Infectious Diseases and Surveillance of Farm and Wild Animals

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Physiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (24 March 2024) | Viewed by 9151

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA), INIA-CSIC, Valdeolmos, 28130 Madrid, Spain
Interests: epidemiology; infectious diseases; risk assessment

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria (VISAVET), Veterinary Faculty, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: virology; immunology; infectious diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Infectious diseases of animals are a well-known threat to animal health and economics. Furthermore, if these diseases were zoonotic, they could also have great consequences for public health. Moreover, their impact cannot be neglected concerning infection in wild species, which can act as potential reservoirs and carriers, and whose mortality rates could have negative implications for biodiversity. The relevance of infectious diseases in animals has been highlighted by several scenarios such as the pandemic caused by Sars-CoV2 or the continuous global spread of African swine fever virus. Therefore, this Special Issue will provide new insights into infectious diseases in animals including both farm and wild species. In addition, special attention will be paid to studies focusing on increasing our knowledge through surveillance activities on animal health.

Dr. Cristina Jurado
Dr. Sandra Barroso Arévalo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • infectious diseases
  • wildlife
  • surveillance
  • animal health

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 4028 KiB  
Article
Metagenomic Identification of Novel Eukaryotic Viruses with Small DNA Genomes in Pheasants
by Eszter Kaszab, Krisztina Bali, Szilvia Marton, Krisztina Ursu, Szilvia L. Farkas, Enikő Fehér, Marianna Domán, Vito Martella and Krisztián Bányai
Animals 2024, 14(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14020237 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 868
Abstract
A panel of intestinal samples collected from common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) between 2008 and 2017 was used for metagenomic investigation using an unbiased enrichment protocol and different bioinformatic pipelines. The number of sequence reads in the metagenomic analysis ranged from 1,419,265 [...] Read more.
A panel of intestinal samples collected from common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) between 2008 and 2017 was used for metagenomic investigation using an unbiased enrichment protocol and different bioinformatic pipelines. The number of sequence reads in the metagenomic analysis ranged from 1,419,265 to 17,507,704 with a viral sequence read rate ranging from 0.01% to 59%. When considering the sequence reads of eukaryotic viruses, RNA and DNA viruses were identified in the samples, including but not limited to coronaviruses, reoviruses, parvoviruses, and CRESS DNA viruses (i.e., circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses). Partial or nearly complete genome sequences were reconstructed of at least three different parvoviruses (dependoparvovirus, aveparvovirus and chaphamaparvovirus), as well as gyroviruses and diverse CRESS DNA viruses. Generating information of virus diversity will serve as a basis for developing specific diagnostic tools and for structured epidemiological investigations, useful to assess the impact of these novel viruses on animal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases and Surveillance of Farm and Wild Animals)
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19 pages, 1685 KiB  
Article
Detection and Molecular Characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. Circulating in Wild Small Mammals from Portugal
by Laura Lux, Rainer G. Ulrich, Sérgio Santos-Silva, João Queirós, Christian Imholt, Christian Klotz, Joana Paupério, Ricardo Pita, Hélia Vale-Gonçalves, Paulo Célio Alves and João R. Mesquita
Animals 2023, 13(3), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030515 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are important diarrhea-causing protozoan parasites worldwide that exhibit broad host ranges. Wild small mammals can harbor host-adapted and potentially zoonotic species of both parasites. The aim of this study was to investigate Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are important diarrhea-causing protozoan parasites worldwide that exhibit broad host ranges. Wild small mammals can harbor host-adapted and potentially zoonotic species of both parasites. The aim of this study was to investigate Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in wild rodents and shrews in Portugal, focusing on the protist’s occurrence and genetic diversity. Molecular screening by PCR at the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene locus of 290 fecal samples from wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), southwestern water voles (Arvicola sapidus), Cabrera’s voles (Microtus cabrerae), Lusitanian pine voles (Microtus lusitanicus), Algerian mice (Mus spretus) and greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) in Northeast Portugal revealed the low occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. (1%) and high occurrence of Giardia spp. (32.8%). The analysis revealed that “species” was the only significant factor associated with the increasing probability of Giardia spp. infection, with the highest prevalence reported in southwestern water voles and Lusitanian pine voles. Cryptosporidium and Giardia species determination at the SSU rRNA gene locus revealed C. muris and G. microti as the only circulating species, respectively. Subtyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and beta-giardin (bg) genes provided evidence of the high genetic diversity within the G. microti clade. This study suggests that rodent-adapted G. microti occurs to a large extent in cricetid hosts and supports the limited role of wild rodents and shrews as natural sources of human infections in Northeast Portugal regarding the investigated parasites. Moreover, this is the first record of G. microti in southwestern water voles, Lusitanian pine voles, Algerian mice, wood mice and Cabrera’s voles and C. muris in Cabrera’s voles. Finally, this study improves the database of sequences relevant for the sequence typing of G. microti strains and provides new insights about the epidemiology of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in wild rodents and shrews, two parasite genera of high importance for public and animal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases and Surveillance of Farm and Wild Animals)
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10 pages, 1505 KiB  
Article
High Prevalence and Genetic Variability of Hepatozoon canis in Grey Wolf (Canis lupus L. 1758) Population in Serbia
by Milica Kuručki, Snežana Tomanović, Ratko Sukara and Duško Ćirović
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3335; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233335 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
Wild canids are globally recognised as hosts and reservoirs of a large number of ecto- and endoparasites. Data that reveal the importance of the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.1758) in the spread of hepatozoonosis are very scarce. There are a large number [...] Read more.
Wild canids are globally recognised as hosts and reservoirs of a large number of ecto- and endoparasites. Data that reveal the importance of the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.1758) in the spread of hepatozoonosis are very scarce. There are a large number of different potential host species that can be infected by Hepatozoon canis, but the most common are domestic and wild carnivores, such as dogs, jackals, foxes, and wolves. In this study, the epidemiological significance of the grey wolf as a host for the pathogen was analysed for the first time in Serbia, as well as the genetic variability of H. canis. The presence of H. canis in wolf spleens has been demonstrated using molecular methods. A total of 107 wolf spleen samples from 30 localities in Serbia were analysed. The presence of H. canis was confirmed in 62 (57.94%) individuals from 26 out of 30 localities. According to the analysis, the sampled H. canis sequences were found to be characterised by a certain heterogeneity. Based on five mutated nucleotide sites in the sequences, H. canis could be divided into five sequence types, S1 to S5. The five sequence types can potentially circulate in grey wolf populations as well as among other domestic and wild canids. This study is the first confirmation of the presence of H. canis in grey wolf populations in Serbia. Considering that the role of this vector-borne disease is poorly researched in wild carnivores, it is very important to indicate the role of this species in the circulation of this pathogen in natural ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases and Surveillance of Farm and Wild Animals)
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9 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Molecular Survey on Bacterial and Protozoan Abortive Agents in Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) from Central Italy
by Valentina Virginia Ebani, Chiara Trebino, Lisa Guardone, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Giulia Cagnoli, Iolanda Altomonte, Paolo Vignola, Paolo Bongi and Francesca Mancianti
Animals 2022, 12(22), 3202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12223202 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Bacterial and protozoan agents can determine abortion and other reproductive disorders in domestic ruminants, but data regarding their occurrence in wild ruminants are scanty worldwide, including in Italy. The aim of this retrospective study was to verify the occurrence of the main bacterial [...] Read more.
Bacterial and protozoan agents can determine abortion and other reproductive disorders in domestic ruminants, but data regarding their occurrence in wild ruminants are scanty worldwide, including in Italy. The aim of this retrospective study was to verify the occurrence of the main bacterial and protozoan abortive agents in 72 spleen samples previously collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) living in mountain areas of Central Italy. All samples were collected and submitted to DNA extraction for other investigations. Molecular analyses were carried out on the DNA samples to detect Brucella spp., Chlamydia abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii. Three (4.16%) roe deer resulted PCR positive for C. burnetii and one (1.38%) for T. gondii. These findings suggest that roe deer living in the investigated areas do not act as important reservoirs of the searched agents. However, the tested animals lived in a closed area without contact with domestic animals that are usually involved in the epidemiology of the investigated pathogens. Monitoring of wild ruminants is pivotal to verify changes in the epidemiological scenario from a One Health perspective, too. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases and Surveillance of Farm and Wild Animals)
13 pages, 740 KiB  
Article
Health Status of the Eastern Grey Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) Population in Umbria: Results of the LIFE Project ‘U-SAVEREDS’
by Deborah Cruciani, Silvia Crotti, Daniele Paoloni, Valentina La Morgia, Andrea Felici, Paola Papa, Gian Mario Cosseddu, Livia Moscati and Paola Gobbi
Animals 2022, 12(20), 2741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12202741 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1844
Abstract
The introduction of the Eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Europe is one of the best-known cases of invasive alien species (IAS) colonisation, that poses a severe risk to the conservation of biodiversity. In 2003, it was released in a private [...] Read more.
The introduction of the Eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Europe is one of the best-known cases of invasive alien species (IAS) colonisation, that poses a severe risk to the conservation of biodiversity. In 2003, it was released in a private wildlife park near the city of Perugia (Italy), where it is replacing the native Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris). The LIFE13 BIO/IT/000204 Project (U-SAVEREDS) was set up for the Sciurus vulgaris conservation in Umbria through an eradication campaign of grey squirrels. One hundred and fifty-four animals were analysed for bacteriological, mycological, virological, and serological investigations (C4 action). Sanitary screening showed that Sciurus carolinensis is a dermatophyte carrier, and therefore, it could cause public health issues for humans, considering its confident behaviour. Moreover, it has been marginally responsible for the spreading of Candida albicans, Coxiella burnetii, and Borrelia lusitaniae. Health status evaluation conducted on the Sciurus carolinensis population indicated that it is necessary to raise awareness of its impacts on biodiversity and human health. Moreover, the health status and behaviours of the IAS must be considered when control or eradication campaigns are planned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases and Surveillance of Farm and Wild Animals)
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Review

