Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 39778

Special Issue Editors

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Interests: beef cattle nutrition; beef quality; feed resource development

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Interests: non-conventional feed ingredient; anti-nutritional factors; gut microbiota; growth performance; meat production; milk production

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Precise information regarding the nutritional value of individual feed ingredients and complete diets is important for efficient animal production, and improving animal health and product quality.

For this reason, feed evaluation has always been key research area in animal sciences. Quality of feed is directly related to feed ingredients, which vary with various factors such as season and storage conditions, and animals dependent on unsatisfactory feed are subjected to nutritional stress and decreased animal productivity. In recent years, many conventional feed ingredients have been replaced by alternatives with variable nutritional value and antinutritional factors that suppress/boost digestion, absorption, and utilization of nutrients. Thus, evaluation of feed involving conventional and nonconventional ingredients by chemical analysis, table values, prediction equations, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, in vivo data and in vitro digestion techniques could be helpful to improve animal health and productivity.

This Special Issue collects original research and reviews that 1) help to understand feed or ingredients’ evaluation techniques 2) feed processing techniques for better health and productivity of animals 3) feed ingredients and their bioactive compounds on animal health and product quality.

Dr. Huawei Su
Dr. Muhammad Aziz ur Rahman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • non-conventional feed ingredients
  • evaluation techniques
  • anti-nutritional factors
  • bioactive compounds
  • animal health
  • sustainability
  • milk production
  • growth
  • meat production
  • product quality

Published Papers (20 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

13 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Impact of Exogenous Xylanase and Phytase, Individually or in Combination, on Performance, Digesta Viscosity and Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Birds Fed Wheat-Based Diets
by Urooj Anwar, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Farooq Khalid, Riaz Mustafa, Umar Farooq, Muhammad Ashraf, Hassan Munir, Muhammad Auon, Mubasher Hussain, Munawar Hussain, Muhammad Farhan Ayaz Chisti, Muhammad Qamar Bilal, Abd ur Rehman and Muhammad Aziz ur Rahman
Animals 2023, 13(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13020278 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2297
Abstract
The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of stored wheat-based diet (1.5 and 2.5 years stored wheat) with and without the supplementation of xylanase and phytase enzymes in combination or individually on performance parameters, digestibility, digesta viscosity and carcass characteristics of [...] Read more.
The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of stored wheat-based diet (1.5 and 2.5 years stored wheat) with and without the supplementation of xylanase and phytase enzymes in combination or individually on performance parameters, digestibility, digesta viscosity and carcass characteristics of broilers. For this purpose, a total of 640-day-old male broilers were randomly distributed to the 64 pens, and each pen had 10 birds. Two basal isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets contained 1.5 and 2.5 years stored wheat were formulated in this experiment. In the current study, experimental feeds were prepared by supplementing exogenous enzymes in both basal diets with xylanase (500 XU), phytase (500 FTU) alone or in a combination of phytase and xylanase. Performance parameters data represents that both in starter phase and finisher phase, inclusion of exogenous enzymes xylanase and phytase in both basal diets alone or in combination enhance the feed intake, and body weight gain (p < 0.05) and improve the feed conversion ratio in overall phase (p < 0.05). Similarly, supplementation of exogenous xylanase and phytase alone or in combination enhance the nutrient digestibility and reduce the digesta viscosity (p < 0.05). Based on the results of this experiment, it is concluded that supplementation of exogenous xylanase and phytase enzymes alone or in combination in wheat-based diets (stored wheat 1.5 and 2.5 years) enhance and improves the performance of birds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
11 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Inclusion of Different Concentrates in Feed Rations on the Contents of Tocopherols, β-Carotene and Retinol in the Livers and Longissimus dorsi Muscles of Farm-Raised Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.)
