Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Horticultural and Floricultural Crops".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 29363

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Special Issue Editors

Department of Biology, University of Florence, Via Micheli 3, 50121 Florence, Italy
Interests: plant cell biology; autophagy; programmed cell death; plant anatomy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Lab of Biodiversity and Biomass Energy, Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i- Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Interests: plant systematics and biodiversity; medicinal plants and nanotechnology; nutraceuticals and pharmaceutics products; applied palynology
State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
Interests: plant populations; taxonomy; systematics; ecology; genes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a relentless human need to understand life through tracing the historical development of the discipline of plant sciences, the part of natural science that covers traditionally treated plants.

The history of plant taxonomy and floristic studies, the botanical classification of plants into different groups and their distribution in different natural habitats and evolution, stretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern evolutionary botanists and plant scientists. As an area of science, plant systematics came into being slowly, early plant usually being considered as part of the research of medicine or drugs. Later on, classification, description and evolution were driven through natural biology and natural history. Until the discovery of the theory of evolution, almost all classifications and descriptions were based on natural history and natural biology. Botany in the 18th and 19th centuries made significant advancements toward more holistic classification methodology, eventually based on evolutionary relationships.
The aim and scope of the Special Issue cover scientific articles from different areas of systematics and taxonomy, including classical taxonomy- and modern phylogenetics-based progress in the field. This also covers biodiversity and evolution, and floristics studies from different geographical areas. Papers in any of the following and related fields will be considered for this Special Issue:

The journal Agronomy runs a Special Issue on taxonomy to invite articles on specific topics. The aim is to build a community of researchers, authors and scientific readers to discuss the current research and development, as well as new ideas and research directions in taxonomy and floristic studies. This Special Issue is led by Guest Editors, who have experience in the area and oversee the editorial process for articles. Articles published in this Special Issue will be collected on a dedicated page of the journal website online. For any questions related to this Special Issue, please contact the Editorial Office.

Taxonomy, floristic studies, biosystematics, classical taxonomy, and modern taxonomic advances, phylogenomics, phylogenetics and biogeography, including phylogeography, and the description of well documented new taxonomic taxa, monographs, taxonomic revisions. It incorporates data from classical morphology (including both macro and micro morphology), molecular study, anatomy and ecology, distribution, molecular evolution, evolutionary development, population biology, conservation biology, evolutionary ecology, paleobiology, and related methods and theories in recent development in systematics and floristic studies. This issue invites research articles, review articles, taxonomic revisions, and short communications.

Prof. Dr. Alessio Papini
Prof. Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad
Dr. Fazal Ullah
Dr. Wajid Zaman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agronomy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • systematics
  • taxonomy
  • floristic studies
  • distribution
  • phylogeny

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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25 pages, 8343 KiB  
Article
Morphological, Anatomical and Chemical Characterization of Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13040985 - 27 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2891
Abstract
Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae, Acalyphoideae) is a highly variable species known as the castor oil plant. This study aimed to describe R. communis using several methodologies, such as vegetative morphometry, leaf surface ultrastructure, soil analysis, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, to understand [...] Read more.
Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae, Acalyphoideae) is a highly variable species known as the castor oil plant. This study aimed to describe R. communis using several methodologies, such as vegetative morphometry, leaf surface ultrastructure, soil analysis, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, to understand the diversity of this species. The morphological analysis revealed that some samples had purple stems while others were grayish-green. The purple-stemmed R. communis phenotype reflects the intra-specific diversity of the species. The multivariate analysis of 25 R. communis samples based on 34 vegetative morphometric characteristics revealed that they belonged to three main groups (morphotypes). Each group attained some specific characteristics discriminating it from the other groups. Selected samples from each group were investigated using SEM, soil analysis, and GC-MS. The performed GC-MS technique revealed that six major compounds were detected in the chromatograms of the studied samples. The highest percentages of n-Hexadecanoic acid and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid were recorded. Ricinus communis demonstrated adaptive growth capability, where plants inhabiting coastal sites are salt-sensitive, while inland plants are relatively drought-tolerant species. The intra-specific variation between R. communis morphotypes indicated the possibility of the direct and indirect use of these varieties in genetic improvement programs of the species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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17 pages, 4543 KiB  
Article
Pollen Visualization of Turkish Flora of Selected Plant Species under Light, Scanning, and Transmission Microscopy
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13040962 - 24 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
This study aims to examine pollen morphologically via studies of 16 plant taxa from Turkish flora. The pollen structures of the taxa examined, and their microscopic relevance, was discussed and studied with the help of microscopic visualization using scanning and transmission microscopies. Pollen [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine pollen morphologically via studies of 16 plant taxa from Turkish flora. The pollen structures of the taxa examined, and their microscopic relevance, was discussed and studied with the help of microscopic visualization using scanning and transmission microscopies. Pollen grains were first acetolyzed, and then quantitative and qualitative pollen features were used to evaluate the species. The pollen grains were prolate, spherical, elliptic, tricolporate, 3-colpate, and hexacolpate. Sculpturing patterns of surfaces vary from reticulate, micro-reticulate, and striate regulate. As the findings reveal, palynological data can aid in the taxonomic classification of Turkish floral species. Microscopic implications can be made via micromorphological examination to correctly identify the species. While the pollen morphology of 16 taxa collected from the study area was studied for the first time from this region, the palynological research of some taxa was introduced to the literature for the first time with this study. Pollen morphology and photographic and statistical data of the taxa in our study were determined. This study contributed to bee plant research, melisapalinological studies, and systematic botanical flora studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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19 pages, 5009 KiB  
Article
Palynological Study of Fossil Plants from Miocene Murree Formation of Pakistan: Clues to Investigate Palaeoclimate and Palaeoenvironment
Agronomy 2023, 13(1), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13010269 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Palaeoflora in Pakistan in the Miocene is characterized by its high biodiversity. The present study investigated the pollen of fossil plants from the Murree Formation of Pakistan. Shales and mudstones were collected from the Murree section located at the foothills of the Margalla [...] Read more.
Palaeoflora in Pakistan in the Miocene is characterized by its high biodiversity. The present study investigated the pollen of fossil plants from the Murree Formation of Pakistan. Shales and mudstones were collected from the Murree section located at the foothills of the Margalla hills and analyzed by palynofacies and palynostratigraphic analyses. In this paleopalynological study of the Miocene Murree Formations of Pakistan, 31 samples were analyzed using microscopic techniques containing 48 pollen types from 12 families. The quantitative and qualitative morphological features of pollen were determined using light and scanning electron microscopy to help identify the pollen grains. Exine ornamentations and spines were the most important diagnostic features for distinguishing one pollen grain from another. The maximum exine thickness was observed in Ocimum basilicum of 4.25 μm, whereas the maximum pollen diameter was recorded for Pinus of 69.5 μm. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, and Poaceae were the dominant families. The results showed that the preservation of floral records was not optimal. The presented results provide data on the dominant fossil plant taxa that existed in Pakistan (23.03–5.33 Ma). The evolution and phytogeographical histories of fossil plants can be unraveled using rock sediments to preserve biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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13 pages, 4114 KiB  
Article
Ophioglossum lusitanicum L.: New Records of Plant Community and 92/43/EEC Habitat in Italy
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3188; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123188 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
In this paper, integrating field surveys and literature data, an analysis of Ophioglossum lusitanicum plant communities and related 92/43/EEC habitats are reported for Italy. Two new syntaxa, Euphorbio exiguae-Ophioglossetum lusitanici ass. nova hoc loco and trifolietosum scabri subass. nova hoc loco of the [...] Read more.
In this paper, integrating field surveys and literature data, an analysis of Ophioglossum lusitanicum plant communities and related 92/43/EEC habitats are reported for Italy. Two new syntaxa, Euphorbio exiguae-Ophioglossetum lusitanici ass. nova hoc loco and trifolietosum scabri subass. nova hoc loco of the Rumici bucephalophori-Ophioglossetum lusitanici were described in the Apulia and Campania regions.Both types of vegetation identified in Apulia, Campania, and Sicily regions represent two different aspects of the same priority habitat: “pseudo-steppe with grasses and annuals of the Thero-Brachypodietea” (habitat code 6220*). A phytosociological and ecological dataset of the literature and new field surveys highlighting the soil type as parameters affecting the vegetation cover of this small fernlike plant, with the Trachynion distachyae Rivas–Martínez, 1978 alliance on calcareous soils and Helianthemion guttati Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al., 1940 alliance on volcanic soils. Many species of other types of annual meadows have been identified within Ophioglossum communities due to the very small patches of land, where they have been found, and ecological conditions that facilitate this phenomenon of the transgression of other therophytes species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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20 pages, 3367 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Responses of Four Medicinal Plants to High Altitude Oxidative Stresses through the Regulation of Antioxidants and Secondary Metabolites
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3032; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123032 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
The conservation of medicinal plants, particularly endangered or endemic species, is of the utmost importance, especially in light of inevitable climate change and its consequences. Species inhabiting high altitudes adopt exceptional defense mechanisms in response to abiotic stresses as a survival strategy. The [...] Read more.
The conservation of medicinal plants, particularly endangered or endemic species, is of the utmost importance, especially in light of inevitable climate change and its consequences. Species inhabiting high altitudes adopt exceptional defense mechanisms in response to abiotic stresses as a survival strategy. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of altitudinal variations on secondary metabolite accumulation and antioxidant enzyme capacity in four plants (Cotoneaster orbicularis, Crataegus x sinaica, Echinops spinosissimus subsp. Spinosissimus, and Tanacetum sinaicum) growing naturally on the Sinai Peninsula’s high mountains. Plant leaves and soil samples were collected from three altitudes between 1500 and 2250 m a.s.l. to evaluate the adaptive responses of these species in relation to high-altitude oxidative stresses. The results showed that at higher altitudes, the electrical conductivity and the micronutrient contents of the soil decreased, which may be due to the prevalence of silt and clay decreasing at higher altitudes. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, ascorbic acid, and total soluble protein showed similar results in relation to higher altitudes for all species. On the other hand, proline, total soluble sugars, carotenoids, phenols, tannins, and flavonoids increased in response to high altitudes. The activity levels of catalase and ascorbic acid peroxidase showed a significant increase aligned with higher altitudes, while a significant decrease in activity levels was obtained for polyphenol oxidase. In conclusion, the present findings showed that Cotoneaster orbicularis exhibited the maximum response for coping with high-altitude stresses, followed by the remaining three species regarding the level of biochemical and physiological responses. The present work will help formulate conservation plans for important medicinal species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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18 pages, 2652 KiB  
Article
Floristic Diversity of Jabal Al-Ward, Southwest Tabuk Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112626 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2236
Abstract
Jabal Al-Ward is one of the Hijazi mountains situated between Al-Ulā and Al-Wajh, southwest Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia’s northwesterly border region. It is considered the highest mountain in this area and is enriched in wildlife. For the first time, the present research aimed [...] Read more.
Jabal Al-Ward is one of the Hijazi mountains situated between Al-Ulā and Al-Wajh, southwest Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia’s northwesterly border region. It is considered the highest mountain in this area and is enriched in wildlife. For the first time, the present research aimed to investigate the floristic composition, phytogeographical distribution, and plant diversity in Jabal Al-Ward. One hundred ninety-eight species representing 47 plant families have been identified. The Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Fabaceae represented more than a third of the region’s floristic composition. The perennial species (53.5%) were dominant over the annuals (46.46%). This is a prominent feature in Jabal Al-Ward, where the perennial species may be more tolerant of climatic changeability than the annuals. Seven life form categories were found; therophytes (46.46%) showed to be the most common life form. In addition, there were four main phytogeographical groups: Mono-regional, Bi-regional, Pluri-regional, and Worldwide. The Mono-regional and Bi-regional categories had the highest participation, with 38.5% and 37.4%, respectively. Thirty-six species (18.2%) were found to be native to the Saharo-Arabian region. The Saharo-Arabian region was combined with eight more regions, including Saharo-Arabian/Sudano-Zambesian (12.6%), Irano-Turanian/Saharo-Arabian (9.1%), Mediterranean/Saharo-Arabian (5.6%), Irano-Turanian/Mediterranean/Saharo-Arabian (4.5%), Irano-Turanian/Saharo-Arabian/Sudano-Zambesian (2%), Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian/Mediterranean/Saharo-Arabian and Saharo-Arabian/Sudanian (1% each), Mediterranean/Saharo-Arabian/Sudano-Zambesian, and Irano-Turanian/Mediterranean/Saharo-Arabian/Saharo-Zambesian (0.5% each). The current study demonstrated the highest species richness compared to earlier research on various locations in Tabuk Province. In future work, the species and endemic richness along elevation gradients should be studied in Jabal Al-Ward. As well as the IUCN status of each taxon, the DNA barcoding of endangered species will be of great significance if applied in the surveyed area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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17 pages, 20909 KiB  
Article
Palynological Study of Weed Flora from Potohar Plateau
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2500; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102500 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
The pollen morphology of weeds was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A morpho-palynological investigation of 18 species of weeds that belongs to 16 angiosperms families was performed using SEM to document distinguishable microscopic features. The main objective of the present study was [...] Read more.
The pollen morphology of weeds was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A morpho-palynological investigation of 18 species of weeds that belongs to 16 angiosperms families was performed using SEM to document distinguishable microscopic features. The main objective of the present study was to provide basic knowledge about morpho-palynological features of weed species that helps delimit the weed flora of the Potohar Plateau. The results show diversity among the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of pollen shape, equatorial and polar axis diameter, the exine’s thickness, and the exine’s surface ornamentation. The pollen grains were spherical, prolate-spheroidal, oblate-spheroidal, and sub-oblate. The exine ornamentation in most species was reticulate, scarbate, aerolate, faveolate, reticulate-perforate, and reticulate-scabrate. All the species described possessed tricolpate pollen. The variations found in the thickness of the exine and other characters were helpful at the genus and species-specific levels. In accordance with these variations, a taxonomic key was prepared using these characteristics to identify and differentiate weed plant species. SEM images of pollen grains can help delimit the taxa to the species level. This study provides baseline information to distinguish the species of weeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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18 pages, 3625 KiB  
Article
Species Composition, Diversity, and Biomass Estimation in Coastal and Marine Protected Areas of Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102380 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
We investigated and compared the tree species composition and diversity of different forest types in Setiu Wetlands and on the three major islands of Terengganu. A total of 24 plots of 25 m × 25 m with four plots in each study site [...] Read more.
We investigated and compared the tree species composition and diversity of different forest types in Setiu Wetlands and on the three major islands of Terengganu. A total of 24 plots of 25 m × 25 m with four plots in each study site were established, viz. Melaleuca swamp forest in Kampung Fikri, freshwater swamp forest in Kampung Gong Batu, mangrove forest in UMT Setiu research station, and the islands, namely Pulau Bidong, Pulau Redang, and Pulau Perhentian. We calculated the basal area, stand density, Importance Value Index, species diversity, and above-ground biomass in the designated study areas. We assessed 139 tree species from 96 genera and 50 families based on a total of 2608 tree samples of 5 cm DBH and above. The freshwater swamp forest harbored the highest number of species with 20 species in Setiu Wetlands, and among the islands, Pulau Redang had the highest with 56 species. Melaleuca cajuputi was the most dominant species in the Melaleuca swamp forest, while Alstonia spatulata and Rhizophora apiculata are expected in the freshwater swamp and mangrove forest, respectively. Pulau Bidong, Pulau Redang, and Pulau Perhentian are mostly represented by Licania splendens, Shorea glauca, and Vatica sp., respectively. All the dominant species but Licania splendens contributed to the highest amount of above-ground biomass. Our current study indicated that different forest types vary in composition and structure, which may contribute to their unique ecological roles within their specific environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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20 pages, 2112 KiB  
Article
Floristic Association of Moist Temperate Forests of Shangla District, Delineated by a Multivariate Approach
Agronomy 2022, 12(7), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12071723 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Multivariate analysis was conducted to explore the moist temperate forests of the Shangla district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The prime objective was to quantitatively describe and differentiate the vegetation groups and the factors that determine the boundaries and composition of plant communities in the Shangla [...] Read more.
Multivariate analysis was conducted to explore the moist temperate forests of the Shangla district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The prime objective was to quantitatively describe and differentiate the vegetation groups and the factors that determine the boundaries and composition of plant communities in the Shangla district. This was achieved by sampling all common species in a complex vegetation mosaic coinciding with local gradients in topography and soil distribution. Ward’s clustering dendrogram demonstrated four significant vegetation clusters with respect to environmental effects. These four major groups of the tree vegetation were superimposed on the ordination plane: 1. Pinus wallichiana, the dominant group associated with Abies pindrow; 2. Abies pindrow and the Picea smithiana group; 3. Dominant Cedrus deodara associated with the Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Picea smithiana, and Quercus baloot group; 4. Pinus roxberghii pure group. The key controlling factors for each group were the environmental characteristics (i.e., edaphic factors, topographic factors, soil physical properties, and soil nutrients). The results revealed elevation (p <0.001) to be the prominent factor in the composition of plant communities. Furthermore, pH, soil moisture, maximum water holding capacity, and soil physical properties (sand, silt, and clay) also showed a significant (p < 0.05) relationship with vegetation. The other environmental factor did not show a significant relationship with vegetation. Ward’s cluster dendrogram of understory species also demonstrated four groups. Group 1 comprises two subgroups, a and b, with the highest number of species, i.e., Digeteria sanguinalis, Fragaria nubicola, Verbascum Thapsus, Pinus wallichiana seedlings, and Polygonatum multiflorium, respectively. The second large group contains twenty-five species out of eight stands, and the dominant species was Tagetis minuta. Eighteen species out of six stands were found in group 3, which was considered the smallest group. Group 4 consisted of seven stands containing twenty-four species of ground flora, with Anaphalis scopulosa followed by Adiantum venustum as the dominant species. The environmental characteristics of the understory vegetation showed a resemblance with the tree communities. With the exception of elevation, the other factors did not show a significant correlation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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15 pages, 3660 KiB  
Article
A Dated Phylogeny of the Pantropical Genus Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) and Its Implications for Historical Biogeography
Agronomy 2022, 12(7), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12071612 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
The genus Dalbergia has a pantropical distribution and comprises approximately 250 species. Previous phylogenetic studies on the genus revealed that Dalbergia is monophyletic and is sister to Machaerium and Aeschynomene sect. Ochopodium. However, due to limited samples or DNA regions in these [...] Read more.
The genus Dalbergia has a pantropical distribution and comprises approximately 250 species. Previous phylogenetic studies on the genus revealed that Dalbergia is monophyletic and is sister to Machaerium and Aeschynomene sect. Ochopodium. However, due to limited samples or DNA regions in these studies, relationships among the major clades are still unresolved, and divergence dates and biogeographical history of the genus have not been addressed. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of Dalbergia were conducted using broad taxon sampling and a combined dataset of two plastid DNA markers (matK and rbcL) and one nuclear marker (ITS). We evaluated the infrageneric classification of the genus based on the reconstructed tree, and investigated biogeographical history of this genus through molecular dating and ancestral area reconstruction analyses. The monophyly of Dalbergia was strongly supported and the genus was resolved into five major clades with high support, several of which correspond to the previous recognized sections. We inferred that Dalbergia originated in South America during the Early Miocene (c. 22.9 Ma) and achieved its current pantropical distribution through multiple recent transoceanic long-distance dispersals (LDD). We highlighted the important historical events which may explain the pantropical distribution pattern of Dalbergia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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13 pages, 1881 KiB  
Article
Pollen Morphological Peculiarities of Selected Mimosoideae Taxa of Hainan Island and Their Taxonomic Relevance
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051122 - 06 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2755
Abstract
Mimosoideae is one of the taxonomically complex subfamilies of Fabaceae. Several studies have reported the pollen morphology of Mimosoideae taxa and their taxonomic relevance, but no such study was found specifically for Hainan Island in southern China. Therefore, the present study was designed [...] Read more.
Mimosoideae is one of the taxonomically complex subfamilies of Fabaceae. Several studies have reported the pollen morphology of Mimosoideae taxa and their taxonomic relevance, but no such study was found specifically for Hainan Island in southern China. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the selected Mimosoideae taxa and explore the new palynological traits to support and strengthen the systematics of Mimosoideae using multiple microscopic techniques. The polar axis, equatorial diameter of the pollen grains, colpus length and width were measured. The smallest pollen grain size was found in Mimosa pudica (7.8 × 7.75 µm), while the largest pollen size was found in Albizia lebback (87.54 × 77.97 µm). Similarly, significant variation was found in the exine and colpus surface patterns. The subfamily Mimosoideae is considered eurypalynous because of the variation in pollen traits. In addition, variation was also found in the quantitative traits. Comparatively, the pollen features were found to be helpful at the genus and species levels, as well as in the correct identification and discrimination of the taxa. Hence, this study gives a detailed account of the pollen morphologies of certain selected taxa of Mimosoideae collected from different geographical regions on Hainan Island. The pollen morphological traits were proven to have significant taxonomic potential and can be used as additional tools for the correct identification and discrimination of Mimosoideae taxa. These results will provide the basis for further systematic studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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26 pages, 4475 KiB  
Article
Macro-Morphological and Ecological Variation in Rosa sericea Complex
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051078 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1704
Abstract
Taxon delimitation and identification are important in many areas of biology, especially in taxonomy and conservation. Taxonomic treatment is required to establish and justify recommendations in conservation biology for the group being considered. Imperfect and controversial taxonomy can undermine conservation assessment. We studied [...] Read more.
Taxon delimitation and identification are important in many areas of biology, especially in taxonomy and conservation. Taxonomic treatment is required to establish and justify recommendations in conservation biology for the group being considered. Imperfect and controversial taxonomy can undermine conservation assessment. We studied 71 populations; 665 individuals corresponding to the morphology of the Rosa sericea complex (including six taxa, one of which has extremely narrow distributions) were collected from sympatric, parapatric, and allopatric populations distributed in China. This study aims to investigate whether the complex species are macromorphologically different species and evaluate the rare taxa of the complex for conservation priority. The morphological characters and principal component analysis (PCA) of the R. sericea complex showed that the complex species have overlapping characters but can distinguish morphologically. The species of R. sericea complex systematics status based on previous DNA sequencing is controversial. The ecological habitat’s current morphological characters only delimit the R. morrisonensis (in Taiwan). To evade mistakes in species conservation, we recommend that taxonomical knowledge be needed to ensure success in protecting target species. Thus, the complementarity of systemic and conservation assurance makes conservation actions more necessary for the complex’s rare taxa. The ecological niche modelling (ENM) results showed that habitats of these conspecific taxa would be shrunken. With the presence of snapshots in time, the geography of taxa might decrease rapidly in representative entirely of the Geographic space (G-space) and Environmental space (E-space) that such taxa are bright to inhabit. So far, the significant inferences meant for the niche occupy the most incredible comparative research, taking the impermanent nature of taxa distributions and undertaking that such species are at a state of stability. If the artificially identified species (rarely distributed) are based on morphological identification, they must be conserved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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Review

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19 pages, 2666 KiB  
Review
Climatology, Bioclimatology and Vegetation Cover: Tools to Mitigate Climate Change in Olive Groves
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2707; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112707 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
This work establishes the relationship between bioclimatology and agronomy. Bioclimatic indices are obtained for several areas under olive cultivation and correlated with olive yields. Due to the effect of climate change on cultivation and the high economic losses it produces, we propose a [...] Read more.
This work establishes the relationship between bioclimatology and agronomy. Bioclimatic indices are obtained for several areas under olive cultivation and correlated with olive yields. Due to the effect of climate change on cultivation and the high economic losses it produces, we propose a sustainable development model for the territorial classification of crops based on bioclimatic knowledge. Bioclimatic diagrams are prepared to provide information on water stress in crops so that irrigation can be carried out at the most effective time, a measure that has been shown to lead to water and energy savings for growers. In addition to this development model, we propose the application of non-aggressive cultivation techniques such as the use of living plant cover to ensure the protection of the soil and avoid losses due to climate irregularities. Studies conducted up to the present on applied bioclimatology have yielded promising results in the fields of farming and forestry. The maps and bioclimatic indices of Professor Rivas-Martínez, Ic, Io and It/Itc, are essential for bioclimatic classification. The agricultural development model with a bioclimatic basis ensures economic savings for growers and minimizes the environmental impact of cultivation. In the case of olive cultivation we detected that in 2005 all the cultivated areas that were not in their thermoclimatic optimum were damaged by frost. The widespread cultivation of olive groves in the Mediterranean basin, and mainly in the south of Spain, is reason enough to establish a relationship between its production and its bioclimatic environment. The ombroclimatic study in certain localities under olive cultivation shows that areas with Io <2.5 are unproductive (Jodar, Tabernas), and that their low Io value needs to be supplemented with irrigation water. This means extracting water from aquifers for agricultural use, when the current climate irregularities do not allow the excessive use of subsoil water. For the time being the only way of mitigating this situation is with sustainable development, which requires a bioclimatic understanding of the territory; and the use of appropriate cultivation techniques, including herbaceous plant covers. In this last case a knowledge of the plant associations in the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae constitutes the basis for establishing either natural or sown vegetation cover. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Plant Taxonomy and Floristic Studies)
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