Edible and Medicinal Fungi in Sustainable Agricultural Production: Technology and Applications

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Biosystem and Biological Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 7017

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Vegetables, College of Horticulture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Interests: strain breeding; cultivation physiology; substrates for E & M fungi cultivation; quality analysis of E & M fungi; post-harvest physiology; processing of E & M fungi

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Edible and medicinal fungi are very important products to human wellness. The production scale of E&M (Edible and Medicinal) fungi has grown in recent years. Major scientific and technical advancements in the area of E&M fungi are happening, and these efforts need to be integrated to improve the sustainable production of E&M fungi.

We would like to invite you to share recent advances from your research for this Special Issue. Submissions on the following topics (among others) are invited: (1) strain breeding; (2) substrate formula; (3) cultivation technology based on cultivation physiology in E&M fungi production; (4) control technology for diseases and pests in E&M fungi cultivation management; (5) post-harvest physiology and its application in E&M fungi preservation; (6) chemical components of residues and the application of residues based on its chemical component analysis.

Prof. Dr. Qinghong Liu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • strain breeding
  • substrate formula
  • cultivation physiology and application
  • cultivation technology
  • control of disease and pest
  • post-harvest physiology and application
  • chemical component of residues and its application

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 3320 KiB  
Article
Differences in Soil Microflora between the Two Chinese Geographical Indication Products of “Tricholoma matsutake Shangri-la” and “T. matsutake Nanhua”
by Chunxin Yao, Ping Yu, Jisheng Yang, Jiaxun Liu, Zhengquan Zi, Defen Li, Mingtai Liang and Guoting Tian
Agronomy 2024, 14(4), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14040792 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Tricholoma matsutake is a kind of ectomycorrhizal fungus. In addition to its vital influence on symbiotic plants, the impact of the soil microbial community on the growth and development of T. matsutake has been garnering attention. To clarify the differences in soil microflora [...] Read more.
Tricholoma matsutake is a kind of ectomycorrhizal fungus. In addition to its vital influence on symbiotic plants, the impact of the soil microbial community on the growth and development of T. matsutake has been garnering attention. To clarify the differences in soil microflora between “T. matsutake Shangri-la” and “T. matsutake Nanhua”, and the effects of soil bacteria and fungi on the growth and development of T. matsutake, this study took the soil of “T. matsutake Shangri-la” and “T. matsutake Nanhua” at different developmental stages. A total of 7694 bacterial OTUs and 2170 fungal OTUs were obtained through microbial omics based on amplicon sequencing. The results indicate that the α diversity and composition of the soil microorganisms in the T. matsutake Shangri-la shiro were higher than those of the T. matsutake Nanhua. It is affected by species, geographical locations, and the growth period of matsutake. Matsutake mycelia also recruit certain types of bacteria and fungi in the stage of fruiting body development. Both bacteria and fungi positively and negatively regulate the fruiting body development of matsutake mushrooms. This study will provide a basis for the semi-artificial cultivation of matsutake. Full article
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14 pages, 3120 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Enzymatic Potential of Ficus nitida-Associated Tomophagus colossus
by Osama Abdel-Hafeez Mohamed Al-Bedak, Ahmed Mohamed Moharram, Hossam El-Dean Farghaly Abdel-Raheam, Steven L. Stephenson and Fuad Ameen
Agronomy 2023, 13(11), 2850; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13112850 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
A fruiting body of a basidiomycete fungus was discovered growing on chopped Ficus nitida tree trunks in the student housing on the Assiut University campus during the course of this inquiry and a normal collecting operation in the Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Following the [...] Read more.
A fruiting body of a basidiomycete fungus was discovered growing on chopped Ficus nitida tree trunks in the student housing on the Assiut University campus during the course of this inquiry and a normal collecting operation in the Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Following the growth of the basidioma’s inner tissue on PDA, fungal mycelial growth was achieved. Internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequencing has allowed for the identification of the fungus as Tomophagus colossus. On the dry weight basis, chemical analysis of T. colossus AUMC 14536 basidioma revealed that it contains 28.81% carbohydrates, 25.34% crude fats, 23.44% crude fibers, 20.64% crude proteins, and 3.02% ash, in addition to potassium, phosphorus, calcium, selenium, iron, and zinc (133.59, 114.46, 6.27, 3.08, 1.28, and 0.73 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively). The total phenolic compounds (39.26 mg/g) and total flavonoids (5.62 mg/g) were also evaluated. The basidioma extract’s antioxidant activity was assessed as %DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of 4.15 µg/mL compared with a 1.89 µg/mL IC50 of ascorbic acid. In solid-state fermentation (SSF), the fungus could ferment broad bean straw, palm leaf hay, rice husk, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, and wheat bran to produce endoglucanase, exoglucanase, laccase, pectinase, and xylanase in substantial amounts. Specific activity exhibited the highest values for endoglucanase (81.48 U/mg), exoglucanase (114.35 U/mg), pectinase (81.94 U/mg), and xylanase (70.18 U/mg) on the rice husk, while the peak of laccase activity (94.27 U/mg) was gained on bean straw. This is the first assessment of the organism’s nutritional value, amino acid content, antioxidant activity, and enzymatic capabilities in Egypt. Full article
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19 pages, 5539 KiB  
Article
Postharvest Preservation of Flammulina velutipes with Isoamyl Isothiocyanate
by Peilin Zhu, Peng Wang, Qian Teng, Tong Chen, Guoting Tian, Chunxin Yao, Nuerziya Yalimaimaiti and Qinghong Liu
Agronomy 2023, 13(7), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13071771 - 29 Jun 2023
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Flammulina velutipes was treated with 10, 50, and 250 μL L−1 isoamyl isothiocyanate (IAITC), and effects on quality preservation were assessed. IAITC displayed positive effects during the storage of F. velutipes: (i) maintained tissue integrity, reduced weight loss rates; (ii) reduced [...] Read more.