by Sylwia Czurgiel, Zofia Antoszkiewicz, Magdalena Mazur-Kuśnirek and Marek Bogdaszewski
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233311 - 27 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
This study analyzed the chemical composition and contents of β-carotene, tocopherols and retinol in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles and livers of fallow deer (Dama dama L.) fed diets based on hay containing different concentrates (hay and oats—HO; hay, oats and protein [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the chemical composition and contents of β-carotene, tocopherols and retinol in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles and livers of fallow deer (Dama dama L.) fed diets based on hay containing different concentrates (hay and oats—HO; hay, oats and protein concentrate—HOP; hay and pellets—HP). The provitamin and lipophilic vitamin contents in the samples of feed and animal tissues were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of retinol were nearly two-fold higher (p < 0.002) in the livers and many-fold higher in the LD muscles of fallow deer fed the HOP and HP diets. β-carotene was not identified in the livers or LD muscles of fallow deer. The concentrations of α-tocopherol and total tocopherols were higher in the livers and LD muscles of the animals that received the HO and HP diets, but the noted differences were not significant. The inclusion of various concentrates in the feed rations had no influence on the proximate chemical compositions of the livers or LD muscles of fallow deer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
12 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Effect of Methionine Analogues on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters, Serum Free Amino Acids and Rumen Fermentation of Yaks
by Xirui Zhang, Zizhen Zuo, Yao Liu, Chenxi Wang, Zhongli Peng, Jincheng Zhong, Ming Zhang and Haibo Wang
Animals 2022, 12(22), 3175; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12223175 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of methionine analogues 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HBMi) on growth performance, nutrient apparent digestibility, serum metabolite, serum free amino acids, and rumen fermentation parameters of yaks. Twenty-four male Maiwa yaks (252.79 ± 15.95 kg) [...] Read more.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of methionine analogues 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HBMi) on growth performance, nutrient apparent digestibility, serum metabolite, serum free amino acids, and rumen fermentation parameters of yaks. Twenty-four male Maiwa yaks (252.79 ± 15.95 kg) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basic diet (CON), or three HBMi (MetaSmart (MS); Adisseo Inc., Antony, France) supplementation treatments: MS1 (5 g), MS2 (10 g), and MS3 (15 g). The results showed that the increase in the supplemented MS levels linearly increased the average daily gain (p < 0.05), while the serum alkaline phosphatase activity and malondialdehyde content were increased when yaks were fed with 15 g/d MS (p < 0.05). The diet supplemented with MS linearly increased the percentages of glutamic acid and proline, and linearly or quadratically decreased the percentages of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and valine (p < 0.05). Furthermore, supplementation of 10 g/d and 15 g/d MS increased ruminal microbial crude protein (p < 0.05). The ratio of acetate to propionate in the MS2 group was lower than those in CON and MS1 groups (p < 0.05). In summary, a diet supplemented with 10 g/d MS could be an effective way to improve the growth performance of fattening yaks without negative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
15 pages, 1472 KiB  
Article
Gene and Protein Accumulation Changes Evoked in Porcine Aorta in Response to Feeding with Two Various Fructan Sources
by Marta Marynowska, Agnieszka Herosimczyk, Adam Lepczyński, Marcin Barszcz, Adrianna Konopka, Aleksandra Dunisławska and Małgorzata Ożgo
Animals 2022, 12(22), 3147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12223147 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
In this study, two different ITFs sources were incorporated into a cereal-based diet to evaluate possible aortic protein and gene changes in nursery pigs. The animals were fed two different experimental diets from the 10th day of life, supplemented with either 4% of [...] Read more.
In this study, two different ITFs sources were incorporated into a cereal-based diet to evaluate possible aortic protein and gene changes in nursery pigs. The animals were fed two different experimental diets from the 10th day of life, supplemented with either 4% of dried chicory root (CR) or with 2% of native inulin (IN). After a 40-day dietary intervention trial, pigs were sacrificed at day 50 and the aortas were harvested. Our data indicate that dietary ITFs have the potential to influence several structural and physiological changes that are reflected both in the mRNA and protein levels in porcine aorta. In contrast to our hypothesis, we could not show any beneficial effects of a CR diet on vascular functions. The direction of changes of several proteins and genes may indicate disrupted ECM turnover (COL6A1 and COL6A2, MMP2, TIMP3, EFEMP1), increased inflammation and lipid accumulation (FFAR2), as well as decreased activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (TXNDC5, ORM1). On the other hand, the IN diet may counteract a highly pro-oxidant environment through the endothelin–NO axis (CALR, TCP1, HSP8, PDIA3, RCN2), fibrinolytic activity (ANXA2), anti-atherogenic (CAVIN-1) and anti-calcification (LMNA) properties, thus contributing to the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 235 KiB  
Article
Recycling of Citric Acid Waste for Potential Use as Animal Feed through Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria and a Mixture of Fibrolytic Enzymes
by Sirisak Tanpong, Sawitree Wongtangtintharn, Anusorn Cherdthong, Rittikeard Prachumchai, Bundit Tengjaroenkul, Pin Chanjula, Chanon Suntara and Chalong Wachirapakorn
Animals 2022, 12(21), 3049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12213049 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
Once improperly managed, the citric acid production industry generates waste, which contributes to pollution and other environmental issues. We proposed that, with sufficient quality improvement, citric acid by-product (CAP) might be used for animal feed, thereby reducing the environmental impact. The aim of [...] Read more.
