Strawberry Production in a Protected Environment and under Field Conditions

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Horticultural and Floricultural Crops".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 41419

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CREA Research Centre for Olive, Fruit and Citrus Crops, via La Canapona 1 bis, 47121 Forlì, FC, Italy
Interests: fruits; cultivation; breeding; innovation
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Council for Agricultural Research and Economics(CREA), Research Centre for Olive, Fruit and Citrus Crops, 47121 Forlì, Italy
Interests: tree fruit ecophysiolology; mineral nutrition; water relationships; agroecology; biomasses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is an economically important crop worldwide in the fruit market due to its attractive fruit, good taste, distinctive flavor, and its well-known nutritional value. Strawberry is the most important small fruit crop produced in almost all parts of the world, with different cultivation techniques, harvest seasons, and genotypes adapted to variable environmental conditions.

Cultivation systems (open field, protected culture, and soilless cultivation) and cultural practices have been changing over time: they can affect yield by modulating, to a certain degree, growth and reproductive success of plants in a specific cropping area. Several breeding programs are currently carried out, based on huge genetic and agronomic diversity. As a matter of fact, plant type (cold storage frigo plants; plug plants; waiting bed plants; tray plants; bare root plants) and productive aptitude (June bearing vs. everbearing) are extremely variable, as well as flower bud differentiation in nursery and field in different plant types and environmental conditions. Efforts have been made to drive cropping systems toward eco-friendly cultural practices. Soil pre-plant fumigation, in nursery and in field, is one of the major concerns of producers and consumers, as well as watering and mineral nutrition.

This Special Issue will focus on recent advances in “Strawberry Production in Protected Environment and Under Field Conditions”. We welcome novel research and reviews covering all related topics. This issue will present a picture of the state-of-the-art and potential future of innovation in the strawberry industry worldwide. 

Dr. Gianluca Baruzzi
Dr. Giancarlo Roccuzzo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • strawberry
  • cultural technique
  • soil quality
  • irrigation
  • plant type
  • protected culture
  • open field
  • soilless culture
  • flower bud differentiation
  • nutraceutics

Published Papers (13 papers)

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13 pages, 1419 KiB  
Article
Epiphytic Microbial Community and Post-Harvest Characteristics of Strawberry Fruits as Affected by Plant Nutritional Regime with Silicon
by Fabio Valentinuzzi, Youry Pii, Luigimaria Borruso, Tanja Mimmo, Edoardo Puglisi, Marco Trevisan and Stefano Cesco
Agronomy 2021, 11(12), 2407; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11122407 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Despite being not essential to plants, Silicon (Si) has proven to have promoting effects on plants growth, yield, and resistance against biotic and abiotic stressors. The increase of concentration in specific minerals in plant tissues can also improve shelf-life, which, in fruits like [...] Read more.
Despite being not essential to plants, Silicon (Si) has proven to have promoting effects on plants growth, yield, and resistance against biotic and abiotic stressors. The increase of concentration in specific minerals in plant tissues can also improve shelf-life, which, in fruits like strawberries, is also affected by the epiphytic microbial community. The present research was carried out to assess whether Si biofortification of strawberry plants, grown in soilless system, could affect plants yield and post-harvest feature of fruits during the storage period, carried out at three different temperatures (i.e., 1, 4 and 10 °C) for 7 and 14 days. Furthermore, we investigated whether the plant nutritional regime, specifically the Si fertilization, can impact the composition of microbial community. Our results showed that biofortification did not significantly affect fruits firmness, whereas, at the highest Si levels, an increase in titratable acidity was observed. The microbial community analysis highlighted for the first time the presence of probiotic bacteria, as Bacillus breve, which could present interesting technological features as strains adapted to the strawberry fruit-sphere. In addition, with the increasing levels of Si biofortification, the depletion of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, like Escherichia coli and Terrisporobacter glycolicus, was also observed. In conclusion, data here reported highlight for the first time the possible role played by the nutritional regimes of strawberry plants in shaping composition of the fruit epiphytic microbial community. Full article
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17 pages, 2031 KiB  
Article
Non-Chemical Soil Fumigation for Sustainable Strawberry Production in Southern Italy
by Daniela Giovannini, Federica Brandi, Anna Paola Lanteri, Luca Lazzeri, Maria Luigia Maltoni, Roberto Matteo, Andrea Minuto, Paolo Sbrighi, Fiorella Stagno and Gianluca Baruzzi
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1678; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081678 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
In intensive strawberry production, monoculture is a common practice worldwide; however, prolonged replanting can cause plant disorders and jeopardize profitable cultivation of this highly valuable crop. To mitigate replanting problems, the strawberry industry is still highly dependent on chemical fumigation. Given the increasing [...] Read more.
In intensive strawberry production, monoculture is a common practice worldwide; however, prolonged replanting can cause plant disorders and jeopardize profitable cultivation of this highly valuable crop. To mitigate replanting problems, the strawberry industry is still highly dependent on chemical fumigation. Given the increasing regulatory restrictions and concerns about human and environmental risks from fumigants use, there is a growing interest in the adoption of effective, non-chemical alternatives. Two non-chemical soil fumigation practices, i.e., anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and bio-fumigation with biocide plants (BIOFUM), were tested against chemical fumigation by chloropicrin + 1,3-dichloropropene mixture (STANDARD) and untreated (UNTREAT) control in a 2-year trial established in a commercial strawberry farm in Southern Italy (40°25′ N, 16°42′ E). Overall, the alternative practices provided consistently better results than UNTREAT; whereas, compared to STANDARD, their performance was significantly different in the two years: in 2018/19 season the alternative practices registered a 20% (ASD) and 39% (BIOFUM) marketable yield loss compared to STANDARD, while in the 2019/20 season yield differences were not significant. Although both practices appear promising as eco-friendly alternatives to chemical fumigation, in this short-term trial ASD performed better than BIOFUM both in terms of yield and fruit size, resulting in a more advanced stage for practical adoption. Full article
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11 pages, 2850 KiB  
Article
Strawberry Living Mulch in an Organic Vineyard
by Davide Neri, Serena Polverigiani, Matteo Zucchini, Veronica Giorgi, Fabio Marchionni and Md Jebu Mia
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081643 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3423
Abstract
A living mulch system can provide beneficial biodiversified phytocoenoses and spatial competition against weeds; however, it may also compete for water with the main cultivated crop under Mediterranean climate conditions. Strawberries employed as living mulch in a rain-fed hill vineyard of central Italy [...] Read more.
A living mulch system can provide beneficial biodiversified phytocoenoses and spatial competition against weeds; however, it may also compete for water with the main cultivated crop under Mediterranean climate conditions. Strawberries employed as living mulch in a rain-fed hill vineyard of central Italy were evaluated for two years through a participative approach involving the farmer. A local wild strawberry was propagated by stolons to obtain small plantlets easily uprooted after the summer and then transplanted to a one-year-old vineyard. The densities of two and four strawberry plants per grapevine were compared with no living mulch in a randomized complete block design. A horizontal blade weeder was used once a year in all treatments. The results showed that strawberries as living mulch plus application of a blade weeder avoided the need for further soil tillage and assured a full soil cover during winter for both initial planting densities. The strawberry living mulch did not alter the grapevine transpiration during an incident of water stress in summer. Moreover, the yield per vine and the grape quality were comparable with those of the soil without living mulch. The growth of strawberry mulch was relevant in the area surrounding the vines. Furthermore, the living mulch guaranteed a constant soil cover reducing the risk for soil erosion while increasing the vineyard’s biological diversity. This may imply a higher resilience. Full article
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12 pages, 847 KiB  
Article
Strawberry Crown Plugs Provide Flexibility and Improved Performance in Cold Climate Plasticulture Production
by C. A. Weber
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081635 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
Annual plasticulture strawberry production has not been adopted as rapidly in cold climate regions as has occurred in warmer production areas due to uncertainty about potential benefits. Recent trials have demonstrated the potential of regionally adapted varieties in the annual plasticulture system in [...] Read more.