Flammulina velutipes was treated with 10, 50, and 250 μL L−1 isoamyl isothiocyanate (IAITC), and effects on quality preservation were assessed. IAITC displayed positive effects during the storage of F. velutipes: (i) maintained tissue integrity, reduced weight loss rates; (ii) reduced browning degree by inhibiting the activities of browning-related enzymes; (iii) enhanced activities of two antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and increased ascorbic acid content; (iv) ameliorated microbial spoilage by inhibiting bacterial growth, especially Serratia, a major bacterial community on the surface of F. velutipes; (v) enhanced chitin content and thereby maintained structural integrity; and (vi) maintained levels of Asp, Glu, linoleic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, IAITC reduced catalase activity and total phenolic content in F. velutipes during storage. The most suitable concentration of IAITC in the preservation of F. velutipes was 50 µL L−1. Full article
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19 pages, 8486 KiB  
Article
Comparative Transcriptome of Isonuclear Alloplasmic Strain Revealed the Important Role of Mitochondrial Genome in Regulating Flammulina filiformis
by Jingyu Liu, Tianle Li, Linhao Song, Jinchao Kong, Qichen Niu, Yiting Wang, Chenjian Wu, Bing Deng, Hongkai Wang and Yunpeng Gai
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13040998 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1262
Abstract
The golden–needle mushroom Flammulina filiformis is one of the most precious cultivated edible fungi in the world. Despite recent progress in the study of F. filiformis, there is still a gap in the regulation of the mitochondrial genome during browning, which poses [...] Read more.
The golden–needle mushroom Flammulina filiformis is one of the most precious cultivated edible fungi in the world. Despite recent progress in the study of F. filiformis, there is still a gap in the regulation of the mitochondrial genome during browning, which poses a serious threat to the golden–needle mushroom industry. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two isonuclear alloplasmic strains showed that changes in the mitochondrial genome lead to different gene expression and key biological pathways at different stages in the two isonuclear alloplasmic strains. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that the mitochondrial genome has a significant role in the regulation of a multitude of critical metabolic pathways relating to the browning of F. filiformis fruiting bodies. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in many vital processes of mitochondria, mitochondrial membrane, and multiple amino acid metabolisms of F. filiformis. Taken together, the current study highlights the crucial role of the mitochondrial genome in the growth of F. filiformis and could be beneficial to genetic breeding of elite varieties of edible fungi. Full article
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16 pages, 6554 KiB  
Article
Differences in Soil Microbiota of Continuous Cultivation of Ganoderma leucocontextum
by Chunxin Yao, Nan Tao, Jiaxun Liu, Mingtai Liang, Hui Wang and Guoting Tian
Agronomy 2023, 13(3), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13030888 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
The tendency of microbiota changes in the soil of Ganoderma leucocontextum continuous cultivation is investigated by high-throughput sequencing technology. Medium bag cultivation of G. leucocontextum with uncultivated soil significantly increased the organic matter (OM), hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium content of [...] Read more.
The tendency of microbiota changes in the soil of Ganoderma leucocontextum continuous cultivation is investigated by high-throughput sequencing technology. Medium bag cultivation of G. leucocontextum with uncultivated soil significantly increased the organic matter (OM), hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium content of soil. The relative abundance of the dominant beneficial bacteria (Sphingomonas spp., Mucilaginibacter spp., Bryobacter spp., and Bradyrhizobium spp.) for G. leucocontextum continuous cultivation, was decreased in the soil. Mortierella spp. and Pyrenochaeta spp. were the dominant fungi with negative effects on G. leucocontextum cultivation in the soil. The correlations between the microbiota and soil physicochemical properties indicated that continuous cultivation not only caused changes in the soil physicochemical factors but also affected the structure of dominant microbial communities, especially bacteria and environmental factors. Full article
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14 pages, 1756 KiB  
Article
Regulation of Polyethylene Nano-Packaging on Postharvest Stipe Elongation of Flammulina velutipes
by Yuxuan Zhao, Jianmin Yun, Gengxin Guo, Wenhui Li, Biao Wang, Fengyun Zhao and Yang Bi
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2362; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102362 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Stipe elongation is one of the main characteristics of the postharvest quality deterioration of Flammulina velutipes fruiting bodies. In order to reduce the postharvest stipe elongation of F. velutipes and prolong its shelf life, in this study, using polyethylene (PE) packaging and unpackaged [...] Read more.
Stipe elongation is one of the main characteristics of the postharvest quality deterioration of Flammulina velutipes fruiting bodies. In order to reduce the postharvest stipe elongation of F. velutipes and prolong its shelf life, in this study, using polyethylene (PE) packaging and unpackaged treatments as controls, the effects of a polyethylene nano-packaging on postharvest stipe elongation of F. velutipes were investigated and its regulatory mechanisms were explored from the physiological and biochemical aspects. The results showed that the CO2 content in polyethylene nano-packaging boxes was higher than in control boxes, and the O2 content was lower than in the control group, indicating that nano-packaging could reduce F. velutipes respiration during low-temperature storage. The stipe elongation rate, chitinase activity, and β-1,3-glucanase activities of F. velutipes were lower in the nano-packaging group than in PE-packaged and unpackaged control groups, and the nano-packaging inhibited the increase in chitin and β-glucan, the main components of the cell wall. The levels of auxin (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), and cytokinin (CTK) were also lower in the nano-packaged group than in controls at most timepoints. After 18 d of storage, polyethylene nano-packaging inhibited the stipe elongation of fruiting bodies, and maintained mushroom quality, with stipe elongation of only 34.7% and 76.7% