Non-Road Mobile Machinery (NRMM) incorporate a wide range of machinery, with or without bodywork and wheels, and are installed with a combustion engine and not intended for carrying passengers or goods on the road. These are used in many different sectors including construction,
[...] Read more.
Non-Road Mobile Machinery (NRMM) incorporate a wide range of machinery, with or without bodywork and wheels, and are installed with a combustion engine and not intended for carrying passengers or goods on the road. These are used in many different sectors including construction, agriculture, forestry, mining, local authorities, airport and port ground operations, railways, inland waterways and within the household and gardening sector. This article presents a review of the state of knowledge with regard to non-road mobile machinery, particularly focusing on their regulation and the atmospheric emissions associated with them. This was undertaken as there is currently a lack of this information available in the literature, which is an oversight due to the potential for Non-Road Mobile Machinery to form a greater part of atmospheric emissions in the future, as other areas of emissions are tackled by regulations, as is outlined in the article. Emissions such as particulate matter (PM), carbon oxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2
), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx
) and sulphur oxides (SOx
) from NRMM contribute considerably to total emissions released into the air. NRMM are diverse in application, engine type and fuel use, and are therefore difficult to categorise. This leads to numerous issues when it comes to the control and regulation of their emissions. The most recent European and international regulations are outlined in this article. Due to the divergent nature of NRMM, their emissions profiles are highly varied, and in-use emissions monitoring is challenging. This has led to a lack of data and inaccuracies in the estimation of total emissions and emission inventories. It was assumed in the past that emissions from non-road sources did not contribute as significantly to total emissions as those from on-road sources. This assumption was partly due to the difficulty in gathering relevant data, and it was disproven in the 1990s by studies in The Netherlands, Finland and Sweden. It is now understood that NRMM will eventually surpass on-road vehicles as the leading source of mobile pollution due to the continuing efforts to reduce emissions from other sources. Many states worldwide gather emissions data from NRMM, and EU member states are required to report their emissions. As of January 2017, a new European regulation establishing limits for gaseous and particulate pollutants from NRMM applies, and this regulation also defines administrative and technical requirements for EU approval. The exact number of NRMM and the total amount of fuel they use is currently not known. In Ireland, for example, their fuel use has been reported under stationary boilers and engines. However, this results in the underestimation of emissions of some pollutants (NOx
in particular) because emissions of air pollutants tend to be higher in mobile than in stationary machinery.