Annual plasticulture strawberry production has not been adopted as rapidly in cold climate regions as has occurred in warmer production areas due to uncertainty about potential benefits. Recent trials have demonstrated the potential of regionally adapted varieties in the annual plasticulture system in cold regions, but optimal production practices have not been determined. Summer planting of short-day varieties in these areas would increase flexibility for growers, allowing additional cropping options and improved land use management. The performance of six short-day strawberry varieties (Chandler, Clancy, Jewel, Ovation, Seneca and Ventana) was examined in a series of four annual production trials using cold-stored bare-root crowns for spring planting or a new type of planting stock termed a ‘crown plug’ for two summer plantings. Procedures for producing crown plugs from cold-stored crowns are described. The crown plug summer plantings significantly outperformed the spring planted bare-root plants across all varieties. The July planting established using crown plugs had higher yield and higher mean berry weight across all six varieties compared to the May bare-root planting (623 g/plant—12.5 g mean fruit weight vs. 330 g/plant—10.6 g mean fruit weight, respectively). In the July planting, ‘Seneca’, ‘Ventana’ and ‘Jewel’ exceeded the mean yield per plant for the planting as a whole and the other three varieties also produced more than previously reported for the May planting established with bare-root plants. The August crown plug planting was less productive than the July planting (623 g/plant vs. 498 g/plant, respectively) but was still more productive than both spring plantings. No difference was observed between the April and May plantings across the six varieties. Utilizing crown plugs also reduced the duration of weed control measures needed, improved efficiency of setting plants and limited the need for blossom and runner removal in the field, thus demonstrating labor cost savings that can offset the cost of crown plug production while also producing higher overall yield and mean fruit weight in the varieties in the trial. The summer plantings established with crown plugs demonstrated improved survival through a second winter dormancy period but produced relatively poor yield and berry size in the second harvest season. Crown plugs provide flexibility and improved productivity for growers utilizing annual plasticulture production in cold climate regions. Full article
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17 pages, 2683 KiB  
Article
Physiological, Biochemical, and Biometrical Response of Cultivated Strawberry and Wild Strawberry in Greenhouse Gutter Cultivation in the Autumn-Winter Season in Poland—Preliminary Study
by Justyna Lema-Rumińska, Dariusz Kulus, Alicja Tymoszuk, Natalia Miler, Anita Woźny and Anna Wenda-Piesik
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1633; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081633 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2839
Abstract
Strawberry and wild strawberry are among the most popular horticultural crops. Due to the development of soilless cultivation systems, the whole-year production of these economically important fruit crops is achievable even in countries with temperate climate. However, the responses of strawberry (Fragaria [...] Read more.
Strawberry and wild strawberry are among the most popular horticultural crops. Due to the development of soilless cultivation systems, the whole-year production of these economically important fruit crops is achievable even in countries with temperate climate. However, the responses of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) and wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) to microclimate conditions in greenhouse gutter cultivation in the autumn–winter season in Poland have not been yet determined. The aim of this study was to analyze the physiological, biochemical, and biometrical responses of two cultivars of strawberry ‘Ostara’ and ‘San Andreas’ and two cultivars of wild strawberry ‘Baron von Solemacher’ and ‘Regina’ grown for 20 weeks, starting from September 17th, in controlled greenhouse conditions on coconut mats in gutters in the autumn–winter season and irradiated with sodium lamps. Strawberry ‘San Andreas’ produced 30% larger leaves and almost three-fold higher fresh and dry weight of biomass than ‘Ostara’. The strawberry plants ‘San Andreas’ had a higher content (20%) of chlorophyll a and 30% of chlorophyll b than ‘Ostara’ plants. Generally, ‘San Andreas’ displayed an overall higher concentration of intercellular CO2 (about 14%) than ‘Ostara’ plants providing higher gas exchange processes. Photosynthetic rate amounted to 13.0 μmol·m−2·s−1 for ‘San Andreas’ that was almost two-fold higher than for ‘Ostara’. ‘San Andreas’ flower and fruit productions were uniform and the six-fold higher individual fruit yield proved the excellent attributes of this cultivar to the greenhouse cultivation. Even though the productivity of the two studied wild strawberry cultivars was similar, ‘Regina’ showed higher values of some parameters than ‘Baron von Solemacher’ (40% larger leaves, 25% higher photosynthetic rate, 10% higher concentration of intercellular CO2). A high nutritional value of fruits is maintained compared to traditional open-air cultivation. Full article
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13 pages, 1278 KiB  
Article
Performance of Strawberry Varieties Developed for Perennial Matted-Row Production in Annual Plasticulture in a Cold Climate Region
by Courtney A. Weber
Agronomy 2021, 11(7), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071407 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
Annual plasticulture production of strawberries promises superior weed control, fruit quality and yields. However, strawberry varieties adapted for perennial, matted-row production and local markets in cold climate regions have not been widely tested for adaptation to an annual production cycle. Productivity of seven [...] Read more.
