Anaesthesia and Pain Management in Large Animals

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 10311

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Animal Care Services, the University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
Interests: analgesia; pain; production animals; cattle; sheep; pigs; poultry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to highlight the recent advances in large animal pain management around the world. Large animals include those that are used for food production such as cattle, sheep and pigs. While there has been much progress in this area of veterinary medicine there are significant barriers to pain management of these species, especially on a large scale. Production practices may preclude regular interaction with these species, which makes pain assessment, and therefore, appropriate pain relief, difficult. Furthermore, pharmacopolitical considerations may preclude the use of appropriate analgesia.

Dr. Gabrielle C. Musk
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • analgesia
  • pain
  • production animals
  • cattle
  • sheep
  • pigs
  • poultry

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1131 KiB  
Article
Tramadol and M1 Bioavailability Induced by Metamizole Co-Administration in Donkeys (Equus asinus)
by Gabriel Araújo-Silva, Luã B. de Macêdo, Andressa N. Mouta, Maria Gláucia C. de Oliveira, Kathryn N. Arcoverde, Lilian G. S. Solon, José T. Perez-Urizar and Valéria V. de Paula
Animals 2024, 14(6), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14060929 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Our objective was to assess the pharmacokinetic characteristics of metamizole when administered together with tramadol in a single intravenous dose to donkeys. Ten male animals received 10 mg∙kg−1 of dipyrone associated with 2 mg∙kg−1 of tramadol (T2M10) [...] Read more.
Our objective was to assess the pharmacokinetic characteristics of metamizole when administered together with tramadol in a single intravenous dose to donkeys. Ten male animals received 10 mg∙kg−1 of dipyrone associated with 2 mg∙kg−1 of tramadol (T2M10) and 25 mg∙kg−1 of dipyrone with 2 mg∙kg−1 of tramadol (T2M25). Venous blood samples were taken from groups to determine the pharmacokinetics after drug administration, using initial brief intervals that were followed by extended periods until 48 h. Restlessness and ataxia were observed in two animals in the T2M25 group. Analysis revealed prolonged detectability of tramadol, 4-methylamine antipyrine, 4-aminoantipyrine (up to 24 h), and O-desmethyltramadol (up to 12 h) after administration. Although metamizole and its metabolites showed no significant pharmacokinetic changes, tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol exhibited altered profiles, likely because of competition for the active sites of CYP450 enzymes. Importantly, the co-administration of metamizole increased the bioavailability of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in a dose-dependent manner, highlighting their potential interactions and emphasizing the need for further dose optimization in donkey analgesic therapies. In conclusion, metamizole co-administered with tramadol interferes with metabolism and this interference can change the frequency of drug administration and its analgesic efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Pain Management in Large Animals)
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15 pages, 1206 KiB  
Article
Nociception in Chicken Embryos, Part III: Analysis of Movements before and after Application of a Noxious Stimulus
by Stephanie C. Süß, Julia Werner, Anna M. Saller, Larissa Weiss, Judith Reiser, Janie M. Ondracek, Yury Zablotski, Sandra Kollmansperger, Malte Anders, Heidrun Potschka, Benjamin Schusser, Thomas Fenzl and Christine Baumgartner
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182859 - 08 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Many potentially noxious interventions are performed on chicken embryos in research and in the poultry industry. It is therefore essential and in the interest of animal welfare to be able to precisely define the point at which a chicken embryo is capable of [...] Read more.
Many potentially noxious interventions are performed on chicken embryos in research and in the poultry industry. It is therefore essential and in the interest of animal welfare to be able to precisely define the point at which a chicken embryo is capable of nociception in ovo. The present part III of a comprehensive study examined the movements of developing chicken embryos with the aim of identifying behavioral responses to a noxious stimulus. For this purpose, a noxious mechanical stimulus and a control stimulus were applied in a randomized order. The recorded movements of the embryos were evaluated using the markerless pose estimation software DeepLabCut and manual observations. After the application of the mechanical stimulus, a significant increase in beak movement was identified in 15- to 18-day-old embryos. In younger embryos, no behavioral changes related to the noxious stimulus were observed. The presented results indicate that noxious mechanical stimuli at the beak base evoke a nocifensive reaction in chicken embryos starting at embryonic day 15. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Pain Management in Large Animals)
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14 pages, 3092 KiB  
Article
Nociception in Chicken Embryos, Part II: Embryonal Development of Electroencephalic Neuronal Activity In Ovo as a Prerequisite for Nociception
by Sandra Kollmansperger, Malte Anders, Julia Werner, Anna M. Saller, Larissa Weiss, Stephanie C. Süß, Judith Reiser, Gerhard Schneider, Benjamin Schusser, Christine Baumgartner and Thomas Fenzl
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2839; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182839 - 07 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Chicken culling has been forbidden in Germany since 2022; male/female selection and male elimination must be brought to an embryonic status prior to the onset of nociception. The present study evaluated the ontogenetic point at which noxious stimuli could potentially be perceived/processed in [...] Read more.
Chicken culling has been forbidden in Germany since 2022; male/female selection and male elimination must be brought to an embryonic status prior to the onset of nociception. The present study evaluated the ontogenetic point at which noxious stimuli could potentially be perceived/processed in the brain in ovo. EEG recordings from randomized hyperpallial brain sites were recorded in ovo and noxious stimuli were applied. Temporal and spectral analyses of the EEG were performed. The onset of physiological neuronal signals could be determined at developmental day 13. ERP/ERSP/ITC analysis did not reveal phase-locked nociceptive responses. Although no central nociceptive responses were documented, adequate EEG responses to noxious stimuli from other brain areas cannot be excluded. The extreme stress impact on the embryo during the recording may overwrite the perception of noniceptive stimuli. The results suggest developmental day 13 as the earliest embryonal stage being able to receive and process nociceptive stimuli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Pain Management in Large Animals)
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14 pages, 4590 KiB  
Article
Nociception in Chicken Embryos, Part I: Analysis of Cardiovascular Responses to a Mechanical Noxious Stimulus
by Larissa Weiss, Anna M. Saller, Julia Werner, Stephanie C. Süß, Judith Reiser, Sandra Kollmansperger, Malte Anders, Heidrun Potschka, Thomas Fenzl, Benjamin Schusser and Christine Baumgartner
Animals 2023, 13(17), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13172710 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Although it is assumed that chicken embryos acquire the capacity for nociception while developing in the egg, an exact time point has not yet been specified. The present research was an exploratory study aiming to determine when the capacity of nociception emerges during [...] Read more.
Although it is assumed that chicken embryos acquire the capacity for nociception while developing in the egg, an exact time point has not yet been specified. The present research was an exploratory study aiming to determine when the capacity of nociception emerges during embryonic development in chickens. Changes in blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in response to a noxious mechanical stimulus at the base of the beak versus a light touch on the beak were examined in chicken embryos between embryonic days (EDs) 7 and 18. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was the most sensitive parameter for assessing cardiovascular responses. Significant changes in MAP in response to a noxious stimulus were detected in embryos at ED16 to ED18, whereas significant changes in HR were observed at ED17 and ED18. Infiltration anesthesia with the local anesthetic lidocaine significantly reduced the response of MAP on ED18, so the measured cardiovascular changes may be interpreted as nociceptive responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Pain Management in Large Animals)
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Review

