Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Breeding and Genetics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2022) | Viewed by 29219

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Legumes are one of the most important and multipurpose crop species, with a great economic value. This plant species is grown for human food, livestock fodder, and soil health enhancement in the tropic and sub-tropic regions. Around 15-20% of the Earth's arable surface is used for legume cultivation and it contributes more than 30% of the world's primary crop production. Legume crops contribute 33% of the dietary protein nitrogen (N) needs for humans. In order to ensure the food security for the increasing global population, it urgently requires more sustainable agriculture and an increase in food production. To meet the global challenges for increasing productivity, the legume research community around the globe needs to work in each and every possible direction and broaden their horizon to push the limit. During the last few decades, a substantial number of research projects have been initiated in the improvement of legume species; consequently, remarkable progress has been achieved by the legume scientist in the field of legume genetics, genomics, breeding, biotechnology, and agriculture. A significant number of cultivars developed by cross breeding, genomic resources generated from the whole genome sequencing, and the identification of agronomic important traits, as well as the characterization of the global legume germplasm are in progress. The recent research progress on this crop creates both challenges and opportunities for legume breeders.

This Special Issue opens the opportunity for the legume research community to share their current progress, innovations, and to disseminate their knowledge in the field of legume genetics, genomics, agriculture, molecular breeding, bio-informatics, and phonemics to the researcher, farmer, and students. Original research articles and concepts for review articles to address major issues are welcome.

Dr. Manosh Kumar Biswas
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • legume genetics
  • genetic diversity
  • molecular marker
  • biotic stress
  • abiotic stress
  • nitrogen fixation
  • oil crop
  • molecular breeding
  • sustainable agriculture
  • bio-informatics

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 226 KiB  
Editorial
Enhancing Legume Cultivars through Agronomy, Breeding, and Genetics
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13041035 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Legumes are a multipurpose crop species, with a great economic value, which, worldwide, are commonly cultivated for human food, livestock fodder, industrial raw materials, and soil health enhancement. Over the last few decades, numerous research projects have been conducted for the genetic improvements [...] Read more.
Legumes are a multipurpose crop species, with a great economic value, which, worldwide, are commonly cultivated for human food, livestock fodder, industrial raw materials, and soil health enhancement. Over the last few decades, numerous research projects have been conducted for the genetic improvements of legumes, in order to meet the Sustainable Development Goals of 2015–2030. Remarkable progress has been made in legume genetics, genomics, and breeding. The first references to the genome of legume plants were published in 2010, and these were the complete draft genome sequences of Glycine max. The chromosome scale high-quality genome assembly and annotations are available for many legume species today, including Glycine max; Lotus japonicus; Medicago ruthenica (L.); Medicago truncatula; Phaseolus lunatus; Mucuna pruriens; Vicia sativa; Trifolium pratense; Lupinus angustifolius; Cajanus cajan; Vigna radiata ssp.; and Cicer arietinum. Large-scale transcriptomic, genotyping, and phenotyping data have been generated from this diverse panel of legume cultivars for their varietal improvements. This Special Issue presents a collection of a variety of articles that cover the recent progress that has been made in legume genetics, genomics, and breeding. The authors have addressed the applications of phenotypic and genotypic diversity for the selection of the best cultivars; of morphological traits for the selection of the best local variety, the estimation of the agronomic performances of resistant and susceptible cultivars; the nutritional characteristics of the seed protein; genome-wide association studies on agronomic traits and isolation; and the characterization and function studies of many agronomically important genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

13 pages, 2224 KiB  
Article
Genotype Selection, and Seed Uniformity and Multiplication to Ensure Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) var. Liborino
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102285 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
Seed uniformity and stability testing, and multiplication, are key steps in the seed supply chain of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other crops. Optimizing agronomical practices in these phases can ultimately ensure seed quality and availability, and germplasm prospective utilization. [...] Read more.
