Advances in Canine Leishmaniosis

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2024 | Viewed by 17030

Special Issue Editors


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Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples Federico II, via Federico Delpino, 1, 80137 Napoli, Italy
Interests: canine leishmaniosis; canine vector-borne diseases

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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples Federico II, via Federico Delpino, 1, 80137 Napoli, Italy
Interests: canine vector-borne diseases; diagnosis of parasitic infections

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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Canine leishmaniosis (CanL), as caused by infection with Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi), is a vector-borne protozoal disease. CanL is an important zoonotic disease associated with the long history of companionship between dogs and humans. CanL affects approximately 1.3 million dogs in Mediterranean and peri-Mediterranean areas each year; more than 20 million infected dogs have been estimated all around Europe. Beyond the Mediterranean basin, additional CanL endemic areas include an expanding region of the Americas and Asia. Dogs are the predominant reservoir host for human infection; a high seroprevalence of CanL can be geographically associated with a portion of the 20,000 to 30,000 annual human deaths attributed to this disease. Leishmania parasites predominantly transmit to mammalian hosts via phlebotomine sand flies. CanL is characterized by a different range of clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities, with a long period of subclinical infection.

The prevention and management of CanL has progressed over the last several years due to a better understanding of the canine immune response during infection. This progress has provided better assessment of treatment efficacy and growing knowledge regarding the multi-host ecology of Leishmania infection beyond dogs.

The aim of this Special Issue is to contribute to broadening the existing literature on the topic and to make available advanced data that can help to paint a better picture of leishmaniosis in dogs in order to obtain a rational and homogeneous approach to dogs with clinical leishmaniosis. The scope is broad and open to methods for controlling the transmission of leishmaniosis, as well as papers increasing our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of the disease. Resistance to treatments (preventive and curative) can also be addressed.

For this purpose, we cordially invite you to submit research articles, articles, and short communications related to the various aspects of leishmaniosis on the basis of your expertise.

Prof. Annamaria Passantino
Prof. Dr. Gaetano Oliva
Prof. Dr. Laura Rinaldi
Dr. Michela Pugliese
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Leishmaniosis
  • Dog
  • Pathogenesis
  • Immune response
  • Clinical forms
  • Diagnosis
  • Drug

