Crop Powdery Mildew

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Pest and Disease Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 16243

Special Issue Editors

Institute for Sustainable Agriculture, CSIC, Avenida Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
Interests: identification, characterization and use of genetic resistance in legume breeding
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute—National Research Institute, Radzików, 05-870 Błonie, Poland
Interests: cereal; biodiversity; climate change; plant genetic resources; crop protection; ecology; sustainable agriculture; gene bank; genetics; plant breeding
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Powdery mildew causes agriculturally significant diseases on a wide range of crops. Causal agents are biotrophic Erysiphales fungi, with very efficient mechanisms of spread. A battery of control strategies have been implemented in many crops, with chemicals and resistance genes often available, but also often quickly overcome by rapid evolution of powdery mildew populations.

In this Special Issue, research articles, reviews, and opinion papers addressing powdery mildew integrated management in crops, from epidemiology, cultural, chemical or biological control, and disease resistance perspectives are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Diego Rubiales

Prof. Dr. Jerzy Henryk Czembor
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Biological control
  • Chemical control
  • Disease management
  • Disease resistance
  • Epidemiology
  • Plant health
  • Plant breeding
  • Virulence

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 2012 KiB  
Article
Sulla Powdery Mildew: Phylogeny and Host Range
Agronomy 2022, 12(8), 1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12081852 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Sulla is a biannual forage legume cultivated throughout the Mediterranean Basin. It can be severely damaged by powdery mildew, but there is little understanding on its causal species or its host range. The taxonomic characterization of Erysiphe species is mainly based on the [...] Read more.
Sulla is a biannual forage legume cultivated throughout the Mediterranean Basin. It can be severely damaged by powdery mildew, but there is little understanding on its causal species or its host range. The taxonomic characterization of Erysiphe species is mainly based on the examination of chasmothecia morphology, or on the molecular analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. However, a description of chasmothecia morphology or ITS sequences is not always available to clearly assign a given isolate to an existing or novel Erysiphe species. In an attempt to clarify the identity of the powdery mildew infecting sulla crop we studied the morphology and ITS of nine populations collected over years and countries and compared them with available ITS sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the powdery mildews collected on sulla clustered together with isolates collected on Coronilla varia in an independent clade between the E. guarinonii/E. trifoliorum and E. palczewskii clades, strongly suggesting that all these sequences correspond to the same Erysiphe species. Measurements of conidia and conidial foot cells of the sulla-infecting powdery mildews partially overlap those of other Erysiphe species, although they clearly differentiate from them, supporting the assumption that powdery mildews from sulla belong to a distinct species as observed from the phylogenetic analysis. As far as we know, our study is the first to report the molecular characterization of powdery mildew isolated on plants from the Hedysarum clade. Cross-inoculations confirmed a high specialization of the powdery mildew of sulla, with the sulla’s isolates infecting only the S. coronaria accessions, and none of the accessions from the other legume genera studied. All studied S. coronaria accessions were heavily infected by the sulla isolate but not by any other isolate used. All this points to E. hedysari as the causal agent of the S. coronaria powdery mildew. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Powdery Mildew)
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9 pages, 5310 KiB  
Article
Development of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays to Quantify Erysiphe pisi and Erysiphe trifolii and Its Implementation for Monitoring Their Relative Prevalence in Pea Crops in Spain and Tunisia
Agronomy 2022, 12(2), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020334 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2096
Abstract
E. pisi was thought to be the only causal agent of powdery mildew in peas, with three genes, er1, er2 and Er3, conferring resistance to this pathogen. Recently, E. trifolii has also been found to cause this disease in peas in [...] Read more.
E. pisi was thought to be the only causal agent of powdery mildew in peas, with three genes, er1, er2 and Er3, conferring resistance to this pathogen. Recently, E. trifolii has also been found to cause this disease in peas in different countries, but its relevance in pea powdery mildew disease worldwide is unknown. The objective of this study was to develop a method to identify and quantify E. pisi and E. trifolii and use it to analyze the relative prevalence of E. pisi and E. trifolii in pea fields in Spain and Tunisia. We also wanted to discern the effect of the er1, er2 and Er3 resistance genes on the relative amount of E. pisi/E. trifolii. Using the polymorphic sites present between E. pisi and E. trifolii ITS sequences, we developed a qPCR method capable of identifying and quantifying these pathogens. Our results revealed, for the first time, the occurrence of E. trifolii in Tunisia and that the presence of er1, er2 and Er3 genes have a clear effect on the ratio E. pisi/E. trifolii in both countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Powdery Mildew)
