Veterinary Parasitology: Epidemiology, Control and Prevention Strategies

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 33424

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, China
Interests: research on mitochondrial genomics, transcriptomics of important parasites; epidemiological studies and control strategies for parasitic infections

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the pathogen of parasitosis, helminth, protozoan and other parasites are of significance in the health of animals and human beings. Once animals become infected, these pathogens cause mechanical injury, robbing nutrition from the hosts, seriously affecting product performance, and bringing serious economic losses to animal husbandry. For example, fasciolosis is the most widely distributed trematodiasis reported from over 81 countries around the world, which causes annual losses estimated at USD 3.2 billion. Moreover, some important zoonotic parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium are distributed all over the world and threaten both animals and human.

For the sake of animal and human health, studying the epidemic situation of parasites and taking corresponding measures to prevent various parasitic diseases is important, which is a benefit for animal husbandry and public health.

In this Special Issue, we aim to show the most recent research and developments in the epidemiology, disease treatment, control, and prevention strategies of parasitic infection or disease in domestic and wild animals. We welcome both original research papers and reviews dealing with the topic.

Prof. Dr. Chun-Ren Wang 
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • parasites
  • parasitic disease
  • epidemiological investigations
  • meta-analysis
  • drug treatment
  • strategies for control and prevention
  • social burden and economic losses

Published Papers (23 papers)

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16 pages, 3540 KiB  
Article
The Detection of Circulating Antigen Glutathione S-Transferase in Sheep Infected with Fasciola hepatica with Double-Antibody Sandwich Signal Amplification Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
by Jiahui Duan, Nan Zhang, Shaoxiong Liu, Jianhua Li, Pengtao Gong, Xiaocen Wang, Xin Li, Xu Zhang, Bo Tang and Xichen Zhang
Animals 2024, 14(3), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14030506 - 3 Feb 2024
Viewed by 934
Abstract
Fasciolosis is a global zoonotic parasitic disease caused by F. hepatica infection that is particularly harmful to cattle and sheep. A biotin–streptavidin signal amplification ELISA (streptavidin-ELISA/SA-ELISA) based on circulating antigens can allow for the early detection of F. hepatica-infected animals and is [...] Read more.
Fasciolosis is a global zoonotic parasitic disease caused by F. hepatica infection that is particularly harmful to cattle and sheep. A biotin–streptavidin signal amplification ELISA (streptavidin-ELISA/SA-ELISA) based on circulating antigens can allow for the early detection of F. hepatica-infected animals and is suitable for batch detection. It is considered to be a better means of detecting F. hepatica infection than traditional detection methods. In this study, using the serum of sheep artificially infected with F. hepatica, the cDNA expression library of F. hepatica was screened, 17 immunodominant antigen genes of F. hepatica were obtained, and glutathione s-transferase (GST) was selected as the candidate detection antigen. Firstly, the GST cDNA sequence was amplified from F. hepatica, followed by the preparation of recombinant protein GST (rFhGST). Then, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against rFhGST were prepared using the GST protein. Afterward, the immunolocalization of the target protein in the worm was observed via confocal microscopy, and it was found that the GST protein was localized in the uterus, intestinal tract, and body surface of F. hepatica. Finally, a double-antibody sandwich SA-ELISA based on the detection of circulating antigens was established. There was no cross-reaction with positive sera infected with Dicrocoelium lanceatum (D. lanceatum), Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus), Neospora caninum (N. caninum), or Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum). Forty serum and fecal samples from the same batch of sheep in Nong’an County, Changchun City, Jilin Province, China were analyzed using the established detection method and fecal detection method. The positive rate of the SA-ELISA was 17.5%, and the positive rate of the fecal detection method was 15%. The detection results of this method were 100% consistent with commercial ELISA kits. A total of 152 sheep serum samples were tested in Nong’an County, Changchun City, Jilin Province, and the positive rate was 5.92%. This study laid the foundation for the development of serological detection preparations for F. hepatica infection based on the detection of circulating antigens. Full article
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13 pages, 2527 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Zoo Animals and Phylogenetic Characterization of Toxascaris leonina (Linstow, 1902) and Baylisascaris transfuga (Rudolphi, 1819) in Jiangsu Province, Eastern China
by Weimin Cai, Yu Zhu, Feiyan Wang, Qianqian Feng, Zhizhi Zhang, Nianyu Xue, Xun Xu, Zhaofeng Hou, Dandan Liu, Jinjun Xu and Jianping Tao
Animals 2024, 14(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14030375 - 24 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
The burden of gastrointestinal parasites in zoo animals has serious implications for their welfare and the health of veterinarians and visitors. Zhuyuwan Zoo is located in the eastern suburb of Yangzhou city in eastern China, in which over 40 species of zoo animals [...] Read more.