Once improperly managed, the citric acid production industry generates waste, which contributes to pollution and other environmental issues. We proposed that, with sufficient quality improvement, citric acid by-product (CAP) might be used for animal feed, thereby reducing the environmental impact. The aim of the present study was to ferment citric acid by-product (CAP) by inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and a fibrolytic enzyme mixture for quality improvement and crude fiber reduction in the waste products. LAB inoculants were L. casei TH14, and the additive enzyme used was a fibrolytic enzyme mixture (glucanase, pectinase, and carboxymethylcellulase) of a small-scale fermentation method. The seven treatments employed in this study were as follows: (1) control (untreated), (2) CAP-inoculated L. casei TH14 at 0.01% DM, (3) CAP-inoculated L. casei TH14 at 0.05% DM, (4) CAP-inoculated enzymes at 0.01% DM, (5) CAP-inoculated enzymes at 0.05% DM, (6) CAP-inoculated L. casei TH14 at 0.01% DM with enzymes at 0.01% DM, and (7) CAP-inoculated L. casei TH14 at 0.05% DM with enzymes at 0.05% DM. The samples were taken on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of ensiling, both before and after. Four replications were used. The results of the chemical composition of the CAP before and after ensilage inoculated with L. casei TH14 did not show any differences in crude protein, ether extract, ash, or gross energy, but the enzymes significantly (p < 0.05) decreased crude fiber and increased nitrogen-free extract. The combination was especially effective at improving the characteristics of CAP, with a reduction in crude fiber from 21.98% to 22.69%, of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from 16.01% to 17.54%, and of acid detergent fiber (ADF) from 13.75% to 16.19%. Furthermore, the combination of L. casei TH14 and the enzyme increased crude protein from 1.75% to 2.24% at 28 days of ensiling. Therefore, CAP-inoculated L. casei TH14 did not change in chemical composition, while crude fiber, NDF, and ADF decreased when CAP was inoculated with enzyme. The combination of L. casei TH14 and the enzyme is more effective at improving chemical composition and reducing crude fiber and enhancing carbohydrate breakdown in the CAP. Finally, by enhancing the CAP’s quality, it may be possible to use it in animal feed and minimize its impact on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
12 pages, 261 KiB  
Article
Effects of Fermenting the Plant Fraction of a Complete Feed on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Antioxidant Functions, Meat Quality, and Intestinal Microbiota of Broilers
by Haoxuan Sun, Da Chen, Huiyi Cai, Wenhuan Chang, Zedong Wang, Guohua Liu, Xuejuan Deng and Zhimin Chen
Animals 2022, 12(20), 2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12202870 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2336
Abstract
We investigated the effects of fermenting the plant fraction of a solid complete feed (FPFF) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, meat quality, antioxidant status, and intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens. The plant-based fraction of the complete feed was fermented using Lactobacillus and [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of fermenting the plant fraction of a solid complete feed (FPFF) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, meat quality, antioxidant status, and intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens. The plant-based fraction of the complete feed was fermented using Lactobacillus and Bacillus subtilis. A total of 240, 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated into four treatment groups, each comprised of six replicates. The groups were fed a corn–soybean meal-based diet (basic diet) or the same diet supplemented with 5%, 10%, or 15% FPFF for 6 weeks. As results, adding 10% fermented feed significantly improved the growth performance in 1–21 days, and adding 5% fermented feed significantly improved the growth performance in 1–42 days. Adding 15% fermented feed significantly improved the metabolic rate of the birds in 19–21 days and significantly increased the monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in the chickens. Adding fermented feed significantly reduced the cholesterol content in the chickens. In conclusion, adding 10% fermented feed significantly reduced the feed conversion ratio in 1–21 days and adding 5% fermented feed significantly improved the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake in 1–42 days. In addition, consuming fermented feed improved the meat quality of broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
23 pages, 3231 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Lipid Properties and Cadmium and Lead Content in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Meat from Three Feeding Grounds
by Anna Kasprzyk, Janusz Kilar, Alina Walenia and Bożena Kusz
Animals 2022, 12(20), 2859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12202859 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
The aim of the study was to compare the properties of lipids and the content of cadmium and lead in the meat of red deer (Cervus elaphus) kept in a forest feeding ground (FFG) and on organic and conventional farms in [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to compare the properties of lipids and the content of cadmium and lead in the meat of red deer (Cervus elaphus) kept in a forest feeding ground (FFG) and on organic and conventional farms in Poland. Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Musculus semimembranosus (SM) muscles were collected for the study from 36 red deer carcasses in an equal sex and age ratio (3 and 4 years old). From April to October, the animals consumed only the vegetation growing in the feeding grounds. The floristic and phytoncide composition, as well as the fodder value, of the feeding grounds were assessed. Additionally, the intramuscular fat and cholesterol content, the profile, sum, and ratios of fatty acids (FAs), lipid nutraceutical parameters, and cadmium and lead content were determined in LL and SM. The plant composition comprised 116 species in the organic feeding ground (OFG) and 78 species in the conventional feeding ground (CFG). The LL and SM muscles of the red deer from the organic and forest feeding grounds exhibited significantly lower amounts of fat and cholesterol than those from the conventional system. The differences in the fatty acid composition between the three groups were quite small. Differences in intramuscular fat content contributed to a higher percentage of PUFAs in the FFG and OFG, in comparison to the CFG. In all types of feeding ground, the cadmium (0.002 to 0.008 mg/kg) and lead (0.009 to 0.019 mg/kg) content determined in the meat did not pose a threat to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2200 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Rumen-Degradable Starch to Rumen-Degradable Protein Ratio on In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Protein Synthesis