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14 pages, 10248 KiB  
Article
A Lightweight Powdery Mildew Disease Evaluation Model for Its In-Field Detection with Portable Instrumentation
Agronomy 2022, 12(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010097 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Powdery mildew is a common crop disease and is one of the main diseases of cucumber in the middle and late stages of growth. Powdery mildew causes the plant leaves to lose their photosynthetic function and reduces crop yield. The segmentation of powdery [...] Read more.
Powdery mildew is a common crop disease and is one of the main diseases of cucumber in the middle and late stages of growth. Powdery mildew causes the plant leaves to lose their photosynthetic function and reduces crop yield. The segmentation of powdery mildew spot areas on plant leaves is the key to disease detection and severity evaluation. Considering the convenience for identification of powdery mildew in the field environment or for quantitative analysis in the lab, establishing a lightweight model for portable equipment is essential. In this study, the plant-leaf disease-area segmentation model was deliberately designed to make it meet the need for portability, such as deployment in a smartphone or a tablet with a constrained computational performance and memory size. First, we proposed a super-pixel clustering segmentation operation to preprocess the images to reduce the pixel-level computation. Second, in order to enhance the segmentation efficiency by leveraging the a priori knowledge, a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) was established to model different kinds of super-pixels in the images, namely the healthy leaf super pixel, the infected leaf super pixel, and the cluttered background. Subsequently, an Expectation–Maximization (EM) algorithm was adopted to optimize the computational efficiency. Third, in order to eliminate the effect of under-segmentation caused by the aforementioned clustering method, pixel-level expansion was used to describe and embody the nature of leaf mildew distribution and therefore improve the segmentation accuracy. Finally, a lightweight powdery-mildew-spot-area-segmentation software was integrated to realize a pixel-level segmentation of powdery mildew spot, and we developed a mobile powdery-mildew-spot-segmentation software that can run in Android devices, providing practitioners with a convenient way to analyze leaf diseases. Experiments show that the model proposed in this paper can easily run on mobile devices, as it occupies only 200 M memory when running. The model takes less than 3 s to run on a smartphone with a Cortex-A9 1.2G processor. Compared to the traditional applications, the proposed method achieves a trade-off among the powdery-mildew-area accuracy estimation, limited instrument resource occupation, and the computational latency, which meets the demand of portable automated phenotyping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Powdery Mildew)
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11 pages, 689 KiB  
Article
Virulence Structure of the Wheat Powdery Mildew Population in Serbia
Agronomy 2022, 12(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010045 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2682
Abstract
Powdery mildew is a common, economically important disease in the wheat growing area of Serbia. A large-scale virulence survey of its causal agent Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici population was performed in the period 1995–2013. A total of 1013 isolates were recovered from [...] Read more.
Powdery mildew is a common, economically important disease in the wheat growing area of Serbia. A large-scale virulence survey of its causal agent Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici population was performed in the period 1995–2013. A total of 1013 isolates were recovered from the collected chasmothecial samples. Among them, 862 unique pathotypes were identified using a differential set of 20 wheat lines with known powdery mildew (Pm) resistant genes. The pathogen was highly diverse. Number of virulence genes (virulence complexity) per isolate was large, supporting a constant need to extend the differential set of wheat with newly identified Pm genes. Virulence frequencies to Pm6, Pm7, and Pm5+8 were high throughout the 19-year period, in contrast with that to Pm5+6, which was consistently at a low level. The most significant change in the population was observed for virulence to the Pm2+4b+6 gene combination, with an increasing frequency of virulence to this gene combination over the years. High virulence complexity and genetic diversity of the population are the most influential factors for the damaging epidemics that this pathogen can cause. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Powdery Mildew)
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13 pages, 1312 KiB  
Article