The burden of gastrointestinal parasites in zoo animals has serious implications for their welfare and the health of veterinarians and visitors. Zhuyuwan Zoo is located in the eastern suburb of Yangzhou city in eastern China, in which over 40 species of zoo animals are kept. In order to understand the infection status of GI parasites in Zhuyuwan Zoo, a total of 104 fresh fecal samples collected randomly from birds (n = 19), primates (n = 19), and non-primate mammals (n = 66) were analyzed using the saturated saline flotation technique and nylon sifter elutriation and sieving method for eggs/oocysts, respectively. Two Ascaris species were molecularly characterized. The results showed that the overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 42.3% (44/104). The parasitic infection rate in birds, primates, and non-primate mammals were 26.3% (5/19), 31.6% (6/19), and 50.0% (33/66), respectively. A total of 11 species of parasites were identified, namely, Trichostrongylidae, Capillaria sp., Trichuris spp., Strongyloides spp., Amidostomum sp., Toxascaris leonina, Baylisascaris transfuga, Parascaris equorum, Paramphistomum spp., Fasciola spp., and Eimeria spp. Paramphistomum spp. eggs were first detected from the captive Père David’s deer, and Fasciola spp. eggs were first reported from sika deer in zoo in China. A sequence analysis of ITS-2 and cox1 showed that the eggs isolated from the African lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758) were T. leonina, and the eggs from the brown bear (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758) were B. transfuga. The public health threat posed by these potential zoonotic parasitic agents requires attention. These results lay a theoretical foundation for prevention and control of wild animal parasitic diseases at zoos in China. Full article
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10 pages, 2015 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Multilocus Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Donkeys in Shanxi Province, North China
by Wen-Wei Gao, Shuo Zhang, Tian-Hong Zhang, Han-Dan Xiao, Nan Su, Meng-Fan Tao, Ze-Xuan Wu, Ze-Dong Zhang, Xing-Quan Zhu and Shi-Chen Xie
Animals 2023, 13(24), 3771; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243771 - 6 Dec 2023
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan, causing significant economic losses to animal husbandry and posing threats to public health. China ranks the world’s sixth largest major producer of donkeys, rearing approximately 2.6 million donkeys in 2019, but limited investigation of G. duodenalis [...] Read more.
Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan, causing significant economic losses to animal husbandry and posing threats to public health. China ranks the world’s sixth largest major producer of donkeys, rearing approximately 2.6 million donkeys in 2019, but limited investigation of G. duodenalis prevalence has been conducted in the past, and it is yet to be known whether donkeys in Shanxi Province are infected with G. duodenalis. In the present study, a total of 815 fecal samples collected from donkeys in representative regions of Shanxi Province, North China, were examined for G. duodenalis using nested PCR. Then, the assemblages and multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were examined based on three established loci: namely, β-giardin (bg), triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh). The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis in donkeys in Shanxi Province was 16.81% (137/815). The region was identified as the main risk factor for the observed difference in G. duodenalis prevalence in donkeys among the three study areas (χ2 = 21.611, p < 0.001). Assemblages A, E, and B were identified, with the latter as the predominant assemblage. Three MLGs (MLG-novel-1 to 3) were formed based on sequence variation among the three loci. The present study reveals the presence of G. duodenalis in donkeys in Shanxi Province, North China, for the first time, which not only enriches the data on the distribution of G. duodenalis in donkeys in China but also provides useful baseline data for planning control strategies against G. duodenalis infection in the sampled areas. Full article
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16 pages, 9457 KiB  
Article
iTRAQ-Based Phosphoproteomic Analysis Exposes Molecular Changes in the Small Intestinal Epithelia of Cats after Toxoplasma gondii Infection
by Bintao Zhai, Yu-Meng Meng, Shi-Chen Xie, Jun-Jie Peng, Yang Liu, Yanhua Qiu, Lu Wang, Jiyu Zhang and Jun-Jun He
Animals 2023, 13(22), 3537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13223537 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 844
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite, has the ability to invade and proliferate within most nucleated cells. The invasion and destruction of host cells by T. gondii lead to significant changes in the cellular signal transduction network. One important post-translational modification (PTM) [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite, has the ability to invade and proliferate within most nucleated cells. The invasion and destruction of host cells by T. gondii lead to significant changes in the cellular signal transduction network. One important post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, which plays a crucial role in cell signal transmission. In this study, we aimed to investigate how T. gondii regulates signal transduction in definitive host cells. We employed titanium dioxide (TiO2) affinity chromatography to enrich phosphopeptides in the small intestinal epithelia of cats at 10 days post-infection with the T. gondii Prugniuad (Pru) strain and quantified them using iTRAQ technology. A total of 4998 phosphopeptides, 3497 phosphorylation sites, and 1805 phosphoproteins were identified. Among the 705 differentially expressed phosphoproteins (DEPs), 68 were down-regulated and 637 were up-regulated. The bioinformatics analysis revealed that the DE phosphoproteins were involved in various cellular processes, including actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell necroptosis, and MHC immune processes. Our findings confirm that T. gondii infection leads to extensive changes in the phosphorylation of proteins in the cat intestinal epithelial cells. The results of this study provide a theoretical foundation for understanding the interaction between T. gondii and its definitive host. Full article
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12 pages, 2624 KiB  
Article
Epidemiological Investigation of Yak (Bos grunniens) Fascioliasis in the Pastoral Area of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China
by Qijian Cai, Mengtong Lei, Chunhua Li, Jinzhong Cai, Doudou Ma and Houshuang Zhang
Animals 2023, 13(21), 3330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13213330 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 948
Abstract
The objective of this investigation was to understand the epidemiology of fascioliasis in yaks in the alpine pastoral areas of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection was estimated by examining eggs in the feces of yaks and by autopsy [...] Read more.
