Research Advances in Dairy Cow Nutrition

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2023) | Viewed by 10589

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Chr. Hansen A/S, 2970 Hørsholm, Denmark
Interests: ruminant nutrition; ruminant physiology; feeds; immunology; endocrinology

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Guest Editor
Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
Interests: nutritional management; beef cattle operations; reproductive responses in cattle; offspring performance; immunity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ruminant production systems and, more specifically, dairy production have been challenged to produce more milk with fewer natural resources, while also minimizing potential negative impacts on the environment. To achieve such a goal, improvements on nutrition, health, and genetics are required and must take place together. Hence, the objective of this Special Issue is to bring to light recent advances into any of these aspects, as well as nutrition and how the productivity of dairy operations has been improving over the years with the use of precise nutrition and feeding. In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Bruno Cappellozza
Dr. Rodrigo Marques
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • dairy cow
  • energy
  • fatty acids
  • nutrition
  • protein
  • transition period

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 2088 KiB  
Article
Rumen-Protected Choline Improves Metabolism and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows
by Fábio Soares de Lima, Manoel Francisco Sá Filho, Leandro Ferreira Greco and José Eduardo Portela Santos
Animals 2024, 14(7), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14071016 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Choline is required for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, an important constituent of lipoproteins. Early lactation cows presumably synthesize insufficient phosphatidylcholine, and choline supplementation in a rumen-protected form might benefit metabolism and lactation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of [...] Read more.
Choline is required for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, an important constituent of lipoproteins. Early lactation cows presumably synthesize insufficient phosphatidylcholine, and choline supplementation in a rumen-protected form might benefit metabolism and lactation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding rumen-protected choline (RPC) on lactation and metabolism in dairy cows. In experiment 1, 369 nulliparous and parous Holstein cows housed in four pens per treatment were fed 12.9 g/day of choline as RPC from 25 days prepartum until 80 days postpartum. In experiment 2, 578 nulliparous cows housed in five pens/treatment were fed 12.9 g/day of choline as RPC in the last 22 days of gestation only. In both experiments, blood was sampled and analyzed for concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and glucose at 1, 14, and 21 days postpartum and of choline at 1 and 14 days postpartum. Blood from all cows was sampled and analyzed for concentrations of β-OH butyrate (BHB) at 1 and 14 days postpartum. Cows with BHB > 1.2 mmol/L were classified as having hyperketonemia. Hepatic tissue was collected from 46 cows from the eight pens in experiment 1 at 9 days postpartum and analyzed for concentrations of glycogen and triacylglycerol. Milk yield and components were measured for 80 days postpartum in experiment 1, whereas only milk yield was measured in experiment 2. The pen was the experimental unit of analysis. Supplementing RPC tended to increase dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum in experiments 1 and 2 and postpartum in experiment 1. Feeding cows with RPC increased yields of 3.5% fat-corrected milk (42.8 vs. 44.8 kg/day), energy-corrected milk (38.5 vs. 40.3 kg/day), milk fat (1.52 vs. 1.61 kg/day), and true protein (1.16 vs. 1.21 kg/day) in experiment 1. Milk yield tended to be greater with RPC (26.4 vs. 27.4 kg/day) in experiment 2. Supplementing RPC increased plasma choline concentrations on day 14 postpartum in experiment 1 (3.32 ± 0.27 vs. 4.34 ± 0.28 µM) and on day 1 in experiment 2 (3.35 ± 0.16 and 13.73 ± 0.15 µM). Treatment did not affect the concentrations of glucose, NEFAs, or BHB in plasma, but the incidence of hyperketonemia was less in multiparous cows fed RPC than those fed the control in experiment 1. Feeding cows with RPC reduced hepatic triacylglycerol content and tended to reduce the ratio of triacylglycerol to glycogen and the risk of hepatic lipidosis in cows in experiment 1. The concentrations of hepatic triacylglycerol on day 9 postpartum were inversely related to those of choline in plasma on day 1 postpartum. Feeding cows with RPC improved lactation and metabolism, but more benefits were noted when it was fed before and after calving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances in Dairy Cow Nutrition)
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11 pages, 469 KiB  
Article
Stability of Bacillus and Enterococcus faecium 669 Probiotic Strains When Added to Different Feed Matrices Used in Dairy Production
by Bruno I. Cappellozza, Audrey Segura, Nina Milora, Christel Galschioet, Mette Schjelde and Giuseppe Copani
Animals 2023, 13(14), 2350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13142350 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
Few data are available evaluating the stability of direct-fed microbials (DFM) following their inclusion in different feed matrices. Therefore, six Exp. evaluated the recovery of bacilli spores (BOVACILLUSTM; Exp. 1 to 3) and an Enterococcus faecium DFM (LACTIFERM®; Exp. [...] Read more.
