Infection and Immunity Response Mechanism of Coronavirus in Animals

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 3941

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Interests: rapid detection; single molecule technology; infection and immunity; coronavirus; RNA viruses; immunometabolism; intestinal health; protein engineering; protein drugs; vaccine
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Guest Editor
College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
Interests: viral diseases; infection and immunity mechanism of coronavirus and flavivirus; innate immunity; immune evasion; virus-host interactions; novel vaccine developments

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Guest Editor
College of Animal Science, Anhui Science and Technology University, Chuzhou 233100, China
Interests: porcine enteric coronavirus infection; isolation and identification of porcine enteroviruses; viral entry pathways; virus-host interactions; live cell imaging

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Guest Editor
College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Interests: ligand-induced dynamic changes of RNA structures using smFRET, RNA metabolism and immunity; novel detection techniques using fluorescence bioimaging method

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome whose size is about 30 kilobases (kb), encoding 16 nonstructural proteins (NSPs), 4 structural proteins, and several accessory proteins. Coronaviruses consist of four genera, namely Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Deltacoronavirus, and Gammacoronavirus, and can infect a wide range of avian and mammalian hosts including humans.

Over the last two decades, humans have witnessed and suffered three major bat-derived coronavirus pandemics: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1) in 2002, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 causing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019. In addition, animals also suffer from coronavirus pandemics; for example, porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) is a major causative agent of swine enteric disease in pigs of all ages. It was initially reported in the United Kingdom and Belgium in the early 1970s, and a highly pathogenic variant strain was identified in 2010, which caused high morbidity of up to 100% in piglets. Other animal coronaviruses, such as transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), feline coronavirus (FCoV), etc., cause huge economic loss in human society. With the lack of a basic understanding of the infection and immunity mechanism of coronavirus, current antiviral therapeutic strategies or vaccines cannot provide complete protection from coronavirus infection.

In recent years, efforts have been made to understand the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the high level of viral transmissibility. The characterization of the coronavirus infection process, as well as viral and host factors that are involved in the pathogenesis of viral infection; broad tissue tropism or interspecies transmission; the development of novel or repurposed therapeutic agents targeting host–pathogen interaction; the molecular mechanism underlying vaccines or drugs and possible viral breakthrough infections and immune evasion, etc., remains largely unexplored.

This Special Issue, “Infection and Immunity Response Mechanism of Coronavirus in Animals”, will focus on but not be limited to the topics mentioned above. We accept original research articles, critical reviews, and commentaries. Research regarding coronaviruses in a wide spectrum of animals including domestic or wild animals is welcome.

We look forward to receiving your contributions that will improve our knowledge of the infection and immunity mechanism of coronavirus in animals.

Prof. Dr. Fei Liu
Dr. Honglei Zhang
Dr. Yangyang Li
Dr. Yanke Shan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • coronavirus
  • infection
  • immunity
  • anti-virus
  • vaccines
  • mechanism
 