Seed uniformity and stability testing, and multiplication, are key steps in the seed supply chain of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other crops. Optimizing agronomical practices in these phases can ultimately ensure seed quality and availability, and germplasm prospective utilization. However, farmers have rarely standardized seed testing and propagation protocols in local common bean landraces conserved in situ. An example of this is the Liborino variety (var.), a promising yellow Andean common bean known for its presumably high digestibility and adaptation to the local conditions of the Cauca river canyon (northwest Andes of Colombia), but likely experiencing genetic erosion after decades of suboptimal propagation. Therefore, this work intended to evaluate and select locally adapted genotypes of common bean var. Liborino for commercial use, to be later multiplied, evaluated by participatory breeding, and eventually shared with farmers. Specifically, we evaluated 44 accessions of var. Liborino common bean in six adaption and yield field trials in the Cauca river canyon at 1100 and 1400 m a.s.l, and in AGROSAVIA’s “La Selva” research station at 2100 m a.s.l. In parallel, we carried out standardized seed multiplication of a Liborino genotype using best practices to guarantee uniformity and stability. From the 44 accessions, nine were well adapted to the tested local conditions. Four of these accessions exhibited a bush type growth habit, while the remaining five were climbers. The trials revealed maximum average extrapolated yields of up to 1169.4 ± 228.4 kg ha−1 for the bush types (G8152) and up to 1720.0 ± 588.4 kg ha−1 for the climbers (G51018), both at 2100 m a.s.l. Three climbing accessions matched farmers’ expectations for seed coat color and shape, according to a participatory selection exercise. Uniform and stable seed of the selected genotype was delivered in 2022 to 39 farmers, ~6.5 kg of seeds per farmer. Our results will allow implementing bean genetic improvement pipelines, promoting var. Liborino commercialization, and boosting the economic and sustainable development of the rural communities in the Cauca river canyon. Seed uniformity testing and multiplication pipelines must be extended to other bean landraces conserved in situ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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26 pages, 3063 KiB  
Article
Pre-Breeding Prospects of Lablab (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet) Accessions in Tanzania: Morphological Characterization and Genetic Diversity Analysis
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2272; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102272 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Under-exploited crops such as Lablab purpureus are regarded a pathway towards alleviating the food and nutritional security in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at evaluating the morpho-agronomic diversity present in 277 lablab accessions based on 38 morpho-agronomic traits. The experiment was laid out [...] Read more.
Under-exploited crops such as Lablab purpureus are regarded a pathway towards alleviating the food and nutritional security in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at evaluating the morpho-agronomic diversity present in 277 lablab accessions based on 38 morpho-agronomic traits. The experiment was laid out in an Augmented design across two main cropping seasons in Tanzania. Qualitative data was analysed using pivot tables. The Generalized Linear Model (PROC GLM), Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to analyse variation of 14 quantitative traits. The findings revealed the presence of wide variability of the qualitative traits in the studied accessions. Significant differences were observed among accessions, between seasons, the interaction of blocks and season, and the season and accession effects in most of the traits. Most of the traits had high significant differences in relation to contrast among accessions, among checks and between accessions and checks. The first five principal components cumulatively accounted for 61.89% of the total variability among the accessions studied. Furthermore, cluster analysis grouped the accessions into four major clusters. This results suggest the 14 morpho-agronomic traits can successfully discriminate and show presence of wide diversity vital for selection and hybridization program of lablab species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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24 pages, 4978 KiB  
Article
At-ore1 Gene Induces Distinct Novel H2O2-NACs Signaling in Regulating the Leaf Senescence in Soybeans (Glycine max L.)
Agronomy 2022, 12(9), 2110; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12092110 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
Senescence is modulated by ORESARA1 (ORE1), a NAC transcription factor that interacts with hormones to fully induce senescence. The At-ore1 gene acts as a suppressor of leaf senescence; however, its exact role in this respect has not been clearly defined. In this study, [...] Read more.
Senescence is modulated by ORESARA1 (ORE1), a NAC transcription factor that interacts with hormones to fully induce senescence. The At-ore1 gene acts as a suppressor of leaf senescence; however, its exact role in this respect has not been clearly defined. In this study, the function of At-ore1 during leaf senescence was analyzed in soybeans. The precocious leaf senescence of the ore1-1 line was associated with greater chlorophyll loss, leaf necrosis, and redox imbalance in the early vegetative stage during the hyper-accumulation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) by enhancing the expression of GmNECD3-related ABA synthesis. At-ore1 induced ABA regulation of the H2O2-GmARF2-GmNAC081 signaling circuit, which relays the At-ore1-induced cell death signal mediation to the caspase-1-like vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) expression, triggering programmed cell death. In contrast, it was found that At-ore1 functions in IAA to delay leaf-senescence-mediated suppression of the expression of ABA, ROS, and senescence-associated gene 39 (GmSAG39). The IAA-induced GmNAC065 expression controls soybean leaves’ longevity, as discovered by screening At-ore1 expression in ore1-6 for a more stay-green leaf phenotype by helping to increase seed yields. These results uncover a mechanism that modulates ore1 plants’ amplitude expression involved in the ABA/IAA balance in the activation of GmNAC081- or GmNAC065-dependent H2O2 levels, which are crucial in the senescence or delayed leaf senescence of soybeans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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17 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Agronomic Performance of Broomrape Resistant and Susceptible Faba Bean Accession
Agronomy 2022, 12(6), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12061421 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
The faba bean (Vicia faba) is a temperate grain legume, that is regaining interest due to the high demand for food and feed uses and the environmental services provided. The parasitic weed broomrape (Orobanche crenata) appears as the major [...] Read more.