Few data are available evaluating the stability of direct-fed microbials (DFM) following their inclusion in different feed matrices. Therefore, six Exp. evaluated the recovery of bacilli spores (BOVACILLUSTM; Exp. 1 to 3) and an Enterococcus faecium DFM (LACTIFERM®; Exp. 4 to 6) when included in different feed preparations. The Bacillus-based DFM was included into pelleted feed prepared in different temperatures (75 to 95 °C), whereas both DFM were assessed in premix and milk replacer preparations. Bacillus spores and E. faecium recovery was evaluated through standard methodologies and data were reported as log10 colony forming units/gram of feed. The recovery of Bacillus spores was within the expected range and was not impacted by the temperature of pellet preparation (Exp. 1). Bacilli recovery was also stable up to 12 months in the premix and was not impacted by the temperature of milk replacer preparation. Regarding the Exp. with E. faecium (Exp. 4 to 6), its recoveries in the mineral premix and milk powder did not differ from T0 and were not impacted by the conditions of milk replacer preparation. These data are novel and demonstrate the stability of a Bacillus-based and an E. faecium-based DFM when included in different feed matrices often used in dairy production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances in Dairy Cow Nutrition)
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20 pages, 349 KiB  
Article
Effects of Amount and Profile of Amino Acids Supply on Lactation Performance, Mammary Gland Metabolism, and Nitrogen Efficiency in Holstein Dairy Cows
by Marina A. C. Danes, Eduardo M. Paula, Claudia Parys, Gleiciele M. Souza, João Pedro A. Rezende, Glen A. Broderick and Michel A. Wattiaux
Animals 2023, 13(11), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13111866 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
To evaluate the effects of amount and profile of amino acid (AA) on milk protein yield (MPY), mammary metabolism, and efficiency of nitrogen use (ENU), ten cows were used in 5 × 5 replicated Latin squares and fed a positive control (16.1% crude [...] Read more.
To evaluate the effects of amount and profile of amino acid (AA) on milk protein yield (MPY), mammary metabolism, and efficiency of nitrogen use (ENU), ten cows were used in 5 × 5 replicated Latin squares and fed a positive control (16.1% crude protein-CP) or two lower CP diets (14.6 and 13.2%) with or without essential AA (EAA) infusion. The EAA solutions provided predicted limiting EAA in each treatment and were continuously infused into the abomasum of the cows. Milk production and MPY were not affected by treatment (mean 35.4 kg/d and 1.03 kg/d, respectively). Efficiency of nitrogen utilization was increased as dietary CP decreased but was not affected by EAA infusion (p < 0.01). Energy-corrected milk production was increased by EAA infusion into 13.2% CP, but not into 14.6% CP diet (p = 0.09), reaching the positive control value. Infusions increased mammary affinity for non-infused EAA (Ile, Phe, Thr, and Trp), allowing the same MPY despite lower arterial concentrations of these AA. Higher arterial concentrations of infused EAA did not increase their mammary uptake and MPY (p = 0.40; p = 0.85). Mammary metabolism did not fully explain changes in N efficiency, suggesting that it might be driven by less extramammary catabolism as AA supply was reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances in Dairy Cow Nutrition)
11 pages, 1195 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Profile in Dairy Cows Resistant or Sensitive to Milk Fat Depression
by Adriana Siurana, Angela Cánovas, Joaquim Casellas and Sergio Calsamiglia
Animals 2023, 13(7), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13071199 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Feeding linseed to dairy cows results in milk fat depression (MFD), but there is a wide range of sensitivity among cows. The objectives of this study were to identify target genes containing SNP that may play a key role in the regulation of [...] Read more.