by Panliang Chen, Yan Li, Yizhao Shen, Yufeng Cao, Qiufeng Li, Meimei Wang, Mingchao Liu, Zhiyuan Wang, Zihan Huo, Shuai Ren, Yanxia Gao and Jianguo Li
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192633 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary rumen-degradable starch (RDS, g/kg of DM) to rumen-degradable protein (RDP, g/kg of DM) ratios (SPR) on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis (MCPS). Treatments were eight diets with [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary rumen-degradable starch (RDS, g/kg of DM) to rumen-degradable protein (RDP, g/kg of DM) ratios (SPR) on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis (MCPS). Treatments were eight diets with SPR of 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6 and were formulated to be isoenergetic, isonitrogenous, and isostarch. Substrates were anaerobically incubated in sealed culture vials (100 mL) for 6, 24 or 48 h. Three incubation runs were conducted within two consecutive weeks. With the increase of the dietary SPR, the gas production (GP), in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and concentration of MCPS and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) linearly increased after 6 h of incubation (p ≤ 0.01), whereas they quadratically increased and peaked at the SPR of 2.3 after 24 and 48 h of incubation (p < 0.05). In response to dietary SPR increasing, the in vitro neutral detergent fiber disappearance (IVNDFD) quadratically increased (p < 0.01), and the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration linearly decreased (p < 0.01) after 6, 24 and 48 h of incubation. Based on the presented results, an SPR of 2.3 is recommended for formulating a diet due to its greatest IVDMD, IVNDFD, GP, TVFA and MCPS. However, as the results obtained are strictly dependent on the in vitro conditions, further in vivo studies are needed to verify our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3160 KiB  
Article
Using Untargeted LC-MS Metabolomics to Identify the Association of Biomarkers in Cattle Feces with Marbling Standard Longissimus Lumborum
by Dong Chen, Minchao Su, He Zhu, Gang Zhong, Xiaoyan Wang, Weimin Ma, Metha Wanapat and Zhiliang Tan
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172243 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
Background: To improve the grade of beef marbling has great economic value in the cattle industry since marbling has the traits of high quality and comprehensive nutrition. And because of the marbling’s importance and complexity, it is indispensable to explore marbled beef at [...] Read more.
Background: To improve the grade of beef marbling has great economic value in the cattle industry since marbling has the traits of high quality and comprehensive nutrition. And because of the marbling’s importance and complexity, it is indispensable to explore marbled beef at multiple levels. This experiment studied the relationship between fecal metabolites and marbling characters, and further screened biomarkers. Results: We performed fecal metabolomics analysis on 30 individuals selected from 100 crossbreed cattle (Luxi Yellow cattle ♀ × Japanese Wagyu cattle ♂), 15 with an extremely high-grade marbling beef and 15 with an extremely low-grade marbling beef. A total of 9959 and 8389 m/z features were detected in positive ionization and negative ionization mode by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unfortunately, the sample separation in the PCA is not obvious, and the predictive ability of the orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) model is not good. However, we got six differential metabolites filtered by VIP > 1 and p < 0.05. After that, we used weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) and found out a module in each positive and negative mode most related to the trait of marbling beef, and then identified three metabolites in positive mode. By further annotation of the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG), it was found that these metabolites involved a variety of metabolic ways, including sphingomyelin metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and so on. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the predictability of metabolites, and the result showed that SM(d18:0/16:1(9Z)) (AUC = 0.72), PC(15:0/18:2(9Z,12Z)) (AUC = 0.72), ADP (AUC = 0.71), PC(16:0/16:0) (AUC = 0.73), and 3-O-Sulfogalactosylceramide (d18:1/18:0) (AUC = 0.69) have an accuracy diagnosis. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study supports new opinions for the successive evaluation of marbling beef through metabolites. Furthermore, six non-invasive fecal metabolites that can evaluate beef marbling grade were found, including SM(d18:0/16:1(9Z)), PC(15:0/18:2(9Z,12Z)), ADP, PC(16:0/16:0), and 3-O-Sulfogalactosylceramide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Inclusion of Sunflower Oil, Organic Selenium, and Vitamin E on Milk Production and Composition, and Blood Parameters of Lactating Cows
by Arlindo Saran Netto, Thiago H. Silva, Mellory M. Martins, Ana Maria C. Vidal, Márcia S. V. Salles, Luiz C. Roma Júnior and Marcus A. Zanetti
Animals 2022, 12(15), 1968; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12151968 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Aiming to improve milk quality and animal health, the effects of the inclusion of sunflower oil with added organic selenium (Se) and vitamin E in the diets of lactating cows were evaluated. Twenty-four multiparous lactating Jersey cows were randomly enrolled into four treatments: [...] Read more.