Annual plasticulture production of strawberries promises superior weed control, fruit quality and yields. However, strawberry varieties adapted for perennial, matted-row production and local markets in cold climate regions have not been widely tested for adaptation to an annual production cycle. Productivity of seven short-day varieties developed for matted-row and/or annual production was examined in an annual plasticulture system in two consecutive trials in central NY (lat. 42.87° N, long. 76.99° W) harvested in 2013 and 2014. ‘Flavorfest’ demonstrated good performance in Trial 1 with high yield (390 g/plant) and large fruit size (13.9 g mean berry weight). ‘Jewel’ was shown to be well adapted to the annual plasticulture system with consistently high yields (330 and 390 g/plant) that equaled or surpassed other varieties and had moderate fruit size. ‘Chandler’ performed similarly to previous trials conducted in warmer regions with yield (340 g/plant) and fruit size (9.8 g mean berry weight) similar to ‘Jewel’. ‘Clancy’ yielded less but was consistent from year to year. The late season varieties Seneca and Ovation showed marked variability between years, possibly due to drastically different temperatures during flowering and fruit development in Trial 1 compared to Trial 2. High temperatures in Trial 1 likely caused higher early fruit yield, a compressed season and a precipitous decline in fruit size in the later season, thus reducing yield in the late season. Survival after a second dormant period was poor resulting in a small second harvest and reduced fruit size. Overall, the system demonstrated many of the expected benefits but may be more sensitive to weather conditions in the region. While many varieties developed for matted-row production may work well in an annual plasticulture system, not all varieties are equally adapted. Performance of each variety should be determined independently before large scale adoption by growers. Full article
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11 pages, 1537 KiB  
Article
Foliar Thidiazuron Promotes the Growth of Axillary Buds in Strawberry
by Yali Li, Jiangtao Hu, Jie Xiao, Ge Guo and Byoung Ryong Jeong
Agronomy 2021, 11(3), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030594 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2786
Abstract
Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) can be easily propagated with daughter plants or through crown division, which are developed from the axillary bud at the axils of leaves. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different cytokinins, auxins, and their [...] Read more.
Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) can be easily propagated with daughter plants or through crown division, which are developed from the axillary bud at the axils of leaves. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different cytokinins, auxins, and their combinations on the axillary bud growth in strawberry. Four cytokinins (6-benzyladenine, kinetin, zeatin, and thidiazuron (TDZ)) and three auxins (indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, and naphthaleneacetic acid) at a concentration of 50 mg·L−1 were sprayed on the leaves three times in 10-day intervals. The expression levels of cytokinin, auxin, and meristem-related genes in the crowns were also investigated. The results showed that TDZ was the most effective hormone for the axillary bud growth, and also promoted plant growth. However, chlorophyll, soluble sugar, and starch contents in the leaves were lower after TDZ. TDZ activated the cytokinin signal transduction pathway, while repressing the auxin synthesis genes. Several meristem-related transcription factors were upregulated, which might be essential for the growth of the axillary buds. These results suggested that TDZ can improve the cultivation of strawberry, while further research is needed to explain the effect on phytochemistry. Full article
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10 pages, 1376 KiB  
Article
Soil Disinfestation Efficacy against Soil Fungal Pathogens in Strawberry Crops in Spain: An Overview
by Berta de los Santos, Juan Jesús Medina, Luis Miranda, José Antonio Gómez and Miguel Talavera
Agronomy 2021, 11(3), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030526 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
(1) Background: Strawberry cultivation is highly dependent on soil disinfestation for proper development. Since the definitive methyl bromide phase-out, other chemicals have been used as alternatives. This research provides an overview on the efficacies of soil disinfestation methods on controlling soil fungal diseases [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Strawberry cultivation is highly dependent on soil disinfestation for proper development. Since the definitive methyl bromide phase-out, other chemicals have been used as alternatives. This research provides an overview on the efficacies of soil disinfestation methods on controlling soil fungal diseases of strawberry. (2) Methods: The efficacy of several soil disinfestation methods on soil fungal pathogens (SFP: Fusarium spp. and Macrophominaphaseolina) was analyzed in experimental field trials during eleven growing seasons. (3) Results: Average efficiencies in reducing soil pathogen inocula for soil disinfestation techniques are given. Soil disinfestations with chloropicrin, allyl isothiocyanate, dazomet, 1,3-dichloropropene:chloropicrin, methyl iodide:chloropicrin, and dimethyl disulfide reduced Fusarium spp. and M. phaseolina soil inocula by more than 90%. Combination of solarization with organic manures (biosolarization) reduced Fusarium spp. soil populations by 80% and M. phaseolina by 79%. Reductions in plant mortality and increases in fruit yields over the untreated controls did not differ between chemically fumigated and biosolarized plots. (4) Conclusions: Soil fungal pathogens are effectively controlled by chemical fumigation of soils in intensive strawberry crops in Spain. In the case of mixed infestations of SFP with nematodes, the most efficient treatment in suppressing soil-borne diseases was soil fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene:chloropicrin, but other alternative chemicals, such as allyl isothiocyanate, dazomet, and dimethyl disulfide, provided high efficacies in reducing the SFP inocula. Soil biosolarization is proposed as an effective alternative to chemical soil fumigation for strawberry cultivation in Southern Spain when SFP inocula is not remarkably high. Full article
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21 pages, 7541 KiB  
Article
Planting Density Interferes with Strawberry Production Efficiency in Southern Brazil
by Juliana Martins de Lima, Paola Daiane Welter, Marllon Fernando Soares dos Santos, Wanda Kavcic, Bruna Miranda Costa, Antonio Felippe Fagherazzi, Francine Regianini Nerbass, Aike Anneliese Kretzschmar, Leo Rufato and Gianluca Baruzzi
Agronomy 2021, 11(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030408 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4690
Abstract
In the search for more efficient production systems, many changes have occurred in the strawberry production sector. Planting density is one of the management techniques that most interferes with the quality of fruits and production aspects. This study aimed to evaluate the effect [...] Read more.