The objective of this investigation was to understand the epidemiology of fascioliasis in yaks in the alpine pastoral areas of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection was estimated by examining eggs in the feces of yaks and by autopsy after the slaughter. Yaks were sampled from a total of 16 representative counties in Qinghai province, and risk factors were assessed based on regional and age characteristics. Fecal samples were obtained from 1542 yaks aged 0–1 (<1 year old), 1–2 (≥1 year old and <3 years old), and over 3 years (≥3 years old). In addition, 242 yaks over 3 years old who had not undergone fecal examinations were randomly selected for autopsy. A total of 267 fecal samples were positive for Fasciola spp. eggs. The average infection rate was 17.32% (0–60.61%), and the average infection intensity was 51.9 eggs per gram (epg) of feces, with intensities ranging from 18 to 112 epg. In Maduo, Dari, Zhiduo, Chengduo, and Datong counties, the Fasciola spp. eggs infection rate was zero. Fasciola spp. adult flukes were detected in 66 out of 242 yaks at autopsy, with a total infection rate of 27.27% and an average infection intensity of 21.2 (adult worms), with intensities ranging from 3 to 46 worms. Logistic regression model analysis showed that age was a significant risk factor for yak infection with Fasciola spp. In addition, the risk varied between regions: Haiyan, Gangcha, Duran, and Wulan were all high-risk areas for yak infection with Fasciola spp. The spatial distribution of the Fasciola spp. infection rate in each region showed a very weak negative correlation (Moran’s I = −0.062), Duran formed a spatial distribution of high–low clusters with surrounding areas, and Datong formed a low–high clustering distribution characteristic with the surrounding areas. This investigation revealed that the infection rate of Fasciola spp. in yaks was higher on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Increasing age was a risk factor for infection with Fasciola spp.; different regions also have a different risk of Fasciola spp. infection. Only two regions showed clustering characteristics in the spatial distribution of infection rates. These findings extend the epidemiological information on Fasciola spp. infection in yaks and provide baseline data for the execution of control measures against Fasciola spp. infection. Full article
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14 pages, 2295 KiB  
Article
Assessment Heartworm Disease in the Canary Islands (Spain): Risk of Transmission in a Hyperendemic Area by Ecological Niche Modeling and Its Future Projection
by Rodrigo Morchón, Iván Rodríguez-Escolar, Ricardo E. Hernández Lambraño, José Ángel Sánchez Agudo, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Irene Serafín-Pérez, Carolina Fernández-Serafín and Elena Carretón
Animals 2023, 13(20), 3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13203251 - 18 Oct 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Heartworm disease is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis. The Canary Islands (Spain), geolocated close to the coast of Western Sahara, is an archipelago considered hyperendemic where the average prevalence in domestic dogs is high, heterogeneous, and non-uniform. In addition, [...] Read more.
Heartworm disease is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis. The Canary Islands (Spain), geolocated close to the coast of Western Sahara, is an archipelago considered hyperendemic where the average prevalence in domestic dogs is high, heterogeneous, and non-uniform. In addition, Culex theileri has been reported as a vector of the disease on two of the most populated islands. Our aim was to develop a more accurate transmission risk model for dirofilariosis for the Canary Islands. For this purpose, we used different variables related to parasite transmission; the potential distribution of suitable habitats for Culex spp. was calculated using the ecological niche model (ENM) and the potential number of generations of D. immitis. The resulting model was validated with the geolocation of D. immitis-infected dogs from all islands. In addition, the impact of possible future climatic conditions was estimated. There is a risk of transmission on all islands, being high in coastal areas, moderate in midland areas, and minimal in higher altitude areas. Most of the dogs infected with D. immitis were geolocated in areas with a high risk of transmission. In 2080, the percentage of territory that will have been gained by Culex spp. is small (5.02%), although it will occur toward the midlands from coastal areas. This new model provides a high predictive power for the study of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands, as a hyperendemic area of the disease, and can be used as a tool for its prevention and control. Full article
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15 pages, 6678 KiB  
Article
Development of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction with Novel Specific Primers for Detection of Tritrichomonas muris Infection in Laboratory Mice
by Hongbo Zhang, Nan Zhang, Jianhua Li, Panpan Zhao, Xin Li, Xiaocen Wang, Xu Zhang, Bao Yuan, Fei Gao, Pengtao Gong and Xichen Zhang
Animals 2023, 13(20), 3177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13203177 - 11 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
A variety of rodent ceca are parasitized by Tritrichomonas muris (T. muris), a flagellated protozoan. To date, there are no ideal methods for the detection of T. muris infections in laboratory mice; thus, new molecular methodologies for its specific detection need [...] Read more.
A variety of rodent ceca are parasitized by Tritrichomonas muris (T. muris), a flagellated protozoan. To date, there are no ideal methods for the detection of T. muris infections in laboratory mice; thus, new molecular methodologies for its specific detection need to be developed. In this study, using staining and SEM, it was observed that T. muris has a pear-shaped body and contains three anterior flagella. A nested PCR system with novel specific primers was designed based on the conserved regions of the SSU rRNA gene of T. muris. The nested PCR system for T. muris showed good specificity and high sensitivity for at least 100 T. muris trophozoites/mL and 0.1 ng/μL of fecal genomic DNA, which means that 176 trophozoites per gram of mouse feces could be detected. When using this nested PCR system, the detection rate was 18.96% (58/306), which was higher than the detection rate of 14.05% (43/306) detected via smear microscopy in fecal samples from five mouse strains. The sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR in detecting T. muris was found to be 100%, and it demonstrated a 26% increase in diagnostic sensitivity compared to the smear microscopy method in the present study. In conclusion, the nested PCR developed with novel primers based on the SSU rRNA gene of T. muris has good accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for the detection of T. muris infections in laboratory mice. Full article
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14 pages, 1815 KiB  
Article
Molecular Identification and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis sp. in Cattle in Representative Areas of Shanxi Province, North China
by Yao Liang, Ya-Ya Liu, Jin-Jin Mei, Wen-Bin Zheng, Qing Liu, Wen-Wei Gao, Xing-Quan Zhu and Shi-Chen Xie
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182929 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Both Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis sp. are common intestinal protozoa, which can cause zoonotic diseases and economic losses to livestock industry. To evaluate the prevalence and genetic population structure of Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis sp. in beef and dairy cattle in Shanxi Province, [...] Read more.