Aiming to improve milk quality and animal health, the effects of the inclusion of sunflower oil with added organic selenium (Se) and vitamin E in the diets of lactating cows were evaluated. Twenty-four multiparous lactating Jersey cows were randomly enrolled into four treatments: CON (control); SEL [2.5 mg organic Se kg−1 dry matter (DM) + 1000 IU vitamin E daily]; SUN (sunflower oil 3% DM); and SEL + SUN (sunflower oil 3% DM + 2.5 mg organic Se kg−1 DM + 1000 IU vitamin E daily). The experimental period was 12 weeks with 14 days for acclimation. Cows were milked twice a day. Dry matter intake, milk production, and composition were measured daily and analyzed in a pooled 4-week sample. On day 84, white blood cell counts, as well as serum and milk Se and vitamin E levels, were assessed. Supplementation with selenium and vitamin E alone or combined with sunflower oil increased milk production, and increased the serum and milk concentrations of those nutrients. The inclusion of sunflower oil reduced fat content and DM intake but also altered the milk fatty acid profile, mainly increasing levels of trans 11 C18:1 (vaccenic) and cis 9 trans 11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Our results indicate that supplementation with sunflower oil, Se and vitamin E provides beneficial effects on animal performance and milk composition, which could be an important source of CLA and antioxidants (Se and vitamin E) for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
10 pages, 1526 KiB  
Article
Effects of Heavy Metal Exposure from Leather Processing Plants on Serum Oxidative Stress and the Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows: A Preliminary Study
by Chuanyou Su, Xueyin Qu, Yanan Gao, Xuewei Zhou, Xue Yang and Nan Zheng
Animals 2022, 12(15), 1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12151900 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
This study investigated whether unsaturated fatty acids in milk and the oxidative status of cows are affected by heavy metal exposure due to leather processing. The blood lead (Pb) concentrations in cows from two farms in the polluted area were 16.27 ± 8.63 [...] Read more.
This study investigated whether unsaturated fatty acids in milk and the oxidative status of cows are affected by heavy metal exposure due to leather processing. The blood lead (Pb) concentrations in cows from two farms in the polluted area were 16.27 ± 8.63 μg/L, respectively, which were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the blood Pb concentrations in cows from an unpolluted farm (6.25 ± 3.04 μg/L). There were significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione (GSH) in the serum of cows from the polluted area compared to the levels in cows from an unpolluted area. The linoleic acid (C18:2n6c) content in milk from the polluted area was 15% lower than in the control area. There was a significant correlation between linoleic acid in milk with the blood Pb and serum GSH levels. Heavy metals can alter fatty acid synthesis through oxidative stress, which may be the mechanism by which heavy metals affect fatty acid synthesis in milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1517 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Metabolites and Metabolic Pathways for Three β-Receptor Agonists in Rats Based on LC-MS/MS
by Ying Liang, Lin Wang, Ruipeng Zhang, Jiadi Pan, Wenhong Wu, Yuanyuan Huang, Zifan Zhang and Renbang Zhao
Animals 2022, 12(15), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12151885 - 23 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1774
Abstract
This paper developed a universal detection method by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to detect three typical clenbuterols, CLB, SAL, and RAC, and to investigate the metabolism of β-agonists in vivo. The parent ions and daughter ions of the three β-receptor agonist standards [...] Read more.
This paper developed a universal detection method by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to detect three typical clenbuterols, CLB, SAL, and RAC, and to investigate the metabolism of β-agonists in vivo. The parent ions and daughter ions of the three β-receptor agonist standards and the residues in the muscle, liver, and blood samples of rats were obtained by Total Ions Scan mode. The metabolites produced in different tissues at a specific time were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, and the corresponding metabolic pathways were inferred. The results showed that the three β-receptor agonists mainly existed in the form of prototype drugs in rats, with a small amount of clenbuterol methyl compound and albuterol methyl compound. There were significant differences in residual metabolism between different tissues of the same species. In addition, different β-receptor agonists have different absorption and utilization rates in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1081 KiB  
Article
Oral Palatability Testing of a Medium-Chain Triglyceride Oil Supplement (MCT) in a Cohort of Healthy Dogs in a Non-Clinical Setting
by Benjamin Andreas Berk, Rowena Mary-Anne Packer, Julia Fritz and Holger Andreas Volk
Animals 2022, 12(13), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131639 - 26 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3025
Abstract
The oral palatability of functional foods such as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) play a crucial role in owner and patient compliance when used as an adjunct in the management of health conditions such as epilepsy. Despite the promising benefits, the palatability of MCT has [...] Read more.