The faba bean (Vicia faba) is a temperate grain legume, that is regaining interest due to the high demand for food and feed uses and the environmental services provided. The parasitic weed broomrape (Orobanche crenata) appears as the major constraint to agricultural production in the Mediterranean Basin. The yield stability can be managed by adjusting agronomic practices and breeding for adaptation. In this study, we compared the performance of three susceptible faba bean accessions with that of eight lines previously selected for their broomrape resistance, in multi-environment field trials. Results confirmed that the grain yield in the region was negatively affected, mainly by broomrape infection, followed at a distance by ascochyta blight (Ascochyta fabae), whereas the grain yield was little affected by the low occurring levels of chocolate spot infection (Botrytis fabae). The yield was favored by rain at flowering and was reduced by low temperatures at pre-flowering and flowering, and by high temperatures at flowering and grain-filling. The combined ANOVA showed significant effects of the genotype, environment, and genotypex environment interaction. The weighted average of the absolute scores biplot (WAASB), a heat map with 21 scenarios based on the WAASB ratio and the multi-trait stability index (MTSI) were utilized to determine the mean performance and stability of the faba bean genotypes. Quijote, Navio6, Baraca and FaraonSC are proposed as ideal lines for cultivation in the region and to be further used in future breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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12 pages, 1102 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Characteristics of the Seed Protein in 23 Mediterranean Legumes
Agronomy 2022, 12(2), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020400 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
The search for new sources of plant protein for food and animal feed is driven by an increasing demand in developing countries and the interest in healthy alternatives to animal protein. Seeds from 23 different wild legumes belonging to tribes GallegeaeTrifolieae [...] Read more.
The search for new sources of plant protein for food and animal feed is driven by an increasing demand in developing countries and the interest in healthy alternatives to animal protein. Seeds from 23 different wild legumes belonging to tribes GallegeaeTrifolieae, and Loteae were collected in southern Spain and their total amino acid composition was analyzed, by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), in order to explore their nutritional value. Protein content in the seeds ranged from 15.5% in Tripodium tetraphyllum to 37.9% and 41.3% in Medicago minima and Medicago polymorpha, respectively. Species belonging to tribe Trifolieae, such as Melilotus elegans and Trifolium spp., showed the most equilibrated amino acid composition and the best theoretical nutritional values, although all species were deficient in sulfur amino acids. The amino acid composition of the seeds from some of these legumes was characterized by high levels of the anticancer non-proteic amino acid canavanine This amino acid was found free in the seeds from some of the species belonging to each of the three tribes included in the present work. Astragalus pelecinus in tribe Gallegea, Trifolium angustifolium in tribe Trifolieae, and Anthyllis vulneraria in tribe Loteae have 3.2%, 3.7%, and 7.2% canavanine, respectively. Seeds from Anthyllis vulneraria, Hymenocarpus lotoides, and Hymenocarpos cornicina have the highest contents in canavanine overall. In conclusion, the seeds from some of these legumes could be used for human consumption and for feeding animals because they contain protein of good nutritional quality. These plants could be useful in domestication and breeding programs for production of new varieties with improved nutritional and functional properties. In addition, some of these species may be of interest as a source of the bioactive compound canavanine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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13 pages, 2245 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Seed Weight in Soybean with Black Seed Coats and Green Cotyledons
Agronomy 2022, 12(2), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020250 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
The yield of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is based on several components, such as the number of plants per unit area, pod number per plant, number of nodes, and seed weight. Additionally, the hundred-seed weight (HSW) is an important component affecting [...] Read more.
