Small Animal Orthopedic Surgery, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 July 2024 | Viewed by 4395

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: orthopedics; surgery; CO2 LASER surgery; brain surgery; plastic and reconstruction; rehabilitation; transplantation; sports medicine

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Guest Editor
GNR – Guarda Nacional Republicana Portuguesa, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: orthopedics; surgery; rehabilitation; sports medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bones, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and joints are key structures of the musculoskeletal system. Their functions and relationships affect the patient’s mobility and quality of life. Illness or injury in any of them is associated with a lack of daily performance of the body and patient activity. This Special Edition on “Small Animals’ Orthopedic Surgery, Physical Therapy, and Rehabilitation” aims to present the state of the art around basic and clinical research issues with an impact on patient care, involving broad conditions of the musculoskeletal system. Three scientific branches, i.e., orthopedic surgery, physical therapy, and rehabilitation, comprise patient orthopedic rehabilitation. In fact, physical therapy and rehabilitation protocols are particularly important in the orthopedic surgery outcome, helping the patient to return to their normal life more quickly and optimizing the body’s physical ability.

Prof. Dr. L. Miguel Carreira
Dr. João Alves
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • orthopedic rehabilitation physical therapy
  • orthopedic surgery
  • osteoarthritis
  • musculoskeletal system
  • surgical sports medicine
  • balance and stability
  • orthopedic pain

Published Papers (3 papers)