The oral palatability of functional foods such as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) play a crucial role in owner and patient compliance when used as an adjunct in the management of health conditions such as epilepsy. Despite the promising benefits, the palatability of MCT has not undergone a more recent evaluation in dogs. The aim of this study was to assess the palatability and tolerance of short-term, daily supplementation of a 10% metabolic energy based MCT oil volume compared to a tasteless control oil in healthy dogs. An at-home, randomized, double-blinded, controlled single-bowl palatability test with three five-days phases was conducted. Data were collected from nineteen healthy dogs via study visits, feeding diary and eating questionnaires. No difference in the average food intake or intake ratio between food with and without oil supplementation or between the two oil groups was found. The mean food intake time was longer under MCT. In conclusion, MCT oil given as a short-term supplement is well tolerated and palatable in a healthy canine population, with only some changes in eating behaviour. Our results support earlier evidence that MCT oil is a well-tolerated additive in the nutritional management of different diseases such as epilepsy or dementia in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 555 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Moisture Levels and Additives on the Ensiling Characteristics and In Vitro Digestibility of Stylosanthes Silage
by Jinze Bao, Lei Wang and Zhu Yu
Animals 2022, 12(12), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121555 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
The present study aims to estimate the dynamic effects of moisture levels and inoculants on the fermentation quality and in vitro degradability of Stylosanthes silage. In this experiment, Stylosanthes was ensiled with (1) no additive (control), (2) Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), (3) Lactobacillus plantarum [...] Read more.
The present study aims to estimate the dynamic effects of moisture levels and inoculants on the fermentation quality and in vitro degradability of Stylosanthes silage. In this experiment, Stylosanthes was ensiled with (1) no additive (control), (2) Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), (3) Lactobacillus plantarum carrying heterologous genes encoding multifunctional glycoside hydrolases (xg), or (4) LP + xg and was wilted until different moisture levels (60% and 72%) were attained. The ensiled bags were unpacked after different storage periods to determine the chemical composition and fermentation quality of the Stylosanthes silage. Moreover, the in vitro degradability was also determined 45 days after the ensiling process. The results show that the silage prepared with freshly mowed Stylosanthes also had a lower pH and NH3- N content. Adding transgenic engineered lactic acid bacteria xg not only decreased the NDF and ADF content of the silage, but also improved the in vitro digestibility significantly. We concluded that the addition of xg to Stylosanthes silage can improve its quality and increase in vitro digestibility and gas production. The results provide technical support and a theoretical basis for the utilization of warm-season forage silage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Value, Fermentation Characteristics and In Vitro Degradability of Whole Wheat Hay Harvested at Three Stages of Maturity
by Xiaochen Lang, Meng Yang, Atef M. Saleem, Xiaojing Zhao, Hua Xu, Yan Li, Ruiting Xu, Jiaqiu Cao, Congcong Xu, Yushan Cui, Jia Li, Jiahui Li, Yizhao Shen, Yunqi Li, Jianguo Li and Yanxia Gao
Animals 2022, 12(11), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111466 - 5 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1599
Abstract
The nutritional value of whole crop wheat hay (WCWH) harvested at different maturation stages are different, and its feeding effects on dairy cows have not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, the in vitro digestibility of whole wheat (Nongda 22) hay harvested during [...] Read more.
The nutritional value of whole crop wheat hay (WCWH) harvested at different maturation stages are different, and its feeding effects on dairy cows have not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, the in vitro digestibility of whole wheat (Nongda 22) hay harvested during the flowering, late milk and dough stages were evaluated using batch culture technique. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of whole wheat hay decreased by 35.5% and 40.4%, respectively, whereas the non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) content increased by 50.3% in WCWH harvested during the dough stage as compared to the flowering stage (p < 0.01). The pH of the fermentation liquid and acetate to propionate ratio was greatest in the wheat harvested during the flowering stage and lowest during the dough stage (p = 0.03), whereas the volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was greatest during the dough stage and lowest during the flowering stage (p < 0.01). The dry matter loss (DML) was 9.6% and 6.2% greater (p < 0.01) during the late milk stage than in the flowering or dough stages, and the NDF loss (NDFL; p = 0.01) and ADF loss (ADFL; p < 0.01) was greater in both the flowering and late milk stages. In conclusion, though the content of NDF was lower in the dough stage, and the starch to NFC ratio was greater, we determined that the optimal harvest stage should be the late milk stage due to the greater dry matter digestibility, the relatively greater NFC content and the shorter planting days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
15 pages, 1020 KiB  
Article
Muscle Fatty Acids, Meat Flavor Compounds and Sensory Characteristics of Xiangxi Yellow Cattle in Comparison to Aberdeen Angus
by Dong Chen, Xiaoyan Wang, Qian Guo, Huifen Deng, Jie Luo, Kangle Yi, Ao Sun, Kun Chen and Qingwu Shen
Animals 2022, 12(9), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12091161 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate meat quality of Xiangxi yellow cattle of different ages in comparison to Aberdeen Angus. At the ages of 6, 18, and 30 months, 10 female animals for both Xiangxi yellow cattle and Aberdeen Angus cattle [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate meat quality of Xiangxi yellow cattle of different ages in comparison to Aberdeen Angus. At the ages of 6, 18, and 30 months, 10 female animals for both Xiangxi yellow cattle and Aberdeen Angus cattle were randomly selected and slaughtered. The proximate composition analysis, fatty acid profiles and flavor compounds were measured on the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle samples. One boneless loin chop was dissected and used for sensory evaluation by a 10-persoon trained taste panel. The data obtained showed that Xiangxi yellow cattle deposited similarly high level of intramuscular fat as Angus at the age of 18 month and the polyunsaturated fatty acid in muscle along with the PUFA/SFA ratio reached the highest levels at this age. Inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP) was the predominant umami compound in beef, which concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) at month 18, but not different between Angus and Xiangxi yellow cattle. Multiple volatile flavor compounds were higher (p < 0.05) in concentrations in meat from Xiangxi yellow cattle at ages of 18 and 30 months when compared to Angus. Sensory analysis revealed that Xiangxi yellow cattle (18 and 30 months) and Angus (30 months) were superior in meat overall eating quality to Xiangxi yellow cattle (6 months) and Angus (6 and 18 months). This study showed that Xiangxi yellow cattle are a fine cattle breed with equal or even better meat quality attributes when compared to Angus. It is proper to slaughter Xiangxi yellow cattle at the age of 18 months for high quality beef production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 312 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Dietary Carbohydrate Sources on the Meat Quality and Flavor Substances of Xiangxi Yellow Cattle
by Minchao Su, Dong Chen, Jing Zhou and Qingwu Shen
Animals 2022, 12(9), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12091136 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2003
Abstract
This study investigated the dietary supplementation of starches with different carbohydrate sources on the proximate composition, meat quality, flavor substances, and volatile flavor substances in the meat of Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. A total of 21 Chinese Xiangxi yellow steers (20 ± 0.5 [...] Read more.