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 589 KiB  
Article
Is the Prevalence of Leishmania infantum Linked to Breeds in Dogs? Characterization of Seropositive Dogs in Ibiza
by Maria Edo, Pablo Jesús Marín-García and Lola Llobat
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092579 - 2 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3104
Abstract
Leishmaniosis is an important zoonotic protozoan disease primarily spread to the Mediterranean region by Leishmania infantum, the predominant protozoan species, which accounts for the majority of cases. Development of disease depends on the immune response of the definitive host and, predictably, their [...] Read more.
Leishmaniosis is an important zoonotic protozoan disease primarily spread to the Mediterranean region by Leishmania infantum, the predominant protozoan species, which accounts for the majority of cases. Development of disease depends on the immune response of the definitive host and, predictably, their genetic background. Recent studies have revealed breed-typical haplotypes that are susceptible to the spread of the protozoan parasite. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of leishmaniosis on a Mediterranean island and determine the relationship between disease prevalence and breed. In addition, information on seropositive animals was recorded to characterize animals affected by the disease. To study the prevalence, a total of 3141 dogs were analyzed. Of these, the 149 infected animals were examined for age, sex, antibody titer, and disease stage. We observed a prevalence of 4.74%, which varied between breeds (p < 0.05). The Doberman Pinscher and Boxer breeds had the highest prevalence of leishmaniosis. Significant differences were observed between breeds with common ancestors, emphasizing the important genetic component. Finally, regarding the characterization of seropositive animals, the distribution is similar to other studies. We discovered a relationship (p < 0.05) between the number of antibody titers and the clinical disease stage, which was also present in Leishmania infantum, suggesting that the development of the disease depends on the humoral or Th2 immune response with ineffective antibodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Canine Leishmaniosis)
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16 pages, 2814 KiB  
Article
Vitamins A and D and Zinc Affect the Leshmanicidal Activity of Canine Spleen Leukocytes
by Fabiana M. de O. Hernandez, Marilene O. Santos, Gabriela L. Venturin, Jaqueline P. Bragato, Gabriela T. Rebech, Larissa M. Melo, Sidnei F. Costa, Jéssica H. de Freitas, Carlos Eduardo Siqueira, Déborah A. Morais, Wellington T. de S. Júnior, Fernando B. Júnior, Flávia L. Lopes and Valéria M. F. de Lima
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092556 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2808
Abstract
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a chronic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, and the limitations of the current treatments have encouraged new alternatives, such as the use of immunomodulatory nutrients. The objective of this study was to determine the serum levels of vitamin [...] Read more.
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a chronic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, and the limitations of the current treatments have encouraged new alternatives, such as the use of immunomodulatory nutrients. The objective of this study was to determine the serum levels of vitamin A (retinol), vitamin D (25(OH)VD3), and zinc (Zn) in dogs with CanL and the effect of in vitro supplementation with the respective active forms ATRA, 1,25(OH)2VD3, and SZn on spleen leukocyte cultures. Serum retinol, 25(OH)VD3, and Zn were determined by HPLC, ELISA, and ICP-MS, respectively. Spleen leukocyte cultures were used for the detection of NO and ROS by flow cytometry; the IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels were determined by ELISA; and the parasite load was determined by microscopy. We detected low serum levels of retinol and Zn and high levels of 25(OH)VD3 in the CanL group. The in vitro supplementation of CanL spleen leukocytes with ATRA, 1,25(OH)2VD3, and SZn, in addition to a soluble leishmania antigen (SLA) treatment, increased the NO and ROS levels, while the treatments with only ATRA and SZn increased the TNF-a levels. Increased IL-10 and IFN-g levels were observed with the addition of SLA to the medium, although the addition of the three nutrients led to a reduction of the IL-10 levels, and the addition of 1,25(OH)2VD3 and SZn led to a reduction of IFN-g. A supplementation with 1,25(OH)2VD3 and SZn reduced the parasite load but only in the absence of SLA. We suggest that the nutrients we tested are involved in the leishmanicidal mechanism, showing a potential for investigation in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Canine Leishmaniosis)
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11 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Clinical Significance of ROMs, OXY, SHp and HMGB-1 in Canine Leishmaniosis
by Michela Pugliese, Alessandra Sfacteria, Gaetano Oliva, Annastella Falcone, Manuela Gizzarelli and Annamaria Passantino