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11 pages, 1057 KiB  
Article
A Preliminary Report on the Combined Effect of Intra-Articular Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections and Photobiomodulation in Canine Osteoarthritis
by J. C. Alves, Ana Santos and L. Miguel Carreira
Animals 2023, 13(20), 3247; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13203247 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is highly prevalent in the canine population. Due to the multiple dimensions of the disease, a multimodal approach is usually favored by clinicians. To evaluate the combined treatment with intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and photobiomodulation in dogs with bilateral hip OA, [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is highly prevalent in the canine population. Due to the multiple dimensions of the disease, a multimodal approach is usually favored by clinicians. To evaluate the combined treatment with intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and photobiomodulation in dogs with bilateral hip OA, thirty dogs were assigned to a PRP group (PRPG, n = 10), a photobiomodulation group (PBMTG, n = 10), or a combined therapies group (PRP+PBMTG, n = 10). The PRPG received two intra-articular administrations of platelet-rich plasma 14 days apart. The PBMTG received photobiomodulation with a therapeutic laser, with three sessions every other day in week one; two sessions in week two; a single session in week three; and one session/month on follow-up evaluation days. The PRP+PBMTG received the two combined therapies. The response to treatment was evaluated with weight-bearing distribution and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory, the Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs, and the Canine Orthopedic Index. Evaluations were conducted before treatment and +8, +15, +30, +60, and +90 days after initial treatment. Normality was assessed with a Shapiro–Wilk test, and the groups’ results in each evaluation moment were compared using a Mann–Whitney U test. Animals of both sexes (male n = 19, female n = 11) were included in the sample, with a mean age of 7.8 ± 2.5 years and a body weight of 26.5 ± 4.7 kg. Joints were classified as mild (n = 6, three in PRPG, two in PBMTG, and one in PRP+PBMTG), moderate (n = 18, six in PRPG, five in PBMTG, and seven in PRP+PBMTG), and severe (n = 6, one in PRPG, three in PBMTG, and two in PRP+PBMTG). No differences were found between groups at the initial evaluation. All treatments produced clinically significant improvements compared to the assessment on treatment day. The combination of PRP and photobiomodulation produced greater, longer-lasting improvements. PRP and photobiomodulation can improve objective outcomes and client-reported outcome measures in dogs with OA. Their combined use leads to greater, longer-lasting, clinically significant improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Animal Orthopedic Surgery, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation)
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16 pages, 1122 KiB  
Article
Knee Joint Osteoarthritis in Overweight Cats: The Clinical and Radiographic Findings
by Joanna Bonecka, Michał Skibniewski, Paweł Zep and Małgorzata Domino
Animals 2023, 13(15), 2427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13152427 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2175
Abstract
Despite a high prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) reported in the domesticated cat population, studies on feline knee joint OA are scarcer. Knee joint OA is a painful, age-related, chronic degenerative joint disease that significantly affects cats’ activity and quality of life. In dogs [...] Read more.
Despite a high prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) reported in the domesticated cat population, studies on feline knee joint OA are scarcer. Knee joint OA is a painful, age-related, chronic degenerative joint disease that significantly affects cats’ activity and quality of life. In dogs and humans, one may consider overweight as a risk factor for the development and progression of knee joint OA; therefore, this study aims to assess the severity of knee joint OA in the body-weight-related groups of cats concerning clinical symptoms and radiographic signs. The study was conducted on sixty-four (n = 64) cats with confirmed OA. The demographic data on sex, neutering, age, and breed were collected. Then, the body condition score (BCS) was assessed, and each cat was allocated to the underweight, normal-weight, or overweight group. Within clinical symptoms, joint pain, joint swelling, joint deformities, lameness, reluctance to move, and apathy were graded. Based on the radiographic signs, minor OA, mild OA, moderate OA, and severe OA were scored. Prevalence and co-occurrence of the studied variables were then assessed. Joint pain was elicited in 20–31% of the OA-affected joints, joint deformities in 21–30%, and lameness in 20–54%, with no differences between weight-related groups. Severe OA was detected in 10–16% of the OA-affected joints, with no differences between weight-related groups. Severe OA in feline knee joints appears with similar frequency in overweight, underweight, and normal-weight cats. However, the general prevalence of clinical symptoms and radiographic signs is different in overweight cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Animal Orthopedic Surgery, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation)
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10 pages, 1421 KiB  
Case Report
Treatment of a Large Tibial Non-Union Bone Defect in a Cat Using Xenograft with Canine-Derived Cancellous Bone, Demineralized Bone Matrix, and Autograft
by Keun-Yung Kim, Minha Oh and Minkyung Kim
Animals 2024, 14(5), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14050690 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 523
Abstract
A 17-month-old domestic short-hair cat was referred due to a non-union in the left tibia. The initial repair, conducted 3 months prior at another animal hospital, involved an intramedullary (IM) pin and wire to address a comminuted fracture. Unfortunately, the wire knot caused [...] Read more.
A 17-month-old domestic short-hair cat was referred due to a non-union in the left tibia. The initial repair, conducted 3 months prior at another animal hospital, involved an intramedullary (IM) pin and wire to address a comminuted fracture. Unfortunately, the wire knot caused a skin tract, resulting in osteomyelitis. Although the wire knot was removed at that hospital, the draining tract persisted, continuously discharging exudate. Upon evaluation, the first surgery was reassessed and revised, involving the removal of the IM pin and the application of external skeletal fixation alongside an antibiotic susceptibility test. After 118 days post-revision surgery, while some cortical continuity was observed, a significant bone defect persisted, posing a substantial risk of refracture should the implant be removed. A second revision surgery was performed, utilizing a bone plate combined with cancellous bone autograft, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, and xenograft featuring a canine-derived cancellous chip mixed with demineralized bone matrix. Remarkably, the bone completed its healing within 105 days following the subsequent surgery. Radiography demonstrated successful management of the large bone defect up to the 2-year postoperative check-up. During telephone follow-ups for 3.5 years after surgery, no complications were identified, and the subject maintained a favorable gait. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Animal Orthopedic Surgery, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: A preliminary report on the combined effect of intra-articular platelet-rich plasma injections and photobiomodulation in canine osteoarthritis
Authors: J. C. Alves; Ana Santos; Luis Miguel Carreira
Affiliation: Divisão de Medicina Veterinária
Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is highly prevalent in the canine population. Due to the multiple dimensions of the disease, a multi-modal approach is usually favored by clinicians. To evaluate the combined treatment with intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and photobiomodulation in dogs with bilateral hip OA, thirty dogs were assigned to a PRP group (PRPG, n=10), a photobiomodulation group (PBMTG, n=10), or a combined therapies group (PRP+PBMTG, n=10). PRPG received two intra-articular administrations of platelet-rich plasma 14 days apart. PBMTG received photobiomodulation with a therapeutic laser, with three sessions every other day on week one; two sessions on week two; a single session on week three; and one session/month on follow-up evaluation days. PRP+PBMTG received the two combined therapies. Response to treatment was evaluated with weight-bearing distribution and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory, Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs, and Canine Orthopedic Index. Evaluations were conducted before treatment, +8, +15, +30, +60, and +90 days after initial treatment. Normality was assessed with a Shapiro-Wilk test, and the groups' results in each evaluation moment were compared using a Mann–Whitney U test. The sample comprised animals of both sexes (male n=19, female n=11), with a mean age of 7.8±2.5 years and a body weight of 26.5±4.7kg. Joints were classified as mild (6), moderate (18), and severe (6). No differences were found between groups at the initial evaluation. All treatments produced linically significant improvements compared to the assessment on treatment day. The combination of PRP and photobiomodulation produced greater, longer-lasting improvements. PRP and photobiomodulation can improve objective outcomes and client-reported outcome measures in dogs with OA. Their combined use leads to greater, longer-lasting, clinically significant improvements.

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