New Insights into Pathogen, Insect Pest, and Weed Control in Field and Greenhouse Cropping Systems

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Pest and Disease Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2023) | Viewed by 26227

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Guest Editor
1. President of Research Association of Electric Field Screen Supporters, Nara 631-8505, Japan
2. Department of Agricultural Science, Kindai University, Nara 631-8505, Japan
Interests: electrostatic engineering for pest control; quantitative sporulation analysis for fungal phytopathogens; behavior analysis of insect pests; physical and biological methodologies for pest control
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Improved knowledge of electrostatics has provided an academic basis for the creation of innovative tools to manage all classes of pests (pathogens, insects, and weeds). The devised tools constitute apparatus that generate an electric field in the space surrounding negative or positive charges accumulated on an electric conductor. Based on the specific target, two types of apparatus have been constructed that utilize suitable electrostatic characteristics. In the first type, surface charge on an insulated charged conductor imparts an attractive force to another electric charge in the electric field. Using this phenomenon, electrostatic traps have been devised for airborne spores, plant pollen, and flying insect pests. In the second type, negative charge on a non-insulated charged conductor causes an arc (spark) discharge exposure that kills targets in the electric field. The most important shared feature of these types of apparatus is a simple structure that can be fabricated and modified inexpensively by ordinary workers using common materials.

The present Special Issue highlights various types of electrostatic research on the management of plant pathogens, insect pests, and weeds under field and greenhouse conditions. Of these, quality-improved electrostatic traps constitute a promising tool to prevent pathogenic, wind-carried spores and flying insect pests from entering a greenhouse or to monitor their spatial and periodic changes, to ensure safe crop production. Safe arcing apparatus can be a practical tool to eradicate weeds specifically or insect pests emerging from underground pupae. Despite ongoing challenges, continued research will provide new insights that will enable the development of reliable plant protection methods, to ensure sustainable crop production, even as changes arise in different cropping systems.

Prof. Dr. Hideyoshi Toyoda
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • elucidation of electrostatic principles for pest control
  • electrostatic trapping of airborne conidia and flying insect pests
  • electrostatic attraction of phototactic insect pests
  • chromatic characterization of phytoselective behavior by phototactic insect pests
  • generation of pest and pathogen-free space
  • development of insect-repelling apparatus
  • numerical analysis of airborne conidia dispersed by primarily infected plants
  • arcing treatment to kill insect pests and weeds
  • damage analysis for insects and weeds exposed to arc discharge
  • conductivity analysis of pest-infested plants for pest elimination approach

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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7 pages, 212 KiB  
Editorial
Electrostatic Techniques for Physically Managing Pathogens, Insect Pests, and Weeds in Field and Greenhouse Cropping Systems
by Hideyoshi Toyoda
Agronomy 2023, 13(12), 2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13122855 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 708
Abstract
The primary focus in pest management across all pest classes, including pathogens, insect pests, and weeds, is on shifting towards methods that do not rely on pesticides [...] Full article

Research

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13 pages, 3836 KiB  
Article
Unattended Electric Weeder (UEW): A Novel Approach to Control Floor Weeds in Orchard Nurseries
by Yoshinori Matsuda, Koji Kakutani and Hideyoshi Toyoda
Agronomy 2023, 13(7), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13071954 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
This study developed an unattended electric weeder (UEW) to control floor weeds in an orchard greenhouse. The UEW was a motor-driven dolly equipped with a spark exposer. The spark exposer was constructed by applying an alternating voltage (10 kV) to a conductor net [...] Read more.
This study developed an unattended electric weeder (UEW) to control floor weeds in an orchard greenhouse. The UEW was a motor-driven dolly equipped with a spark exposer. The spark exposer was constructed by applying an alternating voltage (10 kV) to a conductor net (expanded metal net). The charged conductor net (C-CN) discharged into the surrounding space. Wild oat and white clover were used as test weed species. Weed seedlings growing on the floor were grounded by the biological conductor and were subjected to a spark from the C-CN when they reached the discharge space. The spark-exposed seedlings were singed and shrunk instantaneously. In the present experiment, the UEW was remotely controlled to move on the soil-cover metal nets, which were laid on the floor to make a flat surface, in a stop-and-go manner, and to eject a spark to the weed seedlings that emerged from the floor. All of the mono- and dicotyledonous weed seedlings, which had been artificially sown on the floor, were completely eradicated using this method. Thus, this study provides an experimental basis for developing an unattended technique for controlling floor weeds in an orchard greenhouse. Full article
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18 pages, 5338 KiB  
Article
Hyperparasitic Fungi against Melon Powdery Mildew Pathogens: Quantitative Analysis of Conidia Released from Single Colonies of Podosphaera xanthii Parasitised by Ampelomyces
by Yutaka Kimura, Márk Z. Németh, Kana Numano, Asami Mitao, Tomomi Shirakawa, Diána Seress, Yoshihiro Takikawa, Koji Kakutani, Yoshinori Matsuda, Levente Kiss and Teruo Nonomura
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1204; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051204 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4686
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of hyperparasitic fungi in controlling powdery mildew (PM). In a greenhouse, we spray-inoculated single colonies of the melon PM-causing fungus Podosphaera xanthii strain KMP-6N at three different fungal developmental stages (i.e., 5, 10, and 15 days [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of hyperparasitic fungi in controlling powdery mildew (PM). In a greenhouse, we spray-inoculated single colonies of the melon PM-causing fungus Podosphaera xanthii strain KMP-6N at three different fungal developmental stages (i.e., 5, 10, and 15 days old) with spores of the hyperparasitic fungus Ampelomyces sp. strain Xs-q. After spray inoculation, we collected and counted KMP-6N conidia produced as asexual progeny from PM colonies using an electrostatic rotational spore collector. Collector insulator films were replaced at 24 h intervals until KMP-6N ceased to release additional progeny conidia. Conidial releases from each of the single Xs-q-inoculated KMP-6N colonies gradually reduced, then stopped within ca. 4 and 8 days of the first treatment in 5- and 10-day-old KMP-6N colonies, and within ca. 20 days of the second spray treatment in 15-day-old KMP-6N colonies, respectively. The total numbers of asexual progeny conidia collected from single 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old colonies were ca. 156, 1167, and 44,866, respectively. After electrostatic spore collection, conidiophores in Xs-q-uninoculated KMP-6N colonies appeared normal, whereas almost all conidiophores in 5- and 10-day-old Xs-q-inoculated KMP-6N colonies were completely deformed or collapsed due to the infection of the hyperparasitic fungus. This is the first study to apply electrostatic and digital microscopic techniques to clarify the impact of fungal hyperparasitism on mycohost survival, and, in particular, to assess quantitatively and visually the suppression of conidial release from any PM colonies infected with Ampelomyces. Full article
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11 pages, 2312 KiB  
Article
Use of a Pair of Pulse-Charged Grounded Metal Nets as an Electrostatic Soil Cover for Eradicating Weed Seedlings
by Yoshinori Matsuda, Yoshihiro Takikawa, Kunihiko Shimizu, Shin-ichi Kusakari and Hideyoshi Toyoda
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13041115 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
An electrostatic technique was developed to generate a simple physical method to eradicate weeds in crop fields. The proposed apparatus consisted of double-expanded metal nets connected to a pulse-charging type negative voltage generator and a grounded line. The two metal nets were arranged [...] Read more.
An electrostatic technique was developed to generate a simple physical method to eradicate weeds in crop fields. The proposed apparatus consisted of double-expanded metal nets connected to a pulse-charging type negative voltage generator and a grounded line. The two metal nets were arranged in parallel at an interval (6 mm) that caused no arc (spark) discharge between the negatively charged metal net (NC-MN) and the grounded metal net (G-MN). The paired nets were used as a soil cover to zap weed seedlings emerging from the ground. As plant seedlings are biological conductors, the seedling was subjected to an arc discharge from the upper metal net (NC-MN) when it emerged from the soil and passed through the lower net (G-MN). The discharge was strong enough to destroy the seedling with a single exposure. The arc treatment was highly effective for eradicating successively emerging mono- and dicotyledonous weed seedlings, regardless of the number of coexisting weeds or the area of the netted field. Thus, the present study provides a simple and reliable weed eradication method that could be integrated into a sustainable crop production system. Full article
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16 pages, 2452 KiB  
Article
High-Voltage Electrostatic Fields Adversely Affect the Performance of Diamondback Moths over Five Consecutive Generations
by Li Jia, Shicai Xu, Huanzhang Shang, Jiao Guo, Xia Yan, Changhai Liu, Guangwei Li and Kun Luo
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13041008 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Changing electrical environments can influence the performance of herbivorous insects and adversely affect their control strategies. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a pest that devastates cruciferous vegetables. An age–stage, two-sex life table of P. xylostella over multiple generations was established to [...] Read more.
Changing electrical environments can influence the performance of herbivorous insects and adversely affect their control strategies. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a pest that devastates cruciferous vegetables. An age–stage, two-sex life table of P. xylostella over multiple generations was established to describe the effect of varying high-voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) exposure on their performance after the age-cohort eggs were exposed to HVEF at an intensity of 5.0 kV/cm for different durations. The results show that direct HVEF exposure adversely affected the population dynamics parameters of P. xylostella over multiple generations. In particular, the net reproduction rate, intrinsic natural increase rate, and finite increase rate of the P. xylostella population significantly decreased in the third and fifth generations under HVEF exposure for 10 min, while the mean generation time and doubling time significantly increased. Similarly, HVEF exposure for 10 min rapidly reduced the survival rate of adult P. xylostella in the first generation, and subsequently, it declined evenly and slowly. Meanwhile, the fecundity parameters of P. xylostella revealed that HVEF exposure for 10 min had the strongest inhibition effect on reproduction over five consecutive generations. In addition, HVEF exposure significantly increased the superoxide dismutase activity to produce extra hydrogen peroxide; however, increased catalase and peroxidase activity or reduced peroxidase activity triggered the accumulation of malondialdehyde in instar P. xylostella, especially after 10 min of treatment. The present findings provide experimental evidence and a theoretical basis for developing control strategies for P. xylostella under new HVEF environments. Full article
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13 pages, 2224 KiB  
Article
Identification of Two Novel Loci Underlying Tolerance to Clavibacter michiganensis Originating from Solanum arcanum LA2157
by Eleni Koseoglou, Matthijs Brouwer, Derek Mudadirwa, Jan M. Van der Wolf, Richard G. F. Visser and Yuling Bai
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13040953 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Clavibacter michiganensis (Cm) is a tomato phytopathogenic bacterium. Outbreaks of Cm can result in severe yield and economic losses. To date, no resistance to Cm has been identified. Screening of wild tomato accessions has resulted in the identification of several sources [...] Read more.
Clavibacter michiganensis (Cm) is a tomato phytopathogenic bacterium. Outbreaks of Cm can result in severe yield and economic losses. To date, no resistance to Cm has been identified. Screening of wild tomato accessions has resulted in the identification of several sources of tolerance to Cm. The genetic background of tolerance provided by these sources is polygenic and complex. Previous results from advanced lines of a cross between Solanum arcanum LA2157 and S. lycopersicum showed that introgression lines carrying a locus of S. arcanum LA2157 on chromosome 7 had high levels of tolerance to Cm. We set out to functionally characterize this locus, in an effort to identify the gene(s) underlying the observed tolerance. Testing of near isogenic lines (NILs) containing a fixed LA2157 introgression on chromosome 7 did not lead to the expected results, as high susceptibility was observed in some NILs homozygous for the S. arcanum LA2157 allele. Therefore, we employed whole genome sequencing in combination with a bulk segregant analysis to identify loci involved in the observed tolerant phenotype. Our results suggest that two additional loci on chromosomes 2 and 4 together with the locus on chromosome 7 are required for tolerance to Cm. Full article
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16 pages, 2339 KiB  
Article
A Simple and Safe Electrostatic Method for Managing Houseflies Emerging from Underground Pupae
by Koji Kakutani, Yoshinori Matsuda and Hideyoshi Toyoda
Agronomy 2023, 13(2), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13020310 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
A simple electrostatic apparatus that generates an arc discharge was devised to control adult houseflies emerging from a soil bed in a greenhouse. Adult houseflies emerging from a soil bed in a greenhouse are a potential vector of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157, carried [...] Read more.
A simple electrostatic apparatus that generates an arc discharge was devised to control adult houseflies emerging from a soil bed in a greenhouse. Adult houseflies emerging from a soil bed in a greenhouse are a potential vector of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157, carried by animal manure used for soil fertilization. A simple electrostatic apparatus that generates an arc discharge was devised to control these houseflies. The apparatus consisted of two identical metal nets; one was linked to a negative-voltage generator to create a negatively charged metal net (NC-MN), and the other was linked to a grounded line to create a grounded metal net (G-MN). A square insulator frame was placed between the two nets, separating them by 6 mm, and a plastic grating with multiple cells was placed beneath the G-MN to provide a climbing path (54 mm in height) to the arcing sites of the apparatus for adult houseflies emerging on the soil surface. Houseflies that climbed up the wall of the grating and reached the arcing zone were subjected to arc-discharge exposure from the NC-MN and thrown down onto the soil by the impact of the arcing. The impact was destructive enough to kill the houseflies. The structure of this apparatus is very safe and simple, enabling ordinary greenhouse workers to fabricate or improve it according to their own requirements. This study developed a simple and safe tool that provides a physical method to manage houseflies. Full article
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17 pages, 2394 KiB  
Article
Target-Size-Dependent Application of Electrostatic Techniques for Pest Management in Greenhouses
by Yoshinori Matsuda and Hideyoshi Toyoda
Agronomy 2023, 13(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13010125 - 30 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Two new electrostatic devices were developed to manage greenhouse insect pests. One was an electrostatic insect catcher (EIC) to trap small flying pests, and the other was an arc-discharge zapper (ADZ) to kill larger insects emerging from soil beds. The EIC consisted of [...] Read more.
Two new electrostatic devices were developed to manage greenhouse insect pests. One was an electrostatic insect catcher (EIC) to trap small flying pests, and the other was an arc-discharge zapper (ADZ) to kill larger insects emerging from soil beds. The EIC consisted of negatively charged insulated conductor plates (NIPs) and grounded conductor plates (GCPs), which were alternately arrayed in parallel at defined intervals. The ADZ had the same framework as the EIC, except that the NIPs were replaced with negatively charged non-insulated iron plates (NNPs). The EIC formed a non-discharging electric field between the NIP and GCP to create an attractive force to capture insects. By contrast, the ADZ formed a discharge-generating electric field between the NNP and GCP that killed insects. The EIC was effectively applied to small pests, such as whiteflies, thrips, leaf miners, winged aphids, and shore flies, that can pass through the conventional insect-proof nets installed on greenhouse windows. The ADZ was effective for adult houseflies emerging from pupae in soil beds. Our electrostatic devices are useful for controlling insect pests of different sizes. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 1320 KiB  
Review
Fungi Parasitizing Powdery Mildew Fungi: Ampelomyces Strains as Biocontrol Agents against Powdery Mildews
by Márk Z. Németh, Diána Seress and Teruo Nonomura
Agronomy 2023, 13(8), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13081991 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1800
Abstract
Among the mycoparasites, Ampelomyces strains are studied in detail, particularly regarding their use as biocontrol agents (BCAs) of powdery mildew (PM) fungi, including their potential to replace conventional agrochemicals. Ampelomyces strains are characterized morphologically; their ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) regions and [...] Read more.
Among the mycoparasites, Ampelomyces strains are studied in detail, particularly regarding their use as biocontrol agents (BCAs) of powdery mildew (PM) fungi, including their potential to replace conventional agrochemicals. Ampelomyces strains are characterized morphologically; their ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) regions and actin gene (ACT) fragments were sequenced and their mycoparasitic activity was analyzed. In the interaction between Ampelomyces strains and PM fungi, the spores of the mycoparasites germinate on plant leaves, and their hyphae then penetrate the hyphae of PM fungi. Ampelomyces hyphae continue their growth internally, initiating the atrophy of PM conidiophores and eventually their complete collapse. Following the successful destruction of PM hyphae by Ampelomyces, the mycoparasite produces new intracellular pycnidia in PM conidiophores. The progeny spores released by mature pycnidia become the sources of subsequent infections of intact PM hyphae. As a result, the number of Ampelomyces-inoculated PM colonies gradually declines, and the conidial release of PM colonies is inhibited after the first treatment. Almost all conidiophores of 5- and 10-day-old Ampelomyces-inoculated PM colonies undergo complete atrophy or collapse. Methodological advances and in-depth analyses of the Ampelomyces–PM interaction were recently published. In this review, we summarize the genetic and phylogenetic diversity, the timing of mycoparasitism and pycnidiogenesis, the results of quantitative and visual analyses using electrostatic and digital microscopy technologies, the PM biocontrol potential of Ampelomyces, and the potential commercialization of the mycoparasites. The information provided herein can support further biocontrol and ecological studies of Ampelomyces mycoparasites. Full article
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23 pages, 5838 KiB  
Review
Directions from Nature: How to Halt the Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus
by Mireille van Damme, Romanos Zois, Martin Verbeek, Yuling Bai and Anne-Marie A. Wolters
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051300 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3951
Abstract
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) is a recently emerged serious viral threat to tomato production. The virus is named after its symptoms consisting of characteristic brown wrinkled (rugose) patches on the fruits of infected tomato plants. ToBRFV is a member of the [...] Read more.
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) is a recently emerged serious viral threat to tomato production. The virus is named after its symptoms consisting of characteristic brown wrinkled (rugose) patches on the fruits of infected tomato plants. ToBRFV is a member of the genus Tobamovirus and a very stable mechanically transmitted virus. So far, most tomato cultivars are susceptible, enabling a swift spread of ToBRFV. In this review, we present strategies to halt devastating disease outbreaks of ToBRFV based on the collective research data of various tobamovirus–plant interactions. Viruses, like ToBRFV, are biotrophic pathogens with small genomes. Hence viral proliferation depends on various host factors, also termed susceptibility (S) genes. However, S genes often have an intrinsic function for the host plant. Thus, mutations in S genes may lead to pleiotropic phenotypes. Therefore, identifying mutant variants of S genes with no pleiotropic effects is essential for exploring impaired S genes in breeding tomatoes resistant to ToBRFV. Full article
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16 pages, 2283 KiB  
Review
Electrostatic Insect Repulsion, Capture, and Arc-Discharge Techniques for Physical Pest Management in Greenhouses
by Shin-ichi Kusakari, Yoshinori Matsuda and Hideyoshi Toyoda
Agronomy 2023, 13(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13010023 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
This article reviews the development of electrostatic apparatuses for controlling insect pests in greenhouses. The apparatuses control insects by repelling them, capturing them, and killing them by producing an arc discharge. The single-charged dipolar electric field screen (SD screen) repels insects due to [...] Read more.
This article reviews the development of electrostatic apparatuses for controlling insect pests in greenhouses. The apparatuses control insects by repelling them, capturing them, and killing them by producing an arc discharge. The single-charged dipolar electric field screen (SD screen) repels insects due to insects’ inherent avoidance behavior toward entering the electric field produced. As this behavior is common to many insect pests, the SD screen effectively prevents many pests from entering a greenhouse. The double-charged dipolar electric field screen (DD screen) has a strong attractive force that captures insects entering its electric field. The DD screen is useful for capturing small insects that pass through a conventional insect net, and unique derivatives of this screen have been invented to trap various insect pests on-site in a greenhouse. An arc-discharge exposer was used as a soil cover to kill adult houseflies that emerged from underground pupae transferred along with cattle manure used for soil fertilization. The houseflies were subjected to arc discharge when they appeared at the soil surface. These apparatuses have the common characteristic of a simple structure, so ordinary workers can be encouraged to fabricate or modify them based on their own needs. This review provides an experimental basis for designing efficient physical measures for controlling insect pests in greenhouses. Full article
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14 pages, 2920 KiB  
Review
Electrostatic Spore-Trapping Techniques for Managing Airborne Conidia Dispersed by the Powdery Mildew Pathogen
by Teruo Nonomura and Hideyoshi Toyoda
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102443 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
This review examines the progress of electrostatic spore-trapping research and the potential for the practical application of electrostatic apparatuses in powdery mildew control. These apparatuses produce an electric field by charging an insulated conductor wire (ICW). Airborne pathogen spores are subjected to an [...] Read more.
This review examines the progress of electrostatic spore-trapping research and the potential for the practical application of electrostatic apparatuses in powdery mildew control. These apparatuses produce an electric field by charging an insulated conductor wire (ICW). Airborne pathogen spores are subjected to an attractive force in the electric field and are drawn to the charged ICW as a result of dielectrophoretic movement. The strength of the attractive force is commensurate with the field strength (determined by the magnitude of the voltage applied to the ICW). Single-charged monopolar electric field screens (SM screens) are constructed by arraying negatively charged cylindrical ICWs in parallel at a specific interval. The connected electric fields of these ICWs form a gap-free air-shielding barrier. Wind-dispersed spores are precipitated by this barrier to create spore-free air. Oppositely charged SM screens have been combined to develop double-charged dipolar electric field screens, which generate a stronger spore attraction force under lower voltage application. Thus, electric field screens represent a promising physical method for creating spore-free spaces in cropping facilities, where plants can be cultivated without risk of infection by airborne fungal pathogens. Full article
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Other

20 pages, 2375 KiB  
Perspective
Resistance to Anthracnose Rot Disease in Capsicum
by Lei Cui, Michiel C. van den Munckhof, Yuling Bai and Roeland E. Voorrips
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051434 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2804
Abstract
Pepper (Capsicum spp.) is an important vegetable crop worldwide with high economic and nutritional value. The Capsicum genus comprises more than 30 species, of which C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens are the [...] Read more.
Pepper (Capsicum spp.) is an important vegetable crop worldwide with high economic and nutritional value. The Capsicum genus comprises more than 30 species, of which C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens are the five domesticated ones. Anthracnose fruit rot, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of pepper. In this review, we compiled up-to-date information from 40 publications on anthracnose resistance in Capsicum species. In total, 375 accessions were described as showing different levels of resistance against Colletotrichum spp. These accessions belonged to different species, including C. annuum (160), C. baccatum (86), C. chacoense (4), C. chinense (90), and C. frutescens (16), as well as 19 accessions of which the species were not reported. High levels of resistance were mainly present in C. baccatum and C. chinense. For some of the resistant accessions, resistance genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were reported. Using associated molecular markers, we located 31 QTLs and 17 resistance-related genes in the recently published Capsicum genomes, including C. annuum CM334 version 1.6, C. chinense version 1.2, and C. baccatum version 1.2. Our results could be helpful for making use of some reported accessions in the breeding of pepper cultivars with resistance to anthracnose rot disease. Full article
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