping Review
by Gert W. Niebauer and Brunella Restucci
Animals 2023, 13(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13020187 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2757
Abstract
The spontaneous rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs remains a pathoetiologic puzzle. Despite much progress in research over the past years, the systemic and local mechanisms leading to ligament degeneration and structural failure remain largely obscure. This scoping review focuses on [...] Read more.
The spontaneous rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs remains a pathoetiologic puzzle. Despite much progress in research over the past years, the systemic and local mechanisms leading to ligament degeneration and structural failure remain largely obscure. This scoping review focuses on pathogenesis and aims at summarizing and interpreting today’s knowledge on causes of canine cruciate ligament rupture, i.e., the multifactorial mechanisms leading to degenerative stifle joint disease with collagen matrix degeneration and structural failures. Thus, the initial view of traumatic ligament rupture, fostered by “wear and tear”, has clearly been replaced by a new concept of systemic processes linked to progressive degenerative joint disease and ligament failure; thus, the term “cranial cruciate ligament disease” has been coined and is generally accepted. In addition, cruciate ligament rupture in people shares some similarities with the lesion in dogs; therefore, the review also includes comparative studies. The methods used were based on the PRISMA-ScR model (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews). Full article
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Other

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8 pages, 1274 KiB  
Case Report
Proximal Ulnar Osteotomy as a Treatment for Humeral Intracondylar Fissure in a Shetland Sheepdog
by Stavros Karydas and Alan Danielski
Animals 2023, 13(3), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030519 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
A seven-month-old male Shetland Sheepdog was presented for assessment of thoracic limb lameness of 3 weeks duration. Orthopaedic examination revealed severe discomfort in elbow extension, bilaterally. CT-scan confirmed presence of a complete humeral intracondylar fissure (HIF), bilaterally, and arthroscopic examination of both elbows [...] Read more.
A seven-month-old male Shetland Sheepdog was presented for assessment of thoracic limb lameness of 3 weeks duration. Orthopaedic examination revealed severe discomfort in elbow extension, bilaterally. CT-scan confirmed presence of a complete humeral intracondylar fissure (HIF), bilaterally, and arthroscopic examination of both elbows confirmed the presence of the cartilaginous lesion previously reported in dogs suffering from HIF. A staged oblique proximal ulnar osteotomy was performed to address the humero-anconeal incongruency believed to be the cause of HIF formation. Orthopaedic examination performed 5 weeks after each surgical procedure confirmed that pain previously present on elbow manipulation had subsided. Follow-up examination performed 8 months after the second surgery revealed the dog to be sound at walking on the thoracic limbs with no discomfort present on elbow manipulation. Repeated CT scan confirmed complete healing of both HIFs. This is the first report documenting the presence of HIF in a Shetland sheepdog and complete healing of both HIFs following a proximal ulnar osteotomy. Full article
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14 pages, 1021 KiB  
Systematic Review
Tibial Tuberosity Advancement Techniques (TTAT): A Systematic Review
by Federica Aragosa, Chiara Caterino, Giovanni Della Valle and Gerardo Fatone
Animals 2022, 12(16), 2114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12162114 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
(1) Background: Several surgical techniques were described for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. This report aims to critically review the available literature focused on preoperative planning, surgical procedure, follow-up, and complications of cranial cruciate ligament rupture treated by tibial [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Several surgical techniques were described for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. This report aims to critically review the available literature focused on preoperative planning, surgical procedure, follow-up, and complications of cranial cruciate ligament rupture treated by tibial tuberosity advancement techniques; (2) Methods: three bibliographic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus were used for a board search of TTAT (canine OR dog). Five GRADE recommendations according to Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation and Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklists were applied to the studies included. Data regarding preoperative planning (a measure of advancement), meniscal disease (meniscectomy, meniscal release, and late meniscal tears), and postoperative patellar tendon angle were recorded. Time frame, outcome, and complications were classified according to Cook’s guidelines; (3) Results: from 471 reports yielded, only 30 met the inclusion criteria. The common tangent method was the most commonly reported measurement technique for preoperative planning. The 40.21% of stifles presented meniscal tears at surgery, while 4.28% suffered late meniscal tears. In short-, mid-and long-term follow-ups examined showed a full/acceptable function was shown in >90% of cases. Among all new generation techniques, minor complications were reported in 33.5% of cases and major complications in 10.67%; (4) Conclusions: Compared to traditional TTA, new generation TTAT resulted effective in the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament failure, showing a lower rate of late meniscal injury but a higher rate of minor complications. Full article
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