Neoplasia and Cancer in Animals: Early Recognition, Diagnosis, and Treatment

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Physiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 4448

Special Issue Editors


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Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: wildlife pathology; veterinary forensics; oncology; wildlife conservation; animal cancer registry
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Unit of Pathology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: veterinary pathology; infectious diseases; animal models; forensic pathology; muscle pathology
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Animal and Veterinary Research Centre, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: skin tumors; neuropathology; dermatology and dermatopathology; veterinary forensics

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Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: wildlife; conservation; medicine; diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer is a disease that affects almost all animal species. The way neoplasms are considered has changed over time in the scientific community. The tumor cell is no longer the protagonist in the biological behavior of the neoplasm but is part of a complex ecosystem in which several players can influence or even dictate the prognosis of the animal. The number of animals diagnosed with cancer has increased, partly because of improved diagnostic methods and, consequently, early detection of tumors. Furthermore, there has been an increase in research into new diagnostic methods and molecular targets that can be converted into new therapies after clinical trials.

The study of cancer in animals has attracted the attention of the scientific community and is already regarded under a One Health perspective. Animal-based studies are also key to the evolution of precision medicine, an approach to disease prevention and treatment that focuses on the individual and considers individual differences in genes, environment, and lifestyle.

Original manuscripts on every aspect of neoplasia and cancer in animals are invited to this Special Issue. Topics of particular interest include new diagnostic methods, therapeutic tools, therapeutic drugs, animal tumor comparative approaches, rare tumors, palliative care, and other topics.

Dr. Isabel Pires
Prof. Dr. Orlando Paciello
Dr. Justina Prada
Dr. Filipe da Costa Silva
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • cancer
  • diagnosis
  • therapeutic
  • precision medicine
  • One Health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1241 KiB  
Article
Paired Analysis of D-Dimer and Its Correlated Hemostatic Parameters in 30 Dogs with Neoplasms after Tumorectomy
by Chiao-Hsu Ke, Cheng-Chi Liu, Shang-Lin Wang and Chen-Si Lin
Animals 2023, 13(6), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13060969 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Previous studies have reported that dogs with neoplasms had elevated D-dimer levels. However, few studies have addressed whether D-dimer could be an indicator of tumor burden. The clinical significance of paired analysis of pre- and post-operation of D-dimer levels in dogs has rarely [...] Read more.
Previous studies have reported that dogs with neoplasms had elevated D-dimer levels. However, few studies have addressed whether D-dimer could be an indicator of tumor burden. The clinical significance of paired analysis of pre- and post-operation of D-dimer levels in dogs has rarely been described. The present study investigated the values of D-dimer levels and their correlated hemostatic alterations in dogs with surgically removable benign and malignant tumors. This study analyzed 30 clinically healthy and 30 tumor-bearing dogs and evaluated the hemostatic functions including D-dimer, thromboelastography G (TEG G), fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time, and platelet count. The median level of pre-treatment D-dimer was 0.8 µg/mL (range: 0.1–6.3 µg/mL), whereas the control dogs exhibited a median value of 0.1 µg/mL (range: 0.1–0.1 µg/mL, p < 0.0001). After tumorectomy, the median levels of D-dimer (p < 0.0001), fibrinogen (p < 0.0001), TEG G value (p < 0.01), and aPTT (p < 0.05) were significantly lower than those of the pre-treatment samples. However, further studies are needed to clarify the values of other hemostatic evaluations. The study revealed the clinical significance of D-dimer and its correlated hemostatic parameters by paired analysis in dogs with tumors. Though more cases are needed for solid confirmation, these values could be potential tumor biomarkers for dogs. Full article
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16 pages, 3461 KiB  
Article
BUBR1 as a Prognostic Biomarker in Canine Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
by Leonor Delgado, Luís Monteiro, Patrícia Silva, Hassan Bousbaa, Fernanda Garcez, João Silva, Paula Brilhante-Simões, Isabel Pires and Justina Prada
Animals 2022, 12(22), 3082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12223082 - 09 Nov 2022
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Abstract
Chromosomal instability (CIN) plays a key role in the carcinogenesis of several human cancers and can be related to the deregulation of core components of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) including BUBR1 protein kinase. These proteins have been related to tumor development and [...] Read more.
Chromosomal instability (CIN) plays a key role in the carcinogenesis of several human cancers and can be related to the deregulation of core components of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) including BUBR1 protein kinase. These proteins have been related to tumor development and poor survival rates in human patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To investigate the expression of the SAC proteins BUBR1, BUB3 and SPINDLY and also Ki-67 in canine OSCC, we performed an immunohistochemical evaluation in 60 canine OSCCs and compared them with clinical and pathological variables. BUBR1, Ki-67, BUB3 and SPINDLY protein expressions were detected in all cases and classified as with a high-expression extent score in 31 (51.7%) cases for BUBR1, 33 (58.9%) cases for BUB3 and 28 (50.9%) cases for SPINDLY. Ki-67 high expression was observed in 14 (25%) cases. An independent prognostic value for BUBR1 was found, where high BUBR1 expression was associated with lower survival (p = 0.012). These results indicate that BUBR1 expression is an independent prognostic factor in these tumors, suggesting the potential use for clinical applications as a prognostic biomarker and also as a pharmacological target in canine OSCC. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 993 KiB  
Review
The Use of Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping for Canine Mast Cell Tumors
by Marta Romańska, Beata Degórska and Katarzyna A. Zabielska-Koczywąs
Animals 2024, 14(7), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14071089 - 03 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Cancer is the leading cause of death in companion animals. The evaluation of locoregional lymph nodes, known as lymph node mapping, is a critical process in assessing the stage of various solid tumors, such as mast cell tumors (MCTs), anal gland anal sac [...] Read more.
Cancer is the leading cause of death in companion animals. The evaluation of locoregional lymph nodes, known as lymph node mapping, is a critical process in assessing the stage of various solid tumors, such as mast cell tumors (MCTs), anal gland anal sac adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and mammary gland adenocarcinoma. MCTs are among the most prevalent skin malignancies in dogs. Staging is used to describe the extent of neoplastic disease, provide a framework for rational treatment planning, and evaluate treatment results. The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge on sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in canine MCTs, its influence on treatment decisions and prognosis, as well as the advantages and limitations of different SLN techniques currently available in veterinary oncology. A search methodology was adopted using the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Critical analyses of up-to-date research have shown that lymphoscintigraphy can achieve a lymph node detection rate of between 91 and 100%. This method is becoming increasingly recognized as the gold standard in both human and veterinary medicine. In addition, initial studies on a limited number of animals have shown that computed tomographic lymphography (CTL) is highly effective in the SLN mapping of MCTs, with detection rates between 90 and 100%. The first study on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) also revealed that this advanced technique has up to a 95% detection rate in canine MCTs. These methods provide non-ionizing alternatives with high detection capabilities. Furthermore, combining computed tomography and near-infrared fluorescence (NIR/NIR-LND) lymphography is promising as each technique identifies different SLNs. Indirect lymphography with Lipiodol or Iohexol is technically feasible and may be also used to effectively detect SLNs. The integration of these mapping techniques into routine MCT staging is essential for enhancing the precision of MCT staging and potentially improving therapeutic outcomes. However, further clinical trials involving a larger number of animals are necessary to refine these procedures and fully evaluate the clinical benefits of each technique. Full article
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