Animals 2021, 11(3), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030754 - 9 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress parameters (ROMs, OXY, SHp), the Oxidative Stress index (OSi), and High Mobility Group Box-1 protein (HMGB-1) in canine leishmaniosis (CanL). For this study, thirty dogs, naturally infected with Leishmania spp. (Leishmania Group, LEISH) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress parameters (ROMs, OXY, SHp), the Oxidative Stress index (OSi), and High Mobility Group Box-1 protein (HMGB-1) in canine leishmaniosis (CanL). For this study, thirty dogs, naturally infected with Leishmania spp. (Leishmania Group, LEISH) and ten healthy adult dogs (control group, CTR) were included. The diagnosis of CanL was performed by a cytological examination of lymph nodes, real time polymerase chain reaction on biological tissues (lymph nodes and whole blood), and an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies associated with clinical signs such as dermatitis, lymphadenopathy, onychogryphosis, weight loss, cachexia, lameness, conjunctivitis, epistaxis, and hepatosplenomegaly. The HMGB-1 and oxidative stress parameters of the LEISH Group were compared with the values recorded in the CTR group (Mann Whitney Test, p < 0.05). Spearman rank correlation was applied to evaluate the correlation between the HMGB-1, oxidative stress biomarkers, hematological and biochemical parameters in the LEISH Group. Results showed statistically significant higher values of SHp in the LEISH Group. Specific correlation between the ROMs and the number of red blood cells, and between HGMB-1 and SHp were recorded. These preliminary data may suggest the potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of CanL. Further studies are undoubtedly required to evaluate the direct correlation between inflammation parameters with the different stages of CanL. Similarly, further research should investigate the role of ROMs in the onset of anemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Canine Leishmaniosis)
9 pages, 710 KiB  
Article
Use of GnRH Agonist in Dogs Affected with Leishmaniosis
by Michela Pugliese, Vito Biondi, Marco Quartuccio, Santo Cristarella, Giovanni Emmanuele, Gabriele Marino, Luigi Liotta and Annamaria Passantino
Animals 2021, 11(2), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020432 - 7 Feb 2021
Viewed by 2469
Abstract
Sex-associated hormones such as testosterone have been demonstrated to modulate immune responses, which can result in different disease outcomes. The present study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH agonist implant as deslorelin acetate in association with meglumine antimoniate [...] Read more.
Sex-associated hormones such as testosterone have been demonstrated to modulate immune responses, which can result in different disease outcomes. The present study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH agonist implant as deslorelin acetate in association with meglumine antimoniate plus allopurinol in dogs with canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Twenty-two dogs with CanL confirmed by clinical findings and laboratory tests were included in the study. Dogs were randomized into two groups. A control group (CTR, n = 12) was treated with meglumine antimoniate 50 mg/kg SC q 12 h for 28 days plus allopurinol at 10 mg/kg PO q 12 h for the whole study period (six months). An experimental group was treated with allopurinol and meglumine antimoniate, plus an implant of 4.7 mg deslorelin acetate (DES, n = 10). The animals were observed for three months, during which clinical evaluation, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) titre and testosterone assay were performed on time at day (D)0, 90 and 180. A significantly lower clinical score was recorded in DES than in CTR (p < 0.01) at D90 and D180 (p < 0.01). After 180 days of treatment (D180), a significant reduction of mean levels of IFAT was observed in the DES group (p = 0.03). A highly significant reduction of testosterone (p = 0.01) was observed in the DES group during the study. No statistical correlation between clinical scores, IFAT titres and testosterone within two groups was observed. Data suggested that the agonist of GnRH may be useful in the treatment of CanL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Canine Leishmaniosis)
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10 pages, 686 KiB  
Article
Redox Status in Canine Leishmaniasis
by Fausto Quintavalla, Giuseppina Basini, Simona Bussolati, Gennaro Giuseppe Carrozzo, Antonio Inglese and Roberto Ramoni
Animals 2021, 11(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010119 - 8 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
The World Health Organization defined leishmaniasis as one of the priority attention diseases. Aiming to clarify some aspects of its pathogenetic mechanisms, our study focused on the assessment of redox status in dogs, the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum. Forty-five dogs from [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization defined leishmaniasis as one of the priority attention diseases. Aiming to clarify some aspects of its pathogenetic mechanisms, our study focused on the assessment of redox status in dogs, the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum. Forty-five dogs from an endemic area in southern Italy were divided into four different groups (from mild disease with negative to low positive antibody levels to very severe disease with medium to high positive antibody levels) according to the LeishVet group guidelines. Their plasma and/or sera were tested for reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely the superoxide anion (O2), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as nitric oxide (NO) and hydroperoxides (ROOH), as well as activity of the detoxifying enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, as determined by the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. O2 generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in leishmaniasis-affected dogs independently of the clinical stage, while NO production was stimulated (p < 0.05) only in II and III stage patients. No difference could be found for the levels of hydroperoxides and SOD activity between healthy and pathological subjects. FRAP values were lower in affected dogs but only in stage II. Taken together, although we demonstrated that several redox status parameters are altered in the plasma of dog affected by leishmaniasis, the oxidative stress changes that are observed in this disease, are possibly mainly due to cellular blood components i.e., neutrophils responsible for the elimination of the parasite. Further studies are required to assess the clinical values of the collected data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Canine Leishmaniosis)
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Review