Both Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis sp. are common intestinal protozoa, which can cause zoonotic diseases and economic losses to livestock industry. To evaluate the prevalence and genetic population structure of Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis sp. in beef and dairy cattle in Shanxi Province, north China, a total of 795 fecal samples were collected from beef and dairy cattle in three representative counties in Shanxi Province, and these fecal samples were examined using molecular approaches based on 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) of Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis sp., respectively. Among 795 cattle fecal samples, 23 were detected as Cryptosporidium-positive and 103 were detected as Blastocystis-positive, and the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis sp. in cattle in Shanxi Province was 2.9% and 13.0%, respectively. For Cryptosporidium spp., DNA sequence analysis indicated that all 23 positive samples were identified as C. andersoni. Furthermore, five known subtypes (ST1, ST10, ST14, ST21 and ST26) and three unknown subtypes of Blastocystis sp. were detected among 103 positive samples using DNA sequence analysis. This study reported the occurrence and prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis sp. in cattle in Shanxi Province for the first time, which extends the geographical distribution of these two zoonotic parasites and provides baseline data for the prevention and control of these two important zoonotic parasites in cattle in Shanxi Province. Full article
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16 pages, 2388 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Escherichia coli in Dairy Goat Kids with Diarrhea in Partial Regions of Shaanxi Province, China
by Xin Yang, Junwei Wang, Shuang Huang, Junke Song, Yingying Fan and Guanghui Zhao
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182922 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Escherichia coli are important diarrheal pathogens threatening the health of humans and various animals. Goats, especially pre-weaned goat kids, that carry these pathogens are important reservoirs related to human infection. In the present study, PCR-based [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Escherichia coli are important diarrheal pathogens threatening the health of humans and various animals. Goats, especially pre-weaned goat kids, that carry these pathogens are important reservoirs related to human infection. In the present study, PCR-based sequencing techniques were applied to characterize Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and E. coli in 202 fecal samples of diarrheal kids for Guanzhong dairy goats from five locations in Shaanxi Province. The positive rates of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and E. coli were 37.6% (76/202), 16.3% (33/202), 55.4% (112/202) and 78.7% (159/202) in these goat kids, respectively. Co-infection of two to four pathogens was found in 114 of 202 fecal samples. Significant differences (p < 0.001) in the positive rates of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were found among locations and age groups. Furthermore, two Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. xiaoi), two G. duodenalis assemblages (E and A), nine E. bieneusi genotypes (CHG3, CHG1, BEB6, CHG5, CHG2, SX1, CHG28, COS-II and CD6) and two E. coli pathotypes (EPEC and EHEC) were identified. As for Cryptosporidium, two (IIdA19G1 and IIdA19G2) and two (XXIIIa and XXIIIg) subtypes were recognized in samples positive for C. parvum and C. xiaoi, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis based on the ITS locus of E. bieneusi indicated that all nine genotypes of E. bieneusi identified in this study belonged to the group 2. Four virulence factors (ehxA, eae, stx2 and stx1) of EPEC and EHEC were found in E. coli strains. Collectively, this study explored the colonization frequency of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and E. coli in diarrheal kids of Guanzhong dairy goats in Shaanxi Province and expanded our understanding of the genetic composition and zoonotic potential of these pathogens in goats. Full article
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11 pages, 648 KiB  
Article
Tick-borne Pathogen Detection and Its Association with Alterations in Packed Cell Volume of Dairy Cattle in Thailand
by Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Eloiza May Galon, Maria Agnes Tumwebaze, Benedicto Byamukama, Ruttayaporn Ngasaman, Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Ketsarin Kamyingkird, Tawin Inpankaew and Xuenan Xuan
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182844 - 7 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) massively impact bovine production. In endemic countries, animals are often subclinically infected, showing no signs of the illness. Anemia is a hallmark of TBDs, but there is inadequate information on its presence in infected Thai cattle. In the present study, [...] Read more.
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) massively impact bovine production. In endemic countries, animals are often subclinically infected, showing no signs of the illness. Anemia is a hallmark of TBDs, but there is inadequate information on its presence in infected Thai cattle. In the present study, 265 cattle from four provinces in Thailand were surveyed to identify tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and to evaluate the changes in the packed cell volume (PCV) values associated with detection. Microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were also compared for TBP detection. Babesia/Theileria/Hepatozoon was detected in 33.58% (89/265) of the cattle samples. Specifically, Babesia bovis (9/265), B. bigemina (12/265), Theileria orientalis (62/265), and Anaplasma marginale (50/265) were identified using species-specific assays. Significant decreases in the mean PCV levels were observed in cattle that were positive for at least one TBP (p < 0.001), Babesia/Theileria/Hepatozoon (p < 0.001), T. orientalis (p < 0.001), and A. marginale (p = 0.049). The results of PCR and microscopy for the detection of TBPs suggested slight and fair agreement between the two detection tools. The present findings contribute to a better understanding of TBDs in the field and shall facilitate the formulation of effective control for TBDs in Thailand. Full article
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11 pages, 2092 KiB  
Article
Selective Anthelmintic Treatment in Horses in Sweden Based on Coprological Analyses: Ten-Year Results
by Eva Osterman-Lind, Mia Holmberg and Giulio Grandi
Animals 2023, 13(17), 2741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13172741 - 28 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
In Sweden, routine deworming has been used for several decades; however, to slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance, selective treatment is currently recommended. As part of a monitoring programme, equestrian premises submitted faecal samples to the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) twice per [...] Read more.
In Sweden, routine deworming has been used for several decades; however, to slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance, selective treatment is currently recommended. As part of a monitoring programme, equestrian premises submitted faecal samples to the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) twice per year between 2008 and 2017. Analyses for strongyles (small and large), tapeworms and ascarids, followed by premise-specific advice regarding deworming and parasite control strategies, were provided. In total, 43,330 faecal samples, collected from 26,625 horses on 935 premises in springtime (March to June), were analysed by quantitative or semi-quantitative flotation. Moreover, Strongylus vulgaris was detected by larval culture or PCR. Between 4 and 11% of individual horses tested positive for S. vulgaris and 3–10% were shedding tapeworm eggs. There were recurrent high and low egg shedders; 75% of horses with S. vulgaris appeared to have been recently introduced into the herd; the proportion of S. vulgaris-positive premises increased when individual samples rather than pooled samples were used. Based on the results of S. vulgaris diagnostics and strongyle egg-shedding level, 59% of the horses did not need to be dewormed. Full article
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11 pages, 920 KiB  
Article
Review and Evaluation of Ostertagia ostertagi Antibody ELISA for Application on Serum Samples in First Season Grazing Calves
by Johannes Charlier, Tong Wang, Sien H. Verschave, Johan Höglund and Edwin Claerebout
Animals 2023, 13(13), 2226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13132226 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
The O. ostertagi-Ab ELISA assay is widely used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes using milk samples from adult dairy cows. This assay is potentially also useful to analyse serum samples from first-season grazing (FSG) calves, providing a more [...] Read more.
The O. ostertagi-Ab ELISA assay is widely used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes using milk samples from adult dairy cows. This assay is potentially also useful to analyse serum samples from first-season grazing (FSG) calves, providing a more cost-effective and robust diagnostic technique than the current serum pepsinogen assay. However, a comprehensive evaluation of its use in serum samples from FSG calves has not yet been conducted. In this study, we first reviewed the available scientific literature in which the O. ostertagi-Ab ELISA was applied to serum samples from FSG calves. Then, a field study was conducted to compare results from the O. ostertagi-Ab ELISA assay with a serum pepsinogen assay on a set of 230 serum samples from 11 commercial dairy herds (seven in Belgium and four in Sweden). The literature review showed an increase in mean antibody levels, expressed as optical density ratio (ODR) values, from <0.4 (early grazing season) to values of 0.7–1.1 (late grazing season). Three out of five studies found a negative correlation between O. ostertagi antibody levels measured during the late grazing season and weight gain, while the other two studies found no correlation between the two variables. Our field studies showed a good correlation between O. ostertagi antibody levels and the results from the pepsinogen assay. Both indicators were negatively related to average daily weight gain in the Belgian herds, but not in the Swedish herds. Overall, the results suggest that the O. ostertagi-Ab ELISA test can be a useful tool in FSG calves and could replace the use of the serum pepsinogen assay at the end of the grazing season for general monitoring purposes. Full article
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11 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Anthelmintic Activity of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Leaf and Flower) Extracts against Trichostrongylidae Nematodes in Sheep In Vitro
by Alīna Kļaviņa, Dace Keidāne, Kristīne Ganola, Ivars Lūsis, Renāte Šukele, Dace Bandere and Liga Kovalcuka
Animals 2023, 13(13), 2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13132176 - 2 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
Due to the high prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep, the growing anthelmintic resistance, and the development of organic farming systems, sustainable alternatives are being sought. One such method is phytotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity [...] Read more.
Due to the high prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep, the growing anthelmintic resistance, and the development of organic farming systems, sustainable alternatives are being sought. One such method is phytotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) growing in Latvia on gastrointestinal nematodes (Trichostrongylidae) in sheep. The leaves and flowers of the tansy were extracted separately in 70%, 50%, and 30% ethanol and acetone. Six concentrations were prepared from each extract 500 mg/mL, 200 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, and 10 mg/mL. In vitro egg hatching test and micro-agar larval development test were performed. Extracts of tansy have strong larvicidal activity. The highest percentage of larvae inhibition for most of the extracts was 100%, but for egg inhibition, it was 95.8% for the 200 mg/mL concentration of 50% acetone and 93.3% for the 500 mg/mL concentration of 50% ethanol leaf extracts. All tansy extracts had ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Trichostrongylidae in sheep. Full article
12 pages, 3951 KiB  
Article
Recombinant Dense Granule Protein (NcGRA4) Is a Novel Serological Marker for Neospora caninum Infection in Goats
by Ruenruetai Udonsom, Aongart Mahittikorn, Apichai Prachasuphap, Kodcharad Jongpitisub, Panadda Dhepakson and Charoonluk Jirapattharasate
Animals 2023, 13(11), 1879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13111879 - 5 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Neospora caninum is widely recognised as one of the most significant causes of abortion in cattle, with infections also occurring in sheep and goats. To prevent and control animal neosporosis, it is crucial to develop sensitive and specific methods for detecting N. caninum [...] Read more.
Neospora caninum is widely recognised as one of the most significant causes of abortion in cattle, with infections also occurring in sheep and goats. To prevent and control animal neosporosis, it is crucial to develop sensitive and specific methods for detecting N. caninum infection. Recently, several recombinant proteins have been utilised in serological assays for the diagnosis of neosporosis. In this study, we used commercial gene synthesis to produce dense granular antigen 4 (NcGRA4) recombinant protein. NcGRA4 plasmids were expressed in the Escherichia coli system and then purified. The purified recombinant protein was analysed using sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. To evaluate the diagnostic potential of recombinant NcGRA4 protein, we tested 214 serum samples from goat farms via indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) and compared the results to those from the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Western blotting analysis revealed a single NcGRA4 band with an expected molecular weight of 32 kDa. The specific IgG against N. caninum was detected in 34.1% and 35% of samples evaluated by NcGRA4 iELISA and IFAT, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the NcGRA4 iELISA were 71.6% and 86.3%, respectively, when compared with the results from IFAT. Our results demonstrate that a recombinant protein that can be used to detect animal neosporosis can be produced using a synthetic NcGRA4 gene. Overall, recombinant NcGRA4 shows promise as a sensitive and specific serological marker for identifying target IgG in goat samples. Full article
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13 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
Seroprevalence and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Besnoitia besnoiti Infections in Cattle and Goats in Selangor, Malaysia
by Mohammed Babatunde Sadiq, Azim Salahuddin Muhamad, Siti Aisyah Hamdan, Siti Zubaidah Ramanoon, Zunita Zakaria, Nor Azlina Abdul Aziz, Rozaihan Mansor, Siti Suri Arshad, Nurulhidayah Khalid, Norhamizah Abdul Hamid, Juriah Kamaludeen and Sharifah Salmah Syed-Hussain
Animals 2023, 13(5), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13050948 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Besnoitia besnoiti are widely recognized as causes of production diseases in ruminants. This study aimed to investigate the serological occurrence of T. gondii, N. caninum, and B. besnoiti in cattle [...] Read more.
Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Besnoitia besnoiti are widely recognized as causes of production diseases in ruminants. This study aimed to investigate the serological occurrence of T. gondii, N. caninum, and B. besnoiti in cattle and goats from smallholder farms in Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 19 farms by collecting 404 bovine (n = 225) and caprine (n = 179) serum samples, which were then essayed for T. gondii, N. caninum, and B. besnoiti antibodies using commercially available ELISA test kits. Farm data and animal characteristics were documented, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. The seroprevalence of T. gondii at animal and farm levels in cattle was 5.3% (95% CI 1.2–7.4%) and 36.8% (95% CI 22.4–58.0%), respectively. Animal-level seropositivity for N. caninum was 2.7% (95% CI 0.4–4.2%) and 5.7% for B. besnoiti (95% CI 1.3–9.4%) with corresponding farm-level seropositivity of 21.0% and 31.5%, respectively. For the goat samples, a high animal- (69.8%; 95% CI 34.1–82.0%) and farm-level (92.3%) seropositivity was recorded for T. gondii, but was relatively lower for N. caninum antibodies, at 3.9% (95% CI 1.5–6.2%) and 38.4% (5/13). The factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity were older animals (above 12 months) (OR = 5.3; 95% CI 1.7–16.6), semi-intensive farms (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.3–6.2), the presence of either dogs or cats (OR = 3.6; 95% CI 1.1–12.3), a large herd size (>100 animals) (OR = 3.7; 95% CI 1.4–10.0), and a single source of replacement animals (OR = 3.9; 95% CI 1.6–9.6). These findings are vital in developing effective control measures against these parasites in ruminant farms in Selangor, Malaysia. More national epidemiological research is required to elucidate the spatial distribution of these infections and their potential impact on Malaysia’s livestock industry. Full article
21 pages, 5619 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomics and Proteomics of Haemonchus contortus in Response to Ivermectin Treatment
by Yang Liu, Xiaomin Wang, Xiaoping Luo, Rui Wang, Bintao Zhai, Penglong Wang, Junyan Li and Xiaoye Yang
Animals 2023, 13(5), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13050919 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
A major problem faced by the agricultural industry is the resistance of Haemonchus contortus to anthelmintic drugs. For a better understanding of the response of H. contortus to IVM and for the screening of drug-resistance-related genes, we used RNA sequencing and isobaric tags [...] Read more.
A major problem faced by the agricultural industry is the resistance of Haemonchus contortus to anthelmintic drugs. For a better understanding of the response of H. contortus to IVM and for the screening of drug-resistance-related genes, we used RNA sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology to detect the transcriptomic and proteomic changes in H. contortus after ivermectin treatment. An integrated analysis of the two omics showed that the differentially expressed genes and proteins were significantly enriched in the pathways of amino acid degradation, the metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, the biosynthesis of amino acids, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We found that the upregulated UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 (CYP), and p-glycoprotein (Pgp) genes play important roles in drug resistance in H. contortus. Our work will help in the understanding of the transcriptome and proteome changes in H. contortus after IVM and will facilitate the discovery of genes related to drug resistance. This information can be further applied to increase the understanding of the response of IVM in relation to H. contortus. Full article
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10 pages, 2233 KiB  
Article
Altered miRNA Expression Profiles in the Serum of Beagle Dogs Experimentally Infected with Toxocara canis
by Wen-Bin Zheng, Lang Cai, Yang Zou, Wen-Wei Gao, Qing Liu and Xing-Quan Zhu
Animals 2023, 13(2), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13020299 - 15 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1736
Abstract
Toxocara canis is a neglected roundworm, which can cause debilitating disease in dogs and humans worldwide. Serum is an excellent material for monitoring the occurrence of many diseases. However, no information is available on the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum of [...] Read more.
Toxocara canis is a neglected roundworm, which can cause debilitating disease in dogs and humans worldwide. Serum is an excellent material for monitoring the occurrence of many diseases. However, no information is available on the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum of dogs infected with T. canis. In this study, RNA-seq analysis was performed to identify the serum miRNA profiles in Beagle dogs infected with T. canis at different stages of infection. A total of 3, 25 and 25 differently expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified in dog serum at 24 h post-infection (hpi), 10 days post-infection (dpi) and 36 dpi, respectively, such as cfa-let-7g, cfa-miR-16, cfa-miR-92b, cfa-miR-93, cfa-miR-122, cfa-miR-485 and cfa-miR-451. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that these miRNAs could regulate the pathways related to parasitic infectious diseases and immune system, such as amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, platelet activation, IL-17 signaling pathway and chemokine signaling pathway. These results provide a foundation to explore the underlying regulatory role of miRNAs in definitive hosts after T. canis infection. Full article
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9 pages, 845 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Efficacy of Pyrantel Pamoate, Mebendazole, Albendazole, and Ivermectin against Baylisascaris schroederi in Captive Giant Pandas
by Yaxian Lu, Linhua Deng, Zhiwei Peng, Mengchao Zhou, Chengdong Wang, Lei Han, Shan Huang, Ming Wei, Rongping Wei, Lihong Tian, Desheng Li and Zhijun Hou
Animals 2023, 13(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13010142 - 29 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Baylisascaris schroederi is one of the main health risks threatening both wild and captive giant pandas. The administration of anthelmintics is a common method to effectively control B. schroederi infection, but there is a notable risk of anthelmintic resistance (AR) after long-term, constant [...] Read more.
Baylisascaris schroederi is one of the main health risks threatening both wild and captive giant pandas. The administration of anthelmintics is a common method to effectively control B. schroederi infection, but there is a notable risk of anthelmintic resistance (AR) after long-term, constant use of anthelmintics. Four anthelmintics—pyrantel pamoate (PYR), mebendazole (MBZ), albendazole (ABZ), and ivermectin (IVM)—were each administered separately at intervals of 2 months to 22 enrolled giant pandas. The fecal egg count reduction (FECR) proportions were calculated by both the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Bayesian mathematical model and the arithmetic mean. AR was assessed based on the criteria recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). The estimated prevalence of B. schroederi infection was 34.1%. After treatment with PYR, MBZ, ABZ, and IVM, it was determined that MBZ, ABZ, and IVM were efficacious against B. schroederi, while nematodes were suspected to be resistant to PYR according to the fecal egg count reduction (FECR) proportions. Full article
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11 pages, 3105 KiB  
Article
An Epidemiological Investigation and Drug-Resistant Strain Isolation of Nematodirus oiratianus in Sheep in Inner Mongolia, China
by Yang Liu, Penglong Wang, Rui Wang, Junyan Li, Bintao Zhai, Xiaoping Luo and Xiaoye Yang
Animals 2023, 13(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13010030 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Nematodirus causes major economic losses in the development of the livestock industry, as they are common gastrointestinal parasites of cattle, sheep, and other ruminants. The present study investigated Nematodirus infections in sheep in the Hulunbuir and Xilingol Grasslands, two well-known natural pastures in [...] Read more.
Nematodirus causes major economic losses in the development of the livestock industry, as they are common gastrointestinal parasites of cattle, sheep, and other ruminants. The present study investigated Nematodirus infections in sheep in the Hulunbuir and Xilingol Grasslands, two well-known natural pastures in Inner Mongolia, China. The results indicated that the average infection rate was more than 50%. Furthermore, a naturally occurring strain of Nematodirus was obtained using numerous isolation methods in the survey region. Conventional morphology and molecular biology were used to identify the strain. The larval migration inhibition test was used to determine the ivermectin level in the isolated strain. The results indicated that the larvae belonged to the species Nematodirus oiratianus. The strain was found to be ivermectin-resistant. Thus, these results recorded the detailed development processes of Nematodirus eggs, providing novel insights regarding the prevention and control of nematodes by using conventional anthelmintic regimens and by offering valuable species resources for studying anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. Full article
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15 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
The Prevalence of Trichinella spiralis in Domestic Pigs in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Huifang Bai, Bin Tang, Weidong Qiao, Xiaoxia Wu, Mingyuan Liu and Xuelin Wang
Animals 2022, 12(24), 3553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12243553 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
The meta-analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of T. spiralis in domestic pigs in China. The potential studies from seven databases (Pubmed, Web of science, Scopus, Google Scholar, CNKI, Wanfang, CBM) were searched. I2, Cochran’s Q statistic and the funnel [...] Read more.