Feeding linseed to dairy cows results in milk fat depression (MFD), but there is a wide range of sensitivity among cows. The objectives of this study were to identify target genes containing SNP that may play a key role in the regulation of milk fat synthesis in cows resistant or sensitive to MFD. Four cows were selected from a dairy farm after a switch from a control diet to a linseed-rich diet; two were resistant to MFD with a high milk fat content in the control (4.06%) and linseed-rich (3.90%) diets; and two were sensitive to MFD with the milk fat content decreasing after the change from the control (3.87%) to linseed-rich (2.52%) diets. Transcriptome and SNP discovery analyses were performed using RNA-sequencing technology. There was a large number of differentially expressed genes in the control (n = 1316) and linseed-rich (n = 1888) diets. Of these, 15 genes were detected as key gene regulators and harboring SNP in the linseed-rich diet. The selected genes MTOR, PDPK1, EREG, NOTCH1, ZNF217 and TGFB3 may form a network with a principal axis PI3K/Akt/MTOR/SREBP1 involved in milk fat synthesis and in the response to diets that induced MFD. These 15 genes are novel candidate genes to be involved in the resistance or sensitivity of dairy cows to milk fat depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances in Dairy Cow Nutrition)
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12 pages, 320 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Quality of Milk Fat from Cows Fed Full-Fat Corn Germ in Diets Containing Cactus Opuntia and Sugarcane Bagasse as Forage Sources
by Camila S. da Silva, Marco A. S. Gama, Erick A. M. Silva, Emília F. Ribeiro, Felipe G. Souza, Carolina C. F. Monteiro, Robert E. Mora-Luna, Júlio C. V. Oliveira, Djalma C. Santos and Marcelo de A. Ferreira
Animals 2023, 13(4), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13040568 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
We evaluated the performance, milk composition, and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets composed of cactus cladodes (Opuntia stricta [Haw.] Haw), sugarcane bagasse and increasing levels of full-fat corn germ (FFCG). We hypothesized that ground corn can be effectively replaced [...] Read more.
We evaluated the performance, milk composition, and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets composed of cactus cladodes (Opuntia stricta [Haw.] Haw), sugarcane bagasse and increasing levels of full-fat corn germ (FFCG). We hypothesized that ground corn can be effectively replaced by FFCG when cactus cladodes and sugarcane bagasse are used as forage sources. The cows were randomly distributed into two 5 × 5 Latin Squares and fed five diets in which ground corn was progressively replaced with full-fat corn germ (FFCG; 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of substitution). Adding FFCG to the diet increased milk production and milk fat content and reduced milk protein content. Overall, FFCG reduced the proportion of saturated FAs and increased mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in milk, including CLA isomers. In addition, activity indices of stearoyl-CoA desaturase were reduced by increasing levels of FFCG. We conclude that the substitution of corn for FFCG in diets based on cactus cladodes and sugarcane bagasse positively modifies the FA profile of milk and could add commercial value to milk products (e.g., CLA-enriched milk). In addition, the milk fat response indicates that the basal diet was favorable to the rumen environment, preventing the trans-10 shift commonly associated with milk fat depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances in Dairy Cow Nutrition)
9 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Effect of Temperature and Humidity on Milk Urea Nitrogen Concentration
by Takula Tshuma, Geoffrey Fosgate, Edward Webb, Corlia Swanepoel and Dietmar Holm
Animals 2023, 13(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13020295 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of ambient temperature and humidity on milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration in Holstein cows. Meteorological data corresponding to the dates of milk sampling were collected over six years. A linear mixed-effects model including a random effect term for [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of ambient temperature and humidity on milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration in Holstein cows. Meteorological data corresponding to the dates of milk sampling were collected over six years. A linear mixed-effects model including a random effect term for cow identification was used to assess whether temperature and humidity were predictive of MUN concentration. Age, days in milk, temperature humidity index (THI), ration, milk yield, parity and somatic cell count were also evaluated as main effects in the model. A general linear model including all variables as random effects was then fitted to assess the contribution of each variable towards the variability in MUN concentration. Maximum daily temperature and humidity on the sampling day were positively associated with MUN concentration, but their interaction term was negatively associated, indicating that their effects were not independent and additive. Variables that contributed the most to the variability of MUN concentration were dietary crude protein (21%), temperature (18%) and other factors (24%) that were not assessed in the model (error term). Temperature has a significant influence on urea nitrogen concentration and should therefore always be considered when urea nitrogen concentration data are used to make inferences about the dietary management of dairy cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances in Dairy Cow Nutrition)
11 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Effects of Sugar Beet Silage, High-Moisture Corn, and Corn Silage Feed Supplementation on the Performance of Dairy Cows with Restricted Daily Access to Pasture
by José A. Aleixo, José Daza, Juan P. Keim, Ismael Castillo and Rubén G. Pulido
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192672 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
A study was undertaken to assess the effect of supplementation with sugar beet silage, corn silage, or high-moisture corn on dairy performance, rumen, and plasma metabolites in dairy cows under conditions of restricted grazing in spring. Eighteen multiparous Holstein Friesian cows, stratified for [...] Read more.
A study was undertaken to assess the effect of supplementation with sugar beet silage, corn silage, or high-moisture corn on dairy performance, rumen, and plasma metabolites in dairy cows under conditions of restricted grazing in spring. Eighteen multiparous Holstein Friesian cows, stratified for milk yield (39.4 kg/day ± 3.00), days of lactation (67.0 days ± 22.5), live weight (584 kg ± 38.0), and number of calves (5.0 ± 1.5), were allocated in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: SBS (10 kg DM of permanent pasture, 7 kg DM of sugar beet silage, 4 kg DM of concentrate, 0.3 kg DM of pasture silage, 0.21 kg of mineral supplement); corn silage (10 kg DM of permanent pasture, 7 kg DM of corn silage, 4 kg DM of concentrate, 0.3 kg DM of pasture silage, 0.21 kg of mineral supplement), and HMC (10 kg DM of permanent pasture, 5 kg DM of high-moisture corn, 4.5 kg DM of concentrate, 1.2 kg DM of pasture silage, 0.21 kg of mineral supplement). Pasture was offered rotationally from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Between afternoon and morning milking, the cows were housed receiving a partial mixed ration and water ad libitum. The effect of treatments on milk production, milk composition, body weight, rumen function, and blood parameters were analyzed using a linear–mixed model. Pasture dry matter intake (DMI) was lower in SBS than CS (p < 0.05) and similar to HMC, but total DMI was higher in HMC than SBS (p < 0.05) and similar to CS. Milk production for treatments (32.6, 31.7, and 33.4 kg/cow/day for SBS, CS, and HMC, respectively), live weight, and fat concentration were not modified by treatments, but milk protein concentration was lower for SBS compared with HMC (p < 0.05) and similar to CS. B-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, and albumin were not different among treatments (p > 0.05), while urea was higher in SBS, medium in CS silage, and lower in HMC (p < 0.001). Ruminal pH and the total VFA concentrations were not modified by treatments (p > 0.05), which averaged 6.45 and 102.03 mmol/L, respectively. However, an interaction was observed for total VFA concentration between treatment and sampling time (p < 0.05), showing that HMC produced more VFA at 10:00 p.m. compared with the other treatments. To conclude, the supplementation with sugar beet silage allowed a milk response and composition similar to corn silage and HMC, but with a lower concentration of milk protein than HMC. In addition, sugar beet silage can be used as an alternative supplement for high-producing dairy cows with restricted access to grazing during spring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances in Dairy Cow Nutrition)

Review

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34 pages, 1768 KiB  
Review
N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids as a Nutritional Support of the Reproductive and Immune System of Cattle—A Review
by Julia Fabjanowska, Edyta Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Renata Klebaniuk, Szymon Milewski and Hıdır Gümüş
Animals 2023, 13(22), 3589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13223589 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1759
Abstract
This paper focuses on the role of n-3 fatty acids as a nutrient crucial to the proper functioning of reproductive and immune systems in cattle. Emphasis was placed on the connection between maternal and offspring immunity. The summarized results confirm the importance and [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the role of n-3 fatty acids as a nutrient crucial to the proper functioning of reproductive and immune systems in cattle. Emphasis was placed on the connection between maternal and offspring immunity. The summarized results confirm the importance and beneficial effect of n-3 family fatty acids on ruminant organisms. Meanwhile, dietary n-3 fatty acids supplementation, especially during the critical first week for dairy cows experiencing their peripartum period, in general, is expected to enhance reproductive performance, and the impact of its supplementation appears to be dependent on body condition scores of cows during the drying period, the severity of the negative energy balance, and the amount of fat in the basic feed ration. An unbalanced, insufficient, or excessive fatty acid supplementation of cows’ diets in the early stages of pregnancy (during fetus development) may affect both the metabolic and nutritional programming of the offspring. The presence of the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 family in the calves’ ration affects not only the performance of calves but also the immune response, antioxidant status, and overall metabolism of the future adult cow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances in Dairy Cow Nutrition)
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