Advances in Small Animal Cardiology

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 2734

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
Interests: small animal cardiology; cardiothoracic surgery; congenital heart and vascular disease; biomolecules involved in hemodynamics; regenerative cardiovascular; echocardiography in veterinary medicine; cardiac biomarkers

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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwai-cho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
Interests: echocardiography; 2D strain; oncological cardiology; dilated cardiomyopathy; small animal veterinary

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Veterinary cardiology has developed widely by following human medicine as long time. In clinical cases, medication and innovative surgical treatments for cardiovascular diseases were applied from human medicine. On the other hand, research of cardiac physiology and pharmacology has been developed by the achievements of small animal experiment. Researchers associating small animal cardiology need to collect the evidence and information widely from basic study to clinical experience. Recently, the advancement of diagnosis techniques in small animal cardiology and the development of treatment methods both internal and surgery have been active, and it can be said that veterinary field is comparable to human medicine. We as researchers in small animal cardiology are required important to actively disseminate new findings to development in veterinary and human medicine.

This Special Issue aims to provide the advances, innovations, new diagnosis strategies and treatment of small animal cardiology for basic study or clinical cases.

In this special issue, we call for a wide range of original papers and review articles on small animal cardiology. We also invite case reports on cardiovascular diseases as useful reports in veterinary clinical practice and for new strategy.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Kazumi Shimada
Dr. Lina Hamabe
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cardiovascular diseases 
  • congenital heart diseases 
  • chronic heart failure 
  • circulatory dynamics 
  • echocardiography 
  • image technique for cardiology 
  • diagnostic tools in cardiovascular diseases 
  • treatments for cardiovascular diseases

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 761 KiB  
Article
Differences in Levels of Mitochondrial DNA Content at Various Stages of Canine Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease
by Suphakan Chirathanaphirom, Phongsakorn Chuammitri, Wanpitak Pongkan, Nawin Manachai, Pinkarn Chantawong, Burin Boonsri and Chavalit Boonyapakorn
Animals 2023, 13(24), 3850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243850 - 14 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in small-breed dogs, often leading to heart failure. Oxidative stress in MMVD can harm mitochondria, decreasing their DNA content. This study assesses dogs’ oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA at different MMVD stages. [...] Read more.
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in small-breed dogs, often leading to heart failure. Oxidative stress in MMVD can harm mitochondria, decreasing their DNA content. This study assesses dogs’ oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA at different MMVD stages. Fifty-five small-breed dogs were categorized into four groups, including: A—healthy (n = 15); B—subclinical (n = 15); C—heart failure (n = 15); and D—end-stage MMVD (n = 10). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and mitochondrial DNA in peripheral blood were analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR measured mitochondrial DNA, and PCR data were analyzed via the fold-change Ct method. Serum MDA levels were assessed using competitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mitochondrial DNA was significantly lower in group B (−0.89 ± 2.82) than in group A (1.50 ± 2.01), but significantly higher in groups C (2.02 ± 1.44) and D (2.77 ± 1.76) than B. MDA levels were notably elevated in groups B (19.07 ± 11.87 µg/mL), C (23.41 ± 12.87 μg/mL), and D (19.72 ± 16.81 μg/mL) in comparison to group A (9.37 ± 4.67 μg/mL). Nevertheless, this observed difference did not reach statistical significance. It is noteworthy that mitochondrial DNA content experiences a decline during the subclinical stage but undergoes an increase in cases of heart failure. Concurrently, oxidative stress exhibits an upward trend in dogs with MMVD. These findings collectively suggest a potential association between mitochondrial DNA, oxidative stress, and the progression of MMVD in small-breed dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Cardiology)
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10 pages, 1116 KiB  
Communication
Evaluation of Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Components and Enzymes in Systemically Hypertensive Cats Receiving Amlodipine
by Darcy Adin, Clarke Atkins, Oliver Domenig, Catherine Glahn, Teresa DeFrancesco and Kathryn Meurs
Animals 2023, 13(22), 3479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13223479 - 10 Nov 2023
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Abstract
Background: Chronic renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) activation is harmful. Amlodipine activates RAAS in humans and dogs, but contradictory data exist for systemically hypertensive (SHT) cats. Hypothesis: Cats with SHT and chronic kidney disease treated with amlodipine (SHT/CKD-A) are RAAS activated. Animals: Client-owned cats: unmedicated [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) activation is harmful. Amlodipine activates RAAS in humans and dogs, but contradictory data exist for systemically hypertensive (SHT) cats. Hypothesis: Cats with SHT and chronic kidney disease treated with amlodipine (SHT/CKD-A) are RAAS activated. Animals: Client-owned cats: unmedicated normotensive (NT) cats (n = 9); SHT/CKD-A cats (n = 5) with median systolic blood pressure of 170 mmHg (vs. 195 mmHg, pre-treatment), chronic kidney disease, and receiving no RAAS-suppressive therapy. Methods: Serum was frozen (−80 °C) until RAAS analysis via equilibrium analysis. The RAAS variables (reported as median (minimum–maximum)) were compared between groups, using Mann–Whitney U test. Results: Angiotensin 1, angiotensin 1,7, angiotensin III, and angiotensin 1,5, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2 activity were higher in SHT/CKD-A cats compared to NT cats, while ACE activity was lower in SHT/CKD-A cats compared to NT cats (p < 0.05 all). A marker for alternative RAAS influence (ALT-S) was significantly higher (69; 58–73 pmol/pmol) in SHT/CKD-A cats compared to NT cats (35; 14–63 pmol/pmol; p = 0.001). Aldosterone concentrations were significantly higher (393; 137–564 pmol/L) in SHT/CKD-A cats compared to NT cats (129; 28–206 pmol/L; p = 0.007). Conclusion and Clinical Importance: Circulating RAAS is activated in systemically hypertensive cats receiving amlodipine. Although this study did not parse out the individual contributions of SHT, chronic kidney disease, and amlodipine, the findings suggest that the use of concurrent RAAS-suppressant therapy, specifically aldosterone antagonism, in amlodipine-treated SHT cats with chronic kidney disease might be indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Cardiology)
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12 pages, 4415 KiB  
Case Report
Surgical Correction of a Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect with Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connections Using Cardiac Computed Tomography Imaging and a 3D-Printed Model
by Kyung-Min Kim, Chang-Hwan Moon, Won-Jong Lee, Woo-Jin Kim, Mihyung Kim, Jaemin Jeong, Hae-Beom Lee, Seong-Mok Jeong, Ho-Jung Choi, Tae Sung Hwang, Hee Chun Lee, Jae Hyeon Yu, Aryung Nam and Dae-Hyun Kim
Animals 2024, 14(7), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14071094 - 03 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Sinus venosus atrial septal defects (SVASDs), concurrent with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections (PAPVCs), are a rare congenital heart disease in dogs. Surgical correction is essential when clinical signs or significant hemodynamic changes are present. We aimed to report on the successful surgical [...] Read more.
Sinus venosus atrial septal defects (SVASDs), concurrent with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections (PAPVCs), are a rare congenital heart disease in dogs. Surgical correction is essential when clinical signs or significant hemodynamic changes are present. We aimed to report on the successful surgical correction of an SVASD with PAPVCs, using a computed tomography (CT)-based customized 3D cardiac model. A 10-month-old male poodle was referred for corrective surgery for an ASD. Echocardiography confirmed a hemodynamically significant left-to-right shunting flow through an interatrial septal defect and severe right-sided heart volume overload. For a comprehensive diagnosis, a CT scan was performed, which confirmed an SVASD with PAPVCs. A customized 3D cardiac model was used for preoperative decision-making and surgical rehearsal. The defect was repaired using an autologous pericardial patch under a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Temporary pacing was applied for sinus bradycardia and third-degree atrioventricular block. The patient recovered from the anesthesia without further complications. The pacemaker was removed during hospitalization and the patient was discharged without complications 2 weeks post-surgery. At the three-month follow-up, there was no shunting flow in the interatrial septum and the right-sided volume overload had been resolved. The cardiac medications were discontinued, and there were no complications. This report indicates the validity of surgical correction under CPB for an SVASD with PAPVCs, and the advantages of utilizing a CT-based 3D cardiac model for preoperative planning to increase the surgical success rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Cardiology)
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