This study investigated the dietary supplementation of starches with different carbohydrate sources on the proximate composition, meat quality, flavor substances, and volatile flavor substances in the meat of Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. A total of 21 Chinese Xiangxi yellow steers (20 ± 0.5 months, 310 kg ± 5.85 kg) were randomly divided into three groups (control, corn, and barley groups), with seven steers per group. The control steers received a conventional diet (coarse forage type: whole silage corn at the end of the dough stage as the main source), the corn group received a diet with corn as the main carbohydrate source, and the barley group received a diet with barley as the main carbohydrate source. The experiment lasted for 300 d. and the means of the final weights in the control, corn, and barley groups were 290 kg, 359 kg, and 345 kg. The diets were isonitrogenous. The corn and barley groups reduced the moisture (p = 0.04) and improved the intramuscular fat content of the meat (p = 0.002). They also improved meat color (a*) (p = 0.01) and reduced cooking loss (p = 0.08), shear force (p = 0.002), and water loss (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the 5′-nucleotide content (p > 0.05), the equivalent umami concentration (EUC) (p = 0.88), and taste activity value (TAV) (p > 0.05) among the three groups. The 5′-IMP (umami) content was the highest in the 5′-nucleotide and its TAV > 1. The corn and barley groups improved the content of tasty amino acids (tAA, p < 0.001). The corn group had a higher content of sweet amino acids (SAA, p < 0.001) and total amino acids (TAA, p = 0.003). Corn and barley improved the levels of MUFA (p < 0.001), PUFA (p = 0.002), n-3 PUFA (p = 0.005), and n-6 PUFA (p = 0.020). The levels of alcohols, hydrocarbons, and aldehydes in the corn group were higher than in the barley and control groups (p < 0.001). The esters content in the corn group was higher than in the barley and control groups (p = 0.050). In conclusion, feeding corn or barley as a carbohydrate source can improve the nutrient content and taste. Feeding corn as a carbohydrate source can improve the content of free amino acids (Cys, Glu, Gly, Thr, Leu, Trp, Gln, Asn, and Asp), fatty acids (saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-3PUFA, n-6PUFA, and total fatty acid), and volatile flavor substances (alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and hydrocarbons) to improve the flavor and meat quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 652 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Effects of Different Bacteria Additives on Fermentation Quality, Microbial Community and In Vitro Gas Production of Forage Oat Silage
by Yi Xiong, Jingjing Xu, Linna Guo, Fei Chen, Dedai Jiang, Yanli Lin, Chunze Guo, Xiaomei Li, Yunrong Chen, Kuikui Ni and Fuyu Yang
Animals 2022, 12(9), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12091122 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
Bacterial inoculants are considered as a good choice for successful ensiling, playing a key role in improving the silage quality. However, the potential of different bacteria, especially the propionic acid bacteria, in forage oat ensiling is yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose [...] Read more.