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35 pages, 675 KiB  
Review
An Exploration of Analgesia Options for Australian Sheep
by Shari Cohen, Emily Foss, Thierry Beths and Gabrielle C. Musk
Animals 2024, 14(7), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14070990 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 570
Abstract
During their lifetime, sheep undergo many painful husbandry and disease processes. Procedures undertaken on the farm, such as tail docking, castration, and mulesing, all cause considerable pain. In addition, sheep may experience painful diseases and injuries that require treatment by veterinary practitioners, and [...] Read more.
During their lifetime, sheep undergo many painful husbandry and disease processes. Procedures undertaken on the farm, such as tail docking, castration, and mulesing, all cause considerable pain. In addition, sheep may experience painful diseases and injuries that require treatment by veterinary practitioners, and in biomedical research, sheep may undergo painful experimental procedures or conditions. It is important due to ethics, animal welfare, social licence, and, at times, legal requirements for farmers, veterinary practitioners, and researchers to provide pain relief for animals in their care. While there is a heightened awareness of and a greater interest in animal welfare, there remain few licensed and known analgesia options for sheep within Australia. A literature review was undertaken to identify currently known and potential future options for analgesic agents in sheep in farm and biomedical settings. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, opioids, local anaesthetics, α2 adrenoreceptor agonists, and NMDA receptor antagonists are some of the more common classes of analgesic drugs referred to in the literature, but few drugs are registered for use in sheep, with even fewer proven to be effective. Only six analgesic product formulations, namely, lignocaine (e.g., Numocaine®), Tri-Solfen®, ketamine, xylazine, and meloxicam (oral transmucosal and injectable formulations), are currently registered in Australia and known to be efficacious in some types of painful conditions in sheep. The gap in knowledge and availability of analgesia in sheep can pose risks to animal welfare, social licence, and research outcomes. This article presents a summary of analgesic agents that have been used in sheep on farms and in clinical veterinary and biomedical research settings along with details on whether their efficacy was assessed, doses, routes of administration, indication for use, and pain assessment techniques (if any) used. The outcome of this research highlights the challenges, gaps, and opportunities for better analgesia options in sheep. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Pain Management in Large Animals)
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10 pages, 775 KiB  
Review
Pain Mitigation Strategies for Disbudding in Goat Kids
by Preet Singh, Dinakaran Venkatachalam, Kavitha Kongara and Paul Chambers
Animals 2024, 14(4), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14040555 - 07 Feb 2024
Viewed by 904
Abstract
Pain mitigation strategies for disbudding in goat kids have gained significant attention in recent years because of growing concerns for animal welfare. Disbudding, the removal of horn buds in young goats, is a common practice to enhance safety and manage herd dynamics. However, [...] Read more.
Pain mitigation strategies for disbudding in goat kids have gained significant attention in recent years because of growing concerns for animal welfare. Disbudding, the removal of horn buds in young goats, is a common practice to enhance safety and manage herd dynamics. However, the procedure will cause pain and distress if not managed effectively. This review covers the array of pain mitigation techniques currently available for disbudding, including the efficacy of these strategies in reducing pain and stress during the disbudding process, with specific attention to the potential toxicity associated with local anesthetics. The current best practice for disbudding on the farm suggests sedation/analgesia with an alpha-2 agonist, the placement of a two-point cornual nerve block, and then an NSAID for postoperative pain. In conclusion, this review offers recommendations for future research directions aimed at enhancing the welfare of young goats subjected to the disbudding procedure. These suggestions hold the promise of fostering significant improvements in the overall well-being of these animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Pain Management in Large Animals)
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10 pages, 260 KiB  
Review
Pain Assessment in Goat Kids: Focus on Disbudding
by Kavitha Kongara, Preet Singh, Dinakaran Venkatachalam and John Paul Chambers
Animals 2023, 13(24), 3814; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243814 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 990
Abstract
Farm animals are routinely subjected to painful husbandry procedures for various purposes. Goat kids are disbudded to improve goat welfare and to ensure safety of other livestock, farm personnel, attending veterinarians and for various other production and managemental procedures. Disbudding is commonly performed [...] Read more.
Farm animals are routinely subjected to painful husbandry procedures for various purposes. Goat kids are disbudded to improve goat welfare and to ensure safety of other livestock, farm personnel, attending veterinarians and for various other production and managemental procedures. Disbudding is commonly performed on dairy goat farms, in kids under 3 weeks of age. Many scientific studies reported physiological and behavioural changes indicating pain and distress following disbudding, and this can be a significant cause of welfare compromise in goat kids. Recognition and measurement of pain is important to treat and/or manage pain and distress following painful procedures. This review focuses on pain assessment in goat kids following disbudding, using both physiological and behavioural measures. As only a limited information is available on the topic of interest, relevant studies in other young farm animals have also been discussed to compare the status quo in goat kids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Pain Management in Large Animals)
17 pages, 824 KiB  
Review
Pig Sedation and Anesthesia for Medical Research
by Ruxandra Costea, Ioana Ene and Ruxandra Pavel
Animals 2023, 13(24), 3807; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243807 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1725
Abstract
In clinical veterinary practice, proper training and expertise in anesthesia administration and monitoring are essential. Pigs are suitable experimental animals for many surgical techniques because they are similar in size to humans and have a short reproductive cycle. This makes them ideal for [...] Read more.
In clinical veterinary practice, proper training and expertise in anesthesia administration and monitoring are essential. Pigs are suitable experimental animals for many surgical techniques because they are similar in size to humans and have a short reproductive cycle. This makes them ideal for research concerning organ transplantation, cardiovascular surgery, and other procedures that require a large animal model. Sedation and premedication should be administered at the lowest dose to be effective with predictable results and reduced adverse effects, to ensure the safety of both the animal and the team involved in the procedure, with a fast onset and optimizing the induction and maintenance of anesthesia. The goal of induction is to achieve a safe and effective level of anesthesia that ensures patient safety and facilitates research. Most of the time, inhalation anesthesia with endotracheal intubation is the ideal choice for maintenance of anesthesia. The difficulties related to endotracheal intubation of pigs can be overcome by knowing the anatomical peculiarities. Effective analgesia tailored to the specific procedure, the pig’s condition, and individual responses to medications should complete the maintenance and recovery protocols, reducing perioperative complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Pain Management in Large Animals)
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Other

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24 pages, 4305 KiB  
Systematic Review
Pain Assessment in Cattle by Use of Numerical Rating and Visual Analogue Scales—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Theresa Tschoner, Kristina R. Mueller, Yury Zablotski and Melanie Feist
Animals 2024, 14(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14020351 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Subjective pain assessment in cattle is contingent upon the observer’s experience and attitude. Studies of pain assessment in cattle by veterinarians and farmers using different pain scales have been published. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to describe and compare the pain scores [...] Read more.
Subjective pain assessment in cattle is contingent upon the observer’s experience and attitude. Studies of pain assessment in cattle by veterinarians and farmers using different pain scales have been published. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to describe and compare the pain scores given by veterinarians and producers for different procedures and conditions using either a NRS or VAS. The literature search was conducted with PubMed (MEDLINE) and Agricola, using defined search terms (e.g., peer-reviewed). A total of 842 articles were identified. After screening of duplicates, abstracts, and full texts, a total of 16 articles were included in this systematic review. Different pain scales were used for the included studies (NRS 0–10 for eight studies, NRS 1–10 for six studies, NRS 1–10 and VAS 0–10 for one study, and VAS 0–1 for one study). Most studies (n = 11) originated from the European Union. Mean values for pain scores differed significantly between studies included in the meta-analysis for both NRS 0–10 and 1–10. The findings of this study indicated that comparison of pain scoring used in different studies is difficult due to use of different pain scales and varying nomenclature, and that many variables (such as age and gender) influence pain scoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Pain Management in Large Animals)
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