The meta-analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of T. spiralis in domestic pigs in China. The potential studies from seven databases (Pubmed, Web of science, Scopus, Google Scholar, CNKI, Wanfang, CBM) were searched. I2, Cochran’s Q statistic and the funnel plot and Egger’s test were used to assess heterogeneity and publication bias, respectively. In this study, a total of 179 articles were captured in the initially screened. Of these, we finally obtained 39 significant articles (including 43 studies involving in 551,097 pigs) for the final analysis. We calculated using a random-effects model, and we found the overall infection rate was 0.04 (95% CI 0.03–0.06). The highest prevalence region was Guangxi. The funnel plot and Egger’s test showed no publication bias in our meta-analysis. In addition, this high heterogeneity index was suggestive of potential variations which could be due to regions, quality scores, detection methods, publication years, or samplings. These results indicated that T. spiralis were still prevalent in some areas in China. This highlights the need for an increased focus on implementing affordable, appropriate control programs to reduce economic losses and T. spiralis infection in domestic pigs in China. Full article
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12 pages, 1285 KiB  
Article
Microbiota Community Structure and Interaction Networks within Dermacentor silvarum, Ixodes persulcatus, and Haemaphysalis concinna
by Hongyu Qiu, Qingbo Lv, Qiaocheng Chang, Hao Ju, Tingting Wu, Shunshuai Liu, Xiuwen Li, Yimeng Yan, Junfeng Gao and Chunren Wang
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233237 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Ticks carry and transmit a variety of pathogens, which are very harmful to humans and animals. To characterize the microbial interactions in ticks, we analysed the microbiota of the hard ticks, Dermacentor silvarum, Ixodes persulcatus, and Haemaphysalis concinna, using 16S rRNA, [...] Read more.
Ticks carry and transmit a variety of pathogens, which are very harmful to humans and animals. To characterize the microbial interactions in ticks, we analysed the microbiota of the hard ticks, Dermacentor silvarum, Ixodes persulcatus, and Haemaphysalis concinna, using 16S rRNA, showing that microbial interactions are underappreciated in terms of shaping arthropod microbiomes. The results show that the bacterial richness and microbiota structures of these three tick species had significant differences. Interestingly, the bacterial richness (Chao1 index) of all ticks decreased significantly after they became engorged. All the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to 26 phyla, 67 classes, 159 orders, 279 families, and 627 genera. Microbial interactions in D. silvarum demonstrated more connections than in I. persulcatus and H. concinna. Bacteria with a high abundance were not important families in microbial interactions. Positive interactions of Bacteroidaceae and F_Solibacteraceae Subgroup 3 with other bacterial families were detected in all nine groups of ticks. This study provides an overview of the microbiota structure and interactions of three tick species and improves our understanding of the role of the microbiota in tick physiology and vector capacity, thus being conducive to providing basic data for the prevention of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Full article
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17 pages, 4338 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Strategies to Reduce Equine Strongyle Infective Larvae on Pasture and Study of Larval Migration and Overwintering in a Nordic Climate
by Eva Osterman-Lind, Ylva Hedberg Alm, Hillevi Hassler, Hanna Wilderoth, Helena Thorolfson and Eva Tydén
Animals 2022, 12(22), 3093; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12223093 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Horses, as grazing animals, are inadvertently exposed to intestinal parasites that, if not controlled, may cause disease. However, the indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has led to drug resistance, highlighting the need for pasture-management practices to reduce the level of parasitic exposure and [...] Read more.
Horses, as grazing animals, are inadvertently exposed to intestinal parasites that, if not controlled, may cause disease. However, the indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has led to drug resistance, highlighting the need for pasture-management practices to reduce the level of parasitic exposure and lessen reliance on drugs. The efficacy of such methods depends both on the epidemiology of the parasites and the prevailing weather conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of faecal removal and harrowing on reducing the number of parasite larvae in herbage. Moreover, the migratory and survival ability of strongyle larvae in a Nordic climate was studied. Faeces from horses naturally infected with strongyle nematodes were used to contaminate pastures and grass samples were collected to harvest larvae. Twice-weekly faecal removal significantly reduced larval yields, whereas harrowing on a single occasion under dry weather conditions in the summer did not. Strongyle larvae were able to migrate 150 cm from the faecal pats, but most larvae were found within 50 cm. Both Cyathostominae and S. vulgaris survived the winter months with larvae harvested up to 17–18 months after faecal placement. Resting of pastures for one year greatly reduced the parasite level, but two years of rest were required for parasite-free pasture. Full article
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12 pages, 2917 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Occurrence and Meta-Analysis of Investigations on Sarcocystis Infection among Ruminants (Ruminantia) in Mainland China
by Zifu Zhu, Zhu Ying, Zixuan Feng, Qun Liu and Jing Liu
Animals 2023, 13(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13010149 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
Sarcocystis is a zoonotic pathogen that threatens public health and the quality of food safety. To determine the Sarcocystis spp. prevalence in ruminants (Ruminantia) in China, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data were collected from English databases (PubMed and Web of [...] Read more.
Sarcocystis is a zoonotic pathogen that threatens public health and the quality of food safety. To determine the Sarcocystis spp. prevalence in ruminants (Ruminantia) in China, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data were collected from English databases (PubMed and Web of Science) and Chinese databases (Chinese Web of knowledge (CNKI), Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP) and Wan Fang databases). A total of 20,301 ruminants from 54 publications were evaluated. The pooled prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. among ruminants in mainland China was 65% (95% CI: 57–72%). Our results indicate that sarcocystosis is prevalent in ruminants, which show significant geographical differences. Therefore, it there is a need for continuous monitoring of infections of Sarcocystis spp. in ruminants to reduce the threat to human health and economic losses to the animal industry. Full article
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