In the search for more efficient production systems, many changes have occurred in the strawberry production sector. Planting density is one of the management techniques that most interferes with the quality of fruits and production aspects. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different planting densities on the photosynthetic characteristics, fruit quality, and production of the strawberry cultivar Pircinque. The study was conducted in the 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 harvests in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The treatments consisted of plant spacing of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four blocks and plots of 20 plants. Plant spacing interfered with fruit quality, photosynthetic efficiency, production, productivity, and economic return. Due to the fruits of Pircinque having a higher quality than other cultivars, the planting spacing between 5 and 15 cm allows meeting the fruit’s main production and quality requirements. However, it is up to the producer to adapt the management if opting for higher planting densities, which allow for a greater economic viability of the business. Full article
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23 pages, 4343 KiB  
Article
Yield and Fruit Quality of Strawberry Cultivars under Different Irrigation Regimes
by María Teresa Ariza, Luis Miranda, José Antonio Gómez-Mora, Juan Jesús Medina, David Lozano, Pedro Gavilán, Carmen Soria and Elsa Martínez-Ferri
Agronomy 2021, 11(2), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020261 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4710
Abstract
Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) production requires the input of large amounts of water provided by irrigation during the entire production cycle. However, water availability is shrinking in many important strawberry cropping areas, such as Huelva (in Europe), compromising the environmental sustainability [...] Read more.
Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) production requires the input of large amounts of water provided by irrigation during the entire production cycle. However, water availability is shrinking in many important strawberry cropping areas, such as Huelva (in Europe), compromising the environmental sustainability and economic viability of strawberry production. Besides technical approaches, water-saving strategies are necessary for improving strawberry water productivity such as the use of low water-consumptive cultivars with high productivity or cultivars allowing deficit irrigation (DI) strategies. A two-year field experiment was conducted to compare the physiological and agronomical response of six commercial strawberry cultivars (‘Sabrina’, ‘Fortuna’, ‘Splendor’, ‘Primoris’, ‘Rabida’ and ‘Rociera’) to six different water treatments ranging from 65% to 140% of estimated ‘Sabrina’ evapotranspiration (ETcSab; ~224–510 mm year−1). Cultivars differed substantially in yield and water consumption linked to their biomass partitioning into reproductive/ vegetative organs, determining different yield efficiency (YE). Their water needs (IN) conditioned their response to different water supplies, involving significant yield losses in DI treatments (<20% IN) but not decreasing fruit quality. The highly-consumptive and productive ‘Rabida’ and ‘Rociera’, reduced yields by DI (<40%) but were still profitable; the low-water-consumptive but still productive ‘Fortuna’, ‘Splendor’ and ‘Primoris’ represent significant water-savings (<20%) in strawberry cultivation. Full article
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12 pages, 1606 KiB  
Article
Protection of Strawberry Plants against Charcoal Rot Disease (Macrophomina phaseolina) Induced by Azospirillum brasilense
by Josefina Viejobueno, Patricia Liliana Albornoz, María Camacho, Berta de los Santos, Martín Gustavo Martínez-Zamora and Sergio Miguel Salazar
Agronomy 2021, 11(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020195 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2737
Abstract
Some Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) can induce protection against pathogens, increasing plant tolerance to various diseases. This so-called biocontrol activity is replacing harmful practices in agriculture caused by the use of agrochemicals. Azospirillum brasilense is one of the PGPR already effectively used as [...] Read more.
Some Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) can induce protection against pathogens, increasing plant tolerance to various diseases. This so-called biocontrol activity is replacing harmful practices in agriculture caused by the use of agrochemicals. Azospirillum brasilense is one of the PGPR already effectively used as a resistance inducer in several crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of PGPR A. brasilense strains isolated from strawberry and petunia plants (REC3, 2A1, 2A2, and 2E1) against the fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina, which is the causal agent of the strawberry charcoal rot disease. In vitro antagonism assays and enzymatic tests on Petri dishes revealed no direct inhibition on M. phaseolina growth by any of the A. brasilense strains. However, strawberry plants treated with REC3 and 2A1 strains increased callose and lignin deposition and stomatal closure compared to untreated plants. In addition, treatments with either bacterial strains induced a defense response in strawberry plants against virulent isolates of M. phaseolina evidenced by an increased tolerance to the charcoal rot disease. These results suggest that A. brasilense REC3 and 2A1 strains can be used for the activation of innate immunity in strawberry plants as a strategy for managing charcoal rot in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. Full article
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15 pages, 2752 KiB  
Article
Initial Crown Diameter Influences on the Fruit Yield and Quality of Strawberry Pircinque
by Antonio Felippe Fagherazzi, Daniel Suek Zanin, Marllon Fernando Soares dos Santos, Juliana Martins de Lima, Paola Daiane Welter, Adrik Francis Richter, Francine Regianini Nerbass, Aike Anneliese Kretzschmar, Leo Rufato and Gianluca Baruzzi
Agronomy 2021, 11(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010184 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3386
Abstract
In strawberry production, the combination of a high productive performance and fruits with desirable physicochemical characteristics requires the use of plants with a good quality and high initial vigor. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plants with different crown diameters on [...] Read more.
In strawberry production, the combination of a high productive performance and fruits with desirable physicochemical characteristics requires the use of plants with a good quality and high initial vigor. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plants with different crown diameters on the productive performance and fruit quality of strawberry plants of the cultivar ‘Pircinque’ (Short Day). The study was conducted in two evaluation cycles (2016/2017 and 2017/2018). The experimental design was divided into randomized blocks, with four repetitions, and plots consisting of 20 plants. This study evaluated the crown diameters of plants of 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 mm. The productivity and number of fruit values increased significantly by 57% with larger caliber plants, which also provided precocity of productivity. The use of more vigorous plants also favored the production of fruits with higher soluble solids/titratable acidity ratios (+28%) and with epidermis coloration closer to intense red (−4.3%). For the cultivar ‘Pircinque’, plant crown diameters between 15 and 17 mm are the most favorable because they condition the best productive performances in combination with precocity and a good fruit quality. Full article
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12 pages, 5171 KiB  
Brief Report
Critical Photoperiod and Optimal Quality of Night Interruption Light for Runner Induction in June-Bearing Strawberries
by Yali Li, Jie Xiao, Jiangtao Hu and Byoung Ryong Jeong
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 1996; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11101996 - 01 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2912
Abstract
The optimal photoperiod and light quality for runner induction in strawberries ‘Sulhyang’ and ‘Maehyang’ were investigated. Two experiments were carried out in a semi-closed walk-in growth chamber with 25/15 °C day/night temperatures and a light intensity of 250 μmol·m–2·s–1photosynthetic [...] Read more.
The optimal photoperiod and light quality for runner induction in strawberries ‘Sulhyang’ and ‘Maehyang’ were investigated. Two experiments were carried out in a semi-closed walk-in growth chamber with 25/15 °C day/night temperatures and a light intensity of 250 μmol·m–2·s–1photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) provided from white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In the first experiment, plants were treated with a photoperiod of either 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h In the second experiment, a total of 4 h of night interruption (NI) light at an intensity of 70 μmol·m–2·s–1PPFD provided from either red, blue, green, white, or far-red LED in addition to 11 h short day (SD). The results showed that both ‘Sulhyang’ and ‘Maehyang’ produced runners when a photoperiod was longer than 16 h, and the number of runners induced positively correlated with the length of photoperiod. However, the plant growth, contents of chlorophyll, sugar and starch, and Fv/Fo decreased in a 22 h photoperiod. All qualities of the NI light, especially red light, significantly increased the number of runners and daughter plants induced per plant as compared with those in the SD treatment in both cultivars. In a conclusion, a photoperiod between 16 and 20 h and NI light, especially red NI light, can be used for quality runner induction in both ‘Sulhyang’ and ‘Maehyang’. Full article
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