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28 pages, 1573 KiB  
Review
Epidemiologic, Clinical and Immunological Consequences of Co-Infections during Canine Leishmaniosis
by Erin A. Beasley, Danielle Pessôa-Pereira, Breanna M. Scorza and Christine A. Petersen
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113206 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3431
Abstract
Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a vector-borne, parasitic disease. CanL is endemic in the Mediterranean basin and South America but also found in Northern Africa, Asia, and the U.S. Regions with both competent sand fly vectors and L. infantum parasites are also endemic for [...] Read more.
Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a vector-borne, parasitic disease. CanL is endemic in the Mediterranean basin and South America but also found in Northern Africa, Asia, and the U.S. Regions with both competent sand fly vectors and L. infantum parasites are also endemic for additional infectious diseases that could cause co-infections in dogs. Growing evidence indicates that co-infections can impact immunologic responses and thus the clinical course of both CanL and the comorbid disease(s). The aim for this review is to summarize epidemiologic, clinical, and immunologic factors contributing to eight primary co-infections reported with CanL: Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Paracoccidioides braziliensis. Co-infection causes mechanistic differences in immunity which can alter diagnostics, therapeutic management, and prognosis of dogs with CanL. More research is needed to further explore immunomodulation during CanL co-infection(s) and their clinical impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Canine Leishmaniosis)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Comparison of the most common immunochromatography tests used in Spain for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies: diagnostic implications?
Authors: Sergio Villanueva 1*, Jacobo Giner 1, Juan David Ramírez González 1, Maite Verde 1, Delia Lacasta 1, Héctor Ruiz 1, Andrés Yzuel 1, Antonio Fernández 1,
Affiliation: Zaragoza University, Veterinary Faculty (1), Universidad del Rosario, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales (2)
Abstract: Canine leishmaniosis is a vector borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum, being serological methods the most common diagnostic techniques used for the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare different serological commercial immunochromatographic rapid tests available in Spain for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum canine antibodies. The immunochromatographic tests were evaluated in different groups of dogs (exposure dogs, healthy seronegative dogs, clinically sick dogs and dogs with serological result to other pathogens) admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Zaragoza (Spain) according to the clinical information sent with the sample to the laboratory for diagnostic purpose. The serology status was also routinely recorded by means of an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). The qualitative commercial serological immunochromatographic tests used were: FASTest® LEISH (MEGACOR Diagnostik GmbH, Austria), Uranotest Leishmania (Uranovet, Spain), Uranotest Leishmania 2.0 (Uranovet, Spain), Speed Leish K (Virbac, France), Witness Leishmania (Zoetis) and DFV Test Leishmania (Divasa, Spain). Performance measures analysed for each test were: sensitivity, specificity and area under receiver-operating (ROC) curve . The maximum specificity (1.00) was attained for all diagnostic tests except the FASTest® LEISH (0.98), Uranotest Leishmania 2.0 (0.98), Speed Leish K (0.98) and Witness Leishmania (0.95). The maximum sensitivity was attained for FASTest® LEISH (1.00), followed by Uranotest 2.0 (0.97), Speed Leish K (0.97), Uranotest (0.96) and the lowest results with Witness (0.84) and DFV Test (0.73). In relation to the ROC curve, the maximum value was attained with the FASTest® LEISH (0.99), followed by Uranotest (0.98), Uranotest 2.0 (0.97), Speed Leish K (0.97), Witness (0.90) and the lowest result with DFV Test (0.79). Efforts in the field of diagnosis should focus on establishing a commercial immunochromatographic test with high sensitivity and specificity with a reasonable cost-benefit balance.

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