Bacterial inoculants are considered as a good choice for successful ensiling, playing a key role in improving the silage quality. However, the potential of different bacteria, especially the propionic acid bacteria, in forage oat ensiling is yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the regulation effects of different bacterial additives on the fermentation quality of forage oat silage. Four additives (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum F1, LP; Lacticaseibacillus 0rhamnosus XJJ01, LR; Lacticaseibacillus paracasei XJJ02, LC; and Propionibacterium acidipropionici 1.1161, PP; without additives, CK) were inoculated in forage oat silage, and the fermentation quality and organic compounds were determined after 60 days of ensiling. Notably, LR showed higher dry matter preservation compared to other additives and CK. In addition, LP and LR showed strong lactic acid synthesis capacity, resulting in lower pH compared to other additives and CK. The treatments of PP and LC increased the bacterial diversity in silage, while the bacterial community in the LR group was different from that in other groups. In addition, the PP- and LC-treated oat silage showed significantly lower total in vitro gas production and a lower methane content. These results suggest that LP is more favorable for producing high-quality oat silage than LR, LC, or PP. Both the PP- and LC- treated oat silage may reduce rumen greenhouse gas emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 532 KiB  
Article
Associations of Protein Molecular Structures with Their Nutrient Supply and Biodegradation Characteristics in Different Byproducts of Seed-Used Pumpkin
by Yang Li, Qinghua Wu, Jingyi Lv, Xiaoman Jia, Jianxu Gao, Yonggen Zhang and Liang Wang
Animals 2022, 12(8), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12080956 - 7 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
The purpose of this experiment was to explore the relationship of protein functional groups (including amide I, amide II, α-helix, and β-sheet) in byproducts of seed-used pumpkin (pumpkin seed cake, pumpkin seed coat, and seed-used pumpkin flesh) with their nutrient profiles and biodegradation [...] Read more.
The purpose of this experiment was to explore the relationship of protein functional groups (including amide I, amide II, α-helix, and β-sheet) in byproducts of seed-used pumpkin (pumpkin seed cake, pumpkin seed coat, and seed-used pumpkin flesh) with their nutrient profiles and biodegradation characteristics. The experiment was designed to use conventional chemical analysis, combining the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) and nylon bag technology to assess the nutritional value and biodegradation characteristics of seed-used pumpkin byproducts. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the protein molecular structure properties of byproducts of seed-used pumpkin. In this study, we also applied correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that different byproducts of seed-used pumpkin had different in situ biodegradation, nutrient supplies, and spectral structures in the protein region. Among the byproducts of seed-used pumpkin, acid detergent-insoluble crude protein (ADICP) and neutral detergent-insoluble crude protein (NDICP) contents of the pumpkin seed coat were the highest, resulting in the lowest effective degradabilities (EDs) of dry matter and crude protein. The crude protein (CP) ED values were ranked as follows: pumpkin seed cake > seed-used pumpkin flesh > pumpkin seed coat. Significant differences were observed in the peak areas of amide I and amide II and the corresponding peak heights in the two peak areas in the molecular structure of the protein. The peak areas of amide I and amide II and the corresponding peak heights were at the highest levels for pumpkin seed cake, whereas there was no significant difference between the pumpkin seed coat and seed-used pumpkin flesh. Similarly, the peak heights of α-helices and β-sheets were highest for pumpkin seed cake. Correlation and regression results indicated that amide I and amide II area and height, α-helix and β-sheet heights, and area ratios of amide I: amide II, as well as the height ratios of amide I: amide II, and α-helices: β-sheets effectively estimated nutrient supply and that the height ratio of α-helices: β-sheets was mostly sensitive to biodegradation characteristics in different byproducts of seed-used pumpkin. There were significant differences in CP chemical composition and digestibility of different byproducts of seed-used pumpkin that were strongly related to the changes in protein molecular structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 875 KiB  
Article
Influence of Condensed and Hydrolysable Tannins on the Bacterial Community, Protein Degradation, and Fermentation Quality of Alfalfa Silage
by Wencan Ke, Huan Zhang, Shengnan Li, Yanlin Xue, Yan Wang, Wencheng Dong, Yimin Cai and Guijie Zhang
Animals 2022, 12(7), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12070831 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2279
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of hydrolysable tannin (HT) and condensed tannin (CT) on the bacterial community, fermentation quality, and proteolysis of alfalfa silage. Alfalfa was wilted to a dry matter (DM) of 35% fresh weight and ensiled with or without 4% HT [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of hydrolysable tannin (HT) and condensed tannin (CT) on the bacterial community, fermentation quality, and proteolysis of alfalfa silage. Alfalfa was wilted to a dry matter (DM) of 35% fresh weight and ensiled with or without 4% HT or 4% CT. The application rates of tannins were based on fresh weight, and each treatment was ensiled in triplicate. After 60 d of fermentation, the CT-treated group had lower concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and free amino acid nitrogen (AA-N), but greater lactic acid concentration, than those in the control and HT-treated silage (p < 0.05). Compared to the control group, the application of tannins increased the abundance of Pseudomonas (negatively correlated with aminopeptidases activity), and decreased the abundance of Pediococcus—which was positively correlated with aminopeptidases activity—and the concentrations of non-protein nitrogen (NPN), NH3-N, and AA-N. The application of HT decreased the abundance of Lactobacillus and increased the abundances of Enterococcus, while the opposite results were observed in the CT-treated group. The application of HT and CT reduced the proteolysis in treated silages, but the two were different in terms of their mechanism and their effects on the bacterial communities of the alfalfa silage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feed Evaluation for Animal Health and Product Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop