Ecophysiology and Management of Grapevines Under Changing Climatic Conditions

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 9690

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
Interests: grapevine abiotic stress; vineyard sensing; irrigation management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Climate change poses ongoing challenges to vineyard sustainability and is drastically altering the global viticultural landscape vis-à-vis site suitability, selection of grapevine cultivars and rootstocks, and management practices. While viticulturists have a range of tools in their toolkit to adapt to and manage vineyards under changing environmental conditions, we have little understanding of the inherent ability of grapevines to respond and adapt to these changing conditions, particularly over long (i.e., decadal) timescales. This lack of understanding underestimates the potential plasticity that grapevines may possess to adapt to and even thrive under changing environments.

In this Special Issue of Agronomy, we feature a series of papers on the dynamic nature of grapevine ecophysiological responses to a changing environment, covering both abiotic and biotic aspects, and also the ability of grapevines to adapt under long timescales via a degree of plasticity. Due to the broad nature of this topic, papers will range from fundamental anatomical and biophysical changes to biochemical and physiological modifications relating to grapevine plasticity. Through this Special Issue, we hope to increase our nascent understanding of the phenotypic plasticity of specific traits that grapevines possess to increase resilience to a changing climate. 

Dr. Vinay Pagay
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • climate change
  • plasticity
  • adaptation
  • abiotic stress
  • biotic stress
  • priming ecophysiology
  • yield
  • quality

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1466 KiB  
Article
Evidence of Bi-Directional Volatile-Mediated Communication between Drought-Stressed and Well-Watered Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.)
by Joanah Midzi, David W. Jeffery, Ute Baumann, Dimitra L. Capone, Suzy Y. Rogiers and Vinay Pagay
Agronomy 2023, 13(7), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13071747 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
The volatile-mediated interplay between stressed and non-stressed plants has been described in many studies involving both biotic and abiotic stresses as a one-way channel. However, very little is known about the molecular basis and mechanisms by which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mediate plant [...] Read more.
The volatile-mediated interplay between stressed and non-stressed plants has been described in many studies involving both biotic and abiotic stresses as a one-way channel. However, very little is known about the molecular basis and mechanisms by which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mediate plant communication between drought-stressed ‘emitter’ plants and non-stressed ‘receiver’ neighbours for the defence against impending stress challenges. Aiming to address this in grapevine, this study investigated the effect of two-way VOC exchange between stressed and non-stressed Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz during drought and recovery using four treatments: isolated well-watered (WW) vines, isolated drought-stressed (DS) vines, and co-located DS ‘emitter’ and WW ‘receiver’ vines in a growth room. The results obtained from solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a synchronised decline in α-pinene concentration in the co-located treatment vines and higher isoprene levels in the DS emitters compared to the isolated DS vines. Targeted gene expression analysis further identified the over-expression of a key gene, allene oxide synthase (AOS), in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis pathway during peak drought in the DS emitter. Transcript expression of chorismate synthase (CHORS) and α-pinene synthase (VvPNaPin1) showed similar trends in the DS emitter. The results suggest that isoprene and α-pinene may be interplant signalling molecules used by grapevine during drought. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bi-directional interaction in grapevine between the emitters and receivers under drought stress mediated by the JA and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. Full article
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16 pages, 4656 KiB  
Article
Late Pruning and Forced Vine Regrowth in Chardonnay and Pinot Noir: Benefits and Drawbacks in the Trento DOC Basin (Italy)
by Massimo Bertamini and Michele Faralli
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051202 - 24 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Targeted pruning techniques may have the potential to shift phenological progression in grapevines. These approaches can be useful to escape late frost (after budburst) and to delay ripening, maintaining yield and berry quality under specific environmental scenarios and for targeted oenological aims. In [...] Read more.
Targeted pruning techniques may have the potential to shift phenological progression in grapevines. These approaches can be useful to escape late frost (after budburst) and to delay ripening, maintaining yield and berry quality under specific environmental scenarios and for targeted oenological aims. In this work we tested a series of pruning methods (late pruning and different forcing approaches to unlock the para-dormant buds) with the primary objective of delaying phenological onset while increasing must quality components in the Trento DOC basin (Italy) over three field seasons either in cv Chardonnay or cv Pinot noir. Delayed pruning shifted the onset of most of the phenological stages by 3 to 10 days with a general increase in must acidity at harvest over two seasons. Forcing techniques, and in particular forcing vine regrowth (i.e., removing primary productivity along with leaves and secondary shoots to force dormant bud growth), substantially reduced yield per vine (p < 0.001) but significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced total acidity and yeast available nitrogen when compared to winter pruning vines in both Chardonnay and Pinot noir. Different spring pruning for unlocking para-dormant buds aimed at double-cropping in 2022 did not yield a secondary harvest potentially due to lack of vigor in the vineyard (Pinot noir) and unfavorable environmental conditions that putatively anticipated bud pre-dormancy. However, reduced sugar levels in the primary productivity bunches of the treated vines were observed, suggesting that early source limitation (e.g., at fruit set) applied via reduced active photosynthetic leaf area may slow down technological ripening even if compensatory behaviors were observed in the treated plants through enhanced stomatal conductance. Our work provides evidence of the potential usefulness of different pruning approaches for manipulating phenological progression and berry ripening dynamics under climate change scenario in the Trento DOC area and suggests a lack of efficacy and specific drawbacks particularly in dry and hot years. Full article
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14 pages, 1997 KiB  
Article
Influence of Environmental Factors on Some Biochemical and Physiological Indicators in Grapevine from Copou Vineyard, Iasi, Romania
by Alina Elena Marta, Cristina Slabu, Mihaela Covasa, Iuliana Motrescu, Constantin Lungoci and Carmenica Doina Jitareanu
Agronomy 2023, 13(3), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13030886 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
Climate factors strongly impact the growth of grapes and their flavonoid composition, especially due to heat and drought stress. Four varieties—Gelu, Moldova, Purpuriu, and Coarna Neagra—from a Copou vineyard were analyzed to assess the impact of climate change on the anthocyanin concentration [...] Read more.
Climate factors strongly impact the growth of grapes and their flavonoid composition, especially due to heat and drought stress. Four varieties—Gelu, Moldova, Purpuriu, and Coarna Neagra—from a Copou vineyard were analyzed to assess the impact of climate change on the anthocyanin concentration in grapes and total chlorophyll content of the leaves, and find possible correlations between these parameters during the two studied years, such as to raise producer awareness regarding the climate impact on table grape vine growth. Moldova and Purpuriu show adaptation to a slight temperature increase above the normal average and also to a water deficit, with increased concentrations of anthocyanins of up to three times. The Moldova variety accumulated low amounts of chlorophyll pigments in most analyzed development phases, indicating a negative correlation between these pigments. Coarna neagra exhibited an increase of the foliar pigments, a variety that proved to be less valuable from the point of view of anthocyanin content. Positive correlations were found between the anthocyanin and chlorophyll concentrations in the case of Gelu, Moldova, and Coarna neagra cultivars during the latter phase of the fruit development, whereas the water deficit in the second year induced negative correlations during fruit development and at the time of harvest for all studied varieties except Moldova. Full article
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19 pages, 3871 KiB  
Article
Insights into Long-Term Acclimation Strategies of Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in Response to Multi-Decadal Cyclical Drought
by Dilrukshi S. K. Nagahatenna, Tarita S. Furlan, Everard J. Edwards, Sunita A. Ramesh and Vinay Pagay
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3221; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123221 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Changing climatic conditions across Australia’s viticulture regions is placing increasing pressure on resources such as water and energy for irrigation. Therefore, there is a pressing need to identify superior drought tolerant grapevine clones by exploring the extensive genetic diversity of early European clones [...] Read more.
Changing climatic conditions across Australia’s viticulture regions is placing increasing pressure on resources such as water and energy for irrigation. Therefore, there is a pressing need to identify superior drought tolerant grapevine clones by exploring the extensive genetic diversity of early European clones in old vineyards. Previously, in a field trial, we identified drought-tolerant (DT) dry-farmed Cabernet Sauvignon clones that had higher intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) under prolonged soil moisture deficiency compared to drought-sensitive (DS) clones. To investigate whether the field-grown clones have been primed and confer the drought-tolerant phenotypes to their subsequent vegetative progenies, we evaluated the drought responses of DT and DS progenies under two sequential drought events in a glasshouse alongside progenies of commercial clones. The DT clonal progenies exhibited improved gas exchange, photosynthetic performance and WUEi under recurrent drought events relative to DS clonal progenies. Concentration of a natural priming agent, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), was significantly higher in DT progenies relative to other progenies under drought. Although DT and commercial clones displayed similar drought acclimation responses, their underlying hydraulic, stomatal and photosynthetic regulatory mechanisms were quite distinct. Our study provides fundamental insights into potential intergenerational priming mechanisms in grapevine. Full article
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19 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
Water Stress Impacts on Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in Hot Environments: Physiological and Spectral Responses
by Alessia Cogato, Shaikh Yassir Yousouf Jewan, Lihua Wu, Francesco Marinello, Franco Meggio, Paolo Sivilotti, Marco Sozzi and Vinay Pagay
Agronomy 2022, 12(8), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12081819 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2502
Abstract
The projected increase in temperature and water scarcity represents a challenge for winegrowers due to changing climatic conditions. Although heat and drought often occur concurrently in nature, there is still little known about the effects of water stress (WS) on grapevines in hot [...] Read more.
The projected increase in temperature and water scarcity represents a challenge for winegrowers due to changing climatic conditions. Although heat and drought often occur concurrently in nature, there is still little known about the effects of water stress (WS) on grapevines in hot environments. This study aimed to assess whether the grapevine’s physiological and spectral responses to WS in hot environments differ from those expected under lower temperatures. Therefore, we propose an integrated approach to assess the physiological, thermal, and spectral response of two grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Grenache and Shiraz, to WS in a hot environment. In a controlled environment room (CER), we imposed high-temperature conditions (TMIN 30 °C–TMAX 40 °C) and compared the performance of well-watered (WW) and WS-ed potted own-rooted Shiraz and Grenache grapevines (SH_WW, SH_WS, GR_WW, and GR_WS, respectively). We monitored the vines’ physiological, spectral, and thermal trends from the stress imposition to the recovery after re-watering. Then, we performed a correlation analysis between the physiological parameters and the spectral and thermal vegetation indices (VIs). Finally, we looked for the best-fitting models to predict the physiological parameters based on the spectral VIs. The results showed that GR_WS was more negatively impacted than SH_WS in terms of net photosynthesis (Pn, GR-WS = 1.14 μmol·CO2 m−2·s−1; SH-WS = 3.64 μmol·CO2 m−2·s−1), leaf transpiration rate (E, GR-WS = 1.02 mmol·H2O m−2·s−1; SH-WS = 1.75 mmol·H2O m−2·s−1), and stomatal conductance (gs, GR-WS = 0.04 mol·H2O m−2·s−1; SH-WS = 0.11 mol·H2O m−2·s−1). The intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi = Pn/gs) of GR_WS (26.04 μmol·CO2 mol−1 H2O) was lower than SH_WS (34.23 μmol·CO2 mol−1 H2O) and comparable to that of SH_WW (26.31 μmol·CO2 mol−1 H2O). SH_WS was not unaffected by water stress except for E. After stress, Pn, gs, and E of GR_WS did not recover, as they were significantly lower than the other treatments. The correlation analysis showed that the anthocyanin Gitelson (AntGitelson) and the green normalised difference vegetation index (GNDVI) had significant negative correlations with stem water potential (Ψstem), Pn, gs, and E and positive correlation with WUEi. In contrast, the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), the water index (WI), and the normalised difference infrared index (NDII) showed an opposite trend. Finally, the crop water stress (CWSI) had significant negative correlations with the Ψstem in both varieties. Our findings help unravel the behaviour of vines under WS in hot environments and suggest instrumental approaches to help the winegrowers managing abiotic stress. Full article
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