New Pathotype Nomenclature for Better Characterisation the Virulence and Diversity of Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae Populations
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091852 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Fungal cereal pathogens, including Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae, have the ability to adapt to specific conditions, which in turn leads to overcoming host resistance. An important aspect is the standardized way of characterizing the races and pathotypes of the pathogen. In the [...] Read more.
Fungal cereal pathogens, including Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae, have the ability to adapt to specific conditions, which in turn leads to overcoming host resistance. An important aspect is the standardized way of characterizing the races and pathotypes of the pathogen. In the presented work, for the first time it was proposed to use a unified letter code that allows describing the pathotypes of B. graminis f.sp. avenae. The set of 14 oat genotypes were used as a differential set. This set included genotypes having so far described powdery mildew resistance genes Pm1Pm11, and two genotypes (A. sterilis and A. strigosa) with effective sources of resistance to Bga. Based on the analysis of 160 Bga isolates collected in 2016–2019 from 4 locations in Poland, the most numerous was the TBBB pathotype, represented by 30% of the tested isolates. It was present in all analyzed populations. Subsequently, 8.1% and 6.3% of the isolates represented the TBCB and RBBB pathotypes, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Powdery Mildew)
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12 pages, 277 KiB  
Communication
Mlo Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) in Barley Landraces Collected in Yemen
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081582 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Barley (Hordeumvulgare L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Powdery mildew on barley, which is caused by the pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, occurs world-wide and can result in severe yield loss. Thousands of [...] Read more.
Barley (Hordeumvulgare L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Powdery mildew on barley, which is caused by the pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, occurs world-wide and can result in severe yield loss. Thousands of barley accessions are stored in national gene banks, and their characterization for breeding purposes is needed. This study was conducted to determine the resistance to powdery mildew in 33 barley landraces from Yemen, which were obtained from the ICARDA gene bank. Twenty differential isolates of barley powdery mildew were used. Nine single plant lines were selected from five landraces, based on tests that were performed with 30 plants per landrace, after inoculation with the most avirulent isolate of barley powdery mildew available. Two of these landraces originated from the Al Bayda province in Yemen, and three others originated from Dhamar, Sanaa, and Taizz, respectively. Next, single plant lines were tested using a set of 20 differential isolates of powdery mildew. Two lines that were selected from landrace from the Al Bayda province in Yemen, showed disease reaction designated as 0(4), which is specific for the presence of Mlo resistance. The new source of highly effective Mlo powdery mildew resistance that is described in this study could be used in barley breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Powdery Mildew)
12 pages, 2836 KiB  
Article
Crop Diversification to Control Powdery Mildew in Pea
Agronomy 2021, 11(4), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040690 - 05 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Pea is a temperate grain legume cultivated worldwide that can be severely constrained by powdery mildew infection. Control by fungicides and the use of resistant cultivars is possible, but there is a growing interest in alternative control methods such as crop diversification, particularly [...] Read more.
Pea is a temperate grain legume cultivated worldwide that can be severely constrained by powdery mildew infection. Control by fungicides and the use of resistant cultivars is possible, but there is a growing interest in alternative control methods such as crop diversification, particularly in low input agriculture. The aim of this work was to assess the potential of intercropping pea with other crops and of pea cultivar mixtures for powdery mildew management on pea crop. Results show a reduction of powdery mildew on pea when intercropped by replacement at a 50:50 ratio with barley or with faba bean, but not when intercropped with wheat. A barrier effect seems to explain a major part of this decrease, especially in the pea/barley intercrop. This hypothesis was further supported by inoculated seedlings under controlled conditions, where powdery mildew infection on pea decreased with the distance to the inoculation point, this decrease being larger in the intercrop with barley than in the intercrop with wheat and in the pea monocrop. Powdery mildew was also reduced in the mixture of resistant and susceptible cultivars, with infection decreasing with the increasing proportions of the resistant one. Overall, this work shows that crop diversification may be a good strategy to reduce powdery mildew in pea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Powdery Mildew)
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