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 798 KiB  
Article
Demonstration of SARS-CoV-2 Exposure in Korean Native Cattle and Korean Native Black Goats in Korea
by Da-Yun Bae, Ju-Hee Yang, Sung-Hyun Moon, Woo H. Kim, Dae-Sung Yoo, Choi-Kyu Park, Yeun-Kyung Shin, Hae-Eun Kang, Dongseob Tark, Yeonsu Oh and Ho-Seong Cho
Animals 2023, 13(22), 3498; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13223498 - 13 Nov 2023
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Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 virus. A wide range of animals that interact with humans have been investigated to identify potential infections. As the extent of infection became more apparent, extensive animal monitoring became necessary to assess their susceptibility. [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 virus. A wide range of animals that interact with humans have been investigated to identify potential infections. As the extent of infection became more apparent, extensive animal monitoring became necessary to assess their susceptibility. This study analyzed nasal swabs and blood samples collected from randomly selected Korean native cattle and Korean native black goats. The tests conducted included real-time qPCR to detect SARS-CoV-2 antigens, an ELISA to detect antibodies, and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Among the 1798 animals tested (consisting of 1174 Korean native cattle and 624 Korean native black goats), SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA was detected in one Korean native cattle and one Korean native black goat. ELISA testing revealed positive results for antibodies in 54 Korean native cattle (4.60%) and 16 Korean native black goats (2.56%), while PRNTs yielded positive results in 51 Korean native cattle (4.34%) and 14 Korean native black goats (2.24%). The presence of SARS-CoV-2 antigens and/or antibodies was identified in animals on farms where farmworkers were already infected. It is challenging to completely rule out the possibility of reverse zoonotic transmission from humans to livestock in Korea, although the transmission is not to the same extent as it is in highly susceptible animal species like minks, cats, and dogs. This is due to the limited geographical area and the dense, intensive farming practices implemented in these regions. In conclusion, continuous viral circulation between humans and animals is inevitable, necessitating ongoing animal monitoring to ensure public health and safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infection and Immunity Response Mechanism of Coronavirus in Animals)
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13 pages, 4654 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Application of Gaseous Ozone on Selected Pathogens Found in Animal Shelters and Other Facilities
by Veronika Vojtkovská, Dana Lobová, Eva Voslářová and Vladimír Večerek
Animals 2023, 13(20), 3230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13203230 - 17 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Correctly selecting disinfection procedures is crucial in facilities housing a high number of animals as it directly affects their health. The aim of this study was to verify the virucidal effect of gaseous ozone delivered by commercially available generators under controlled experimental conditions [...] Read more.
Correctly selecting disinfection procedures is crucial in facilities housing a high number of animals as it directly affects their health. The aim of this study was to verify the virucidal effect of gaseous ozone delivered by commercially available generators under controlled experimental conditions on a selection of viral pathogens (feline coronavirus, canine coronavirus, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus) commonly found in shelters and other facilities. Two ozone generators with outputs of 3.5 g/h and 20 g/h were used to produce ozone. Virus viability after the application of ozone was evaluated by examining for typical pathogen-specific cytopathic effects on the CRFK (Crandell–Rees Feline Kidney) cell line post-incubation. No cytopathic effect was observed in feline coronavirus after the 2-h application of ozone; in canine coronavirus, the absence of a cytopathic effect was observed after the 4-h application of ozone. The absence of a cytopathic effect in feline calicivirus was observed after the 6-h application of ozone; the viability of feline parvovirus was not impaired even by the 6-h application of ozone. The results of the study confirm lower resistance to the application of gaseous ozone in enveloped viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infection and Immunity Response Mechanism of Coronavirus in Animals)
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13 pages, 9326 KiB  
Article
Natural Evolution of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses Isolated from Maternally Immunized Piglets
by Yufang Ge, Feiyang Jiang, Sibei Wang, Heqiong Wu, Yuan Liu, Bin Wang, Wei Hou, Xiuju Yu and Haidong Wang
Animals 2023, 13(11), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13111766 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1131
Abstract
The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause severe piglet diarrhea or death in some herds. Genetic recombination and mutation facilitate the continuous evolution of the virus (PEDV), posing a great challenge for the prevention and control of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED). Disease [...] Read more.
The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause severe piglet diarrhea or death in some herds. Genetic recombination and mutation facilitate the continuous evolution of the virus (PEDV), posing a great challenge for the prevention and control of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED). Disease materials of piglets with PEDV vaccination failure in some areas of Shanxi, Henan and Hebei provinces of China were collected and examined to understand the prevalence and evolutionary characteristics of PEDV in these areas. Forty-seven suspicious disease materials from different litters on different farms were tested by multiplex PCR and screened by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. PEDV showed a positivity rate of 42.6%, infecting the small and large intestine and mesenteric lymph node tissues. The isolated strains infected Vero, PK-15 and Marc-145 multihost cells and exhibited low viral titers in all three cell types, as indicated by their growth kinetic curves. Possible putative recombination events in the isolates were identified by RDP4.0 software. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that compared with the classical vaccine strain, PEDV SX6 contains new insertion and mutations in the S region and belongs to genotype GIIa. Meanwhile, ORF3 has the complete amino acid sequence with aa80 mutated wild strains, compared to vaccine strains CV777, AJ1102, AJ1102-R and LW/L. These results will contribute to the development of new PEDV vaccines based on prevalent wild strains for the prevention and control of PED in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infection and Immunity Response Mechanism of Coronavirus in Animals)
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