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24 pages, 2669 KiB  
Review
Hepatitis E Virus in Livestock—Update on Its Epidemiology and Risk of Infection to Humans
by Hanna Turlewicz-Podbielska, Agata Augustyniak, Jarosław Wojciechowski and Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól
Animals 2023, 13(20), 3239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13203239 - 17 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a public health problem worldwide and an important food pathogen known for its zoonotic potential. Increasing numbers of infection cases with human HEV are caused by the zoonotic transmission of genotypes 3 and 4, mainly by consuming contaminated, [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a public health problem worldwide and an important food pathogen known for its zoonotic potential. Increasing numbers of infection cases with human HEV are caused by the zoonotic transmission of genotypes 3 and 4, mainly by consuming contaminated, undercooked or raw porcine meat. Pigs are the main reservoir of HEV. However, it should be noted that other animal species, such as cattle, sheep, goats, and rabbits, may also be a source of infection for humans. Due to the detection of HEV RNA in the milk and tissues of cattle, the consumption of infected uncooked milk and meat or offal from these species also poses a potential risk of zoonotic HEV infections. Poultry infected by avian HEV may also develop symptomatic disease, although avian HEV is not considered a zoonotic pathogen. HEV infection has a worldwide distribution with different prevalence rates depending on the affected animal species, sampling region, or breeding system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases and Surveillance of Farm and Wild Animals)
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