Equine Internal Medicine

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Equids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 3085

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Veterinary, Academic in University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain
Interests: equine; internal medicine; intensive cares; neonatal foal; abdominal ultrasound; cardiology; respiratory
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Servei de Medicina Interna Equina, Fundació Hospital Clínic Veterinari, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Valles, Spain
Interests: equine; internal medicine; critical care

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Equine internal medicine plays a pivotal role in contemporary veterinary practice, addressing a wide array of health concerns in horses. In today's specialized veterinary landscape, equine internal medicine stands as a cornerstone, focusing on intricate aspects of horse physiology and pathology. By spotlighting these areas, this Special Issue not only advances the field of equine internal medicine but also contributes significantly to the well-being and longevity of horses, emphasizing the ongoing importance of specialized veterinary care in the equine world.

This Special Issue aims to underscore the significance of equine internal medicine by presenting original research and comprehensive reviews on cutting-edge topics. Covering areas like neonatology, cardiology, intensive care, respiratory problems, and gastrointestinal issues, this Special Issue delves into critical facets of equine health.

Dr. María Martín-Cuervo
Dr. Judit Viu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • equine internal medicine
  • foal
  • gastrointestinal
  • respiratory
  • intensive care
  • cardiovascular
  • liver
  • neurology
  • ophthalmology
  • dermatology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 619 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Audicor Acoustic Cardiography Device as a Diagnostic Tool in Horses with Mitral or Aortic Valve Insufficiency
by Isabelle L. Piotrowski, Hannah K. Junge and Colin C. Schwarzwald
Animals 2024, 14(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14020331 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Mitral and aortic valve insufficiencies have been commonly reported in horses. The objective of this study was to establish the use of acoustic cardiography (Audicor®) in horses with aortic (AI) or mitral valve insufficiency (MI). A total of 17 healthy horses, [...] Read more.
Mitral and aortic valve insufficiencies have been commonly reported in horses. The objective of this study was to establish the use of acoustic cardiography (Audicor®) in horses with aortic (AI) or mitral valve insufficiency (MI). A total of 17 healthy horses, 18 horses with AI, and 28 horses with MI were prospectively included. None of the horses was in heart failure. Echocardiography and Audicor® analyses were conducted. Electromechanical activating time (EMAT), rate-corrected EMATc, left ventricular systolic time (LVST), rate-corrected LVSTc, and intensity and persistence of the third and fourth heart sound (S3, S4) were reported by Audicor®. Graphical analysis of the three-dimensional (3D) phonocardiogram served to visually detect murmurs. Audicor® snapshot variables were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple-comparisons test. The association between Audicor® snapshot variables and the corresponding echocardiographic variables was investigated by linear regression and Bland–Altman analyses. Heart murmurs were not displayed on Audicor® phonocardiograms. No significant differences were found between Audicor® variables obtained in clinically healthy horses and horses with valvular insufficiency. The Audicor® device is unable to detect heart murmurs in horses. Audicor® variables representing cardiac function are not markedly altered, and their association with corresponding echocardiographic variables is poor in horses with valvular insufficiency that are not in heart failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Internal Medicine)
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8 pages, 563 KiB  
Article
Serum and Urinary Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Concentrations in Dehydrated Horses
by Julia N. van Spijk, Hsiao-Chien Lo, Roswitha Merle, Ina-Gabriele Richter, Anne Diemar, Sabita D. Stoeckle and Heidrun Gehlen
Animals 2023, 13(24), 3776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243776 - 7 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is increased in renal tissue in human kidney disease, but its role as a biomarker for kidney disease has not been fully evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum MMP-9 (sMMP-9) and urinary MMP-9 (uMMP-9) concentrations in [...] Read more.
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is increased in renal tissue in human kidney disease, but its role as a biomarker for kidney disease has not been fully evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum MMP-9 (sMMP-9) and urinary MMP-9 (uMMP-9) concentrations in dehydrated horses. Dehydrated horses were prospectively included. Blood and urinary samples were taken at admission, and after 12, 24, and 48 h (t0, t12, t24, t48), an anti-equine MMP-9 sandwich ELISA was used. Four healthy horses served as the controls. Serum creatinine, urea, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), urine-specific gravity, urinary protein concentration, fractional sodium excretion, and urinary gamma–glutamyl transferase/creatinine ratio (uGGT/Cr) were measured. Statistical analysis included a repeated measures ANOVA and mixed linear regression model. Overall, 40 dehydrated horses were included (mild dehydration 13/40, moderate 16/40, severe 11/40). Acute kidney injury was found in 1/40 horses; 7/40 horses showed elevated serum creatinine, 11/40 horses elevated serum SDMA, and 5/28 elevated uGGT/Cr at presentation. In dehydrated horses, sMMP-9 concentrations were significantly higher on t0 (median: 589 ng/mL, range: 172–3597 ng/mL) compared to t12 (340 ng/mL, 132–1213 ng/mL), t24 (308 ng/mL, 162–1048 ng/mL), and t48 (258 ng/mL, 130–744 ng/mL). In healthy horses, sMMP-9 (239 ng/mL, 142–508 ng/mL) showed no differences over time or compared to patients. uMMP-9 and uMMP-9/creatinine did not differ over time or to the controls. No differences were found between dehydration groups. Urinary casts (p = 0.001; estimate = 135) and uGGT/Cr (p = 0.03; estimate = 6.5) correlated with sMMP-9. Serum urea was associated with uMMP-9/Cr (p = 0.01, estimate 0.9). In conclusion, sMMP-9 was elevated at arrival in dehydrated patients compared to later measurements. Correlations to uGGT/Cr and urinary casts need further evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Internal Medicine)
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Review

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16 pages, 314 KiB  
Review
Metabolic and Endocrine Insights in Donkeys
by Francisco J. Mendoza, Ramiro E. Toribio and Alejandro Perez-Ecija
Animals 2024, 14(4), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14040590 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
Donkey medicine is gaining attention due to their increased use as companion animals, in shows, asinotherapy, etc. The increasing demand and unique aspects call for specialized care, requiring new information (physiology, infectious disorders, pharmacology, etc.). Since obesity is common in this species, hyperlipemia, [...] Read more.
Donkey medicine is gaining attention due to their increased use as companion animals, in shows, asinotherapy, etc. The increasing demand and unique aspects call for specialized care, requiring new information (physiology, infectious disorders, pharmacology, etc.). Since obesity is common in this species, hyperlipemia, metabolic syndrome and insulin dysregulation (ID) are common disorders in donkeys, in some cases with high mortality, either directly (multiorgan dysfunction) or indirectly due to poor quality of life (chronic laminitis). Donkeys have long-life expectancy and are often afflicted with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), a neurodegenerative and endocrine disease. Hyperlipemia is diagnosed based on high plasma triglyceride concentration in association with clinical findings and laboratory abnormalities from affected tissues (liver, kidney and pancreas). The measurement of resting serum insulin and plasma ACTH concentrations is the first step in ID and PPID diagnosis. In donkeys with clinical signs of ID (obesity or recurrent laminitis) or PPID (hypertrichosis, regional adiposity, laminitis and weight loss), where these hormones are in the normal or non-diagnostic range (donkey-specific cut-off values and reference ranges need to be established), dynamic tests are recommended (oral sugar test or thyrotropin-releasing hormone, respectively). Equine treatment protocols apply to donkeys, although pharmacological studies for most drugs, except pergolide, are lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Internal Medicine)
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