The yield of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is based on several components, such as the number of plants per unit area, pod number per plant, number of nodes, and seed weight. Additionally, the hundred-seed weight (HSW) is an important component affecting soybean yield. The HSW trait can determine soy products meant for human consumption. In this study, we conducted genome-wide association studies with 470 accessions of black seed coats with green cotyledons and applied an online tool with publicly available genome sequencing data. The objective of the study was to identify the genomic regions in the soybean genome associated with seed weight and to identify the candidate genes in linkage disequilibrium blocks where the most significant SNPs were located. This study identified significant SNPs for seed weight on chromosomes 2 and 16. Furthermore, this study indicated that GmCYP78A57 (Glyma.02G119600) encoded a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase may be a possible candidate gene for controlling the seed size in soybean. We assumed that another gene on chromosome 16 may play the important role of a small additive genetic effect to reduce seed size along with GmCYP78A57. An online tool was used to identify 12 allelic variations of GmCYP78A57 with publicly available genomic sequence data. The HSW of 45 accessions having a missense mutation from the Germplasm Resources Information Network ranged from 4.4 to 17.6 g. In addition, 19 accessions were shown to be less than 10.0 g of HSW. This information can provide for the development of molecular markers to use in soybean breeding programs to release new cultivars with increased or decreased seed weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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13 pages, 3068 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Plant microRNA Simple Sequence Repeat Marker Database to Accelerate Genetic Improvements in Crops
Agronomy 2021, 11(11), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112298 - 13 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Microsatellites, or simple sequences repeat (SSRs), are distributed in genes, intergenic regions and transposable elements in the genome. SSRs were identified for developing markers from draft genome assemblies, transcriptome sequences and genome survey sequences in plant and animals. The identification, distribution, and density [...] Read more.
Microsatellites, or simple sequences repeat (SSRs), are distributed in genes, intergenic regions and transposable elements in the genome. SSRs were identified for developing markers from draft genome assemblies, transcriptome sequences and genome survey sequences in plant and animals. The identification, distribution, and density of microsatellites in pre-microRNAs (miRNAs) are not well documented in plants. In this study, SSRs were identified in 16,892 pre-miRNA sequences from 292 plant species in six taxonomic groups (algae to dicots). Fifty-one percent of pre-miRNA sequences contained SSRs. Mononucleotide repeats were the most abundant, followed by di- and trinucleotide repeats. Tetra-, penta-, and hexarepeats were rare. A total of 9,498 (57.46%) microsatellite loci had potential as pre-miRNA SSR markers. Of the markers, 3,573 (37.62%) were non-redundant, and 2,341 (65.51%) primer pairs could be transferred to at least one of the plant taxonomic groups. All data and primer pairs were deposited in a user-friendly, freely accessible plant miRNA SSR marker database. The data presented in this study, accelerate the understanding of pre-miRNA evolution and serve as valuable genomic treasure for genetic improvements in a wide range of crops, including legumes, cereals, and cruciferous crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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13 pages, 1549 KiB  
Article
Heat Waves and Broomrape Are the Major Constraints for Lentil Cultivation in Southern Spain
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091871 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
There is potential for expanding lentil cultivation to dry and warm Mediterranean rain-fed environments at low altitudes, where early sowings are recommended to profit from winter rains and escape drought and excessive heat at the grain filling stage. In cooler areas, frost might [...] Read more.
There is potential for expanding lentil cultivation to dry and warm Mediterranean rain-fed environments at low altitudes, where early sowings are recommended to profit from winter rains and escape drought and excessive heat at the grain filling stage. In cooler areas, frost might be a problem in the early sowings, however, in warmer areas such as our low altitude warm southern Spanish environments the most detrimental factor on lentil seed yield appeared to be high temperatures at grain-filling stage, particularly heat waves of more than 5 days with Tmax > 30 °C. This was followed by broomrape infection, the combination of both being dramatic. We detected variation for stress tolerance, with S17 and R7 accessions outstanding for all stress indexes used, followed by S23, Nsir, S6, and S12. Broomrape infection ranked second risk in the area. No complete resistance to broomrape was identified, but there was a significant variation in the level of infection, with accessions S14 and R17 being the more resistant across environments. This offers prospects for combining heat tolerance and broomrape resistance by breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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14 pages, 27401 KiB  
Article
Functional Analysis of A Soybean Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase (FNR) Gene in Response to Soybean Mosaic Virus
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081592 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
The Ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR) gene plays a significant role in NADPH production, carbon assimilation, antioxidation, and cross-talking between chloroplasts and mitochondria in plants. This study aims to know the functional response of the soybean FNR gene (GmFNR) during a soybean mosaic [...] Read more.
The Ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR) gene plays a significant role in NADPH production, carbon assimilation, antioxidation, and cross-talking between chloroplasts and mitochondria in plants. This study aims to know the functional response of the soybean FNR gene (GmFNR) during a soybean mosaic virus (SMV) infection. For this purpose, we developed the bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based gene construct (BPMV-GmFNR) and used it to silence the GmFNR gene in resistant and susceptible lines. The results showed that GmFNR expression decreased to 50% in the susceptible line, compared to 40% in the resistant line. The silencing of GmFNR reduces the photosynthetic capacity and CAT activity of both lines compared to their respective controls. In addition, the H2O2 content increased significantly in the susceptible line, whereas the resistant line did not exhibit any change. Further, an SMV infection in the silencing plants of the susceptible line resulted in serious morphological changes and increased the SMV NIa-protease transcript accumulation compared to its control plants. However, the same impact was not observed in the resistant line. The yeast two-hybrid system, BIFC assay, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that the GmFNR was interacting with EF1A and coincided with the increased SMV accumulation. The results obtained in this study improve the understanding of the soybean FNR gene response during SMV infection and provide a novel insight into the SMV resistance mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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17 pages, 4759 KiB  
Article
Genetic Dissection of Phosphorous Uptake and Utilization Efficiency Traits Using GWAS in Mungbean
Agronomy 2021, 11(7), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071401 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2556
Abstract
Mungbean (Vignaradiata L. Wilczek) is an early maturing legume grown predominantly in Asia for its protein-rich seeds. P deficiency can lead to several physiological disorders which ultimately result in a low grain yield in mungbean. The genetic dissection of PUpE (Puptake efficiency) [...] Read more.
Mungbean (Vignaradiata L. Wilczek) is an early maturing legume grown predominantly in Asia for its protein-rich seeds. P deficiency can lead to several physiological disorders which ultimately result in a low grain yield in mungbean. The genetic dissection of PUpE (Puptake efficiency) and PUtE (P utilization efficiency) traits are essential for breeding mungbean varieties with a high P uptake and utilization efficiency. The study involves an association mapping panel consisting of 120 mungbean genotypes which were phenotyped for total dry weight, P concentration, total P uptake, and P utilization efficiency under low P (LP) and normal P (NP) conditions in a hydroponic system. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) based genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach was employed to dissect the complexity of PUpE and PUtE traits at the genetic level in mungbean. This has identified 116 SNPs in 61 protein-coding genes and of these, 16 have been found to enhance phosphorous uptake and utilization efficiency in mungbeans. We identified six genes with a high expression (VRADI01G04370, VRADI05G20860, VRADI06G12490, VRADI08G20910, VRADI08G00070 and VRADI09G09030) in root, shoot apical meristem and leaf, indicating their role in the regulation of P uptake and utilization efficiency in mungbean. The SNPs present in three genes have also been validated using a Sanger sequencing approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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12 pages, 2090 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Interactions between the Soybean Salt-Stress Responsive Membrane-Intrinsic Proteins GmPIP1 and GmPIP2
Agronomy 2021, 11(7), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071312 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Salt tolerance is an important trait in soybean cultivation and breeding. Plant responses to salt stress include physiological and biochemical changes that affect the movement of water across the plasma membrane. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) localize to the plasma membrane and regulate [...] Read more.
Salt tolerance is an important trait in soybean cultivation and breeding. Plant responses to salt stress include physiological and biochemical changes that affect the movement of water across the plasma membrane. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) localize to the plasma membrane and regulate the water and solutes flow. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR and yeast two-hybridization were engaged to analyze the early gene expression profiles and interactions of a set of soybean PIPs (GmPIPs) in response to salt stress. A total of 20 GmPIPs-encoding genes had varied expression profiles after salt stress. Among them, 13 genes exhibited a downregulated expression pattern, including GmPIP1;6, the constitutive overexpression of which could improve soybean salt tolerance, and its close homologs GmPIP1;7 and 1;5. Three genes showed upregulated patterns, including the GmPIP1;6 close homolog GmPIP1;4, when four genes with earlier increased and then decreased expression patterns. GmPIP1;5 and GmPIP1;6 could both physically interact strongly with GmPIP2;2, GmPIP2;4, GmPIP2;6, GmPIP2;8, GmPIP2;9, GmPIP2;11, and GmPIP2;13. Definite interactions between GmPIP1;6 and GmPIP1;7 were detected and GmPIP2;9 performed homo-interaction. The interactions of GmPIP1;5 with GmPIP2;11 and 2;13, GmPIP1;6 with GmPIP2;9, 2;11 and GmPIP2;13, and GmPIP2;9 with itself were strengthened upon salt stress rather than osmotic stress. Taken together, we inferred that GmPIP1 type and GmPIP2 type could associate with each other to synergistically function in the plant cell; a salt-stress environment could promote part of their interactions. This result provided new clues to further understand the soybean PIP–isoform interactions, which lead to potentially functional homo- and heterotetramers for salt tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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17 pages, 4036 KiB  
Article
Effects of Autotoxicity on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa): Seed Germination, Oxidative Damage and Lipid Peroxidation of Seedlings
Agronomy 2021, 11(6), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061027 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2673
Abstract
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a highly valuable perennial forage legume that suffers from autotoxicity, which decreases plant resistance, reduces soil fertility, causes serious soil-borne diseases, and promotes ecological imbalance. We evaluated the effects of autotoxicity on the seed germination of 22 [...] Read more.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a highly valuable perennial forage legume that suffers from autotoxicity, which decreases plant resistance, reduces soil fertility, causes serious soil-borne diseases, and promotes ecological imbalance. We evaluated the effects of autotoxicity on the seed germination of 22 alfalfa varieties, and then elucidated the oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in two alfalfa varieties with contrasting autotoxicity tolerances. The technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method was used to rank the germination of the 22 alfalfa varieties when exposed to six autotoxic concentrations (0, 0.025, 0.075, 0.125, 0.175, and 0.225 g∙mL−1). We found WL656HQ and 3105C to be autotoxicity-tolerant and autotoxicity-sensitive varieties, respectively. The germination index mainly affects the comprehensive allelopathic index of WL656HQ and 3105C, which were the simple vigor index and radicle length according to the random forest model, respectively. 3105C eliminates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via antioxidant enzymes and antioxidants under T1 (0.025 g∙mL−1), but the oxidative stress system and the oxidative scavenging system cannot maintain the balance under T2 (0.125 g∙mL−1), causing oxidative bursts. In comparison, WL656HQ used its oxidative scavenging system (peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR)) to maintain its redox dynamic balance by removing excess ROS at all concentrations. In conclusion, the positive and negative indicators of autotoxicity for the two varieties were ascorbate (ASA) and hydroxyl free radicals (OH), and proline (Pro) and dehydroascrobate (DHA), respectively. The most sensitive autotoxic concentrations of 3105C and WL656HQ were T2 (0.125 g∙mL−1) and T1 (0.025 g∙mL−1), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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16 pages, 2976 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Productivity and Physiological Traits of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Varieties under Conditions of Boreal Climatic Zone
Agronomy 2021, 11(4), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040707 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the physiological traits, productivity, and seed quality of nine faba bean varieties grown in a field trial under the Boreal climate conditions. A two-factor field experiment was laid out in a split-plot design: The seeds in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the physiological traits, productivity, and seed quality of nine faba bean varieties grown in a field trial under the Boreal climate conditions. A two-factor field experiment was laid out in a split-plot design: The seeds in the main plots were sown and treated with seed fungicide (SF) and untreated (without SF) (factor A). The sub-plots were assigned to nine varieties (factor B). The physiological traits of faba bean significantly varied among the varieties, and the behavior of faba bean varieties differed between the two growing seasons. The values of physiological traits for varieties Julia and Boxer significantly surpassed the trial mean under wet conditions, while the trait values for Fuego and Bioro were surpassed under conditions of a lack of moisture. Fungicidal seed treatment had a negligible effect on the physiological traits, while it had a significant negative influence on the leaf area index at the beginning of the flowering stage. SF had a noticeable effect on seed yield only for the varieties Nida DS and Fuego. The findings of the study revealed that Fuego and Isabell were the most suitable faba bean varieties for cultivation in the Boreal climate zone as they were distinguished from the other tested ones by the highest seed yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legumes Cultivars and Their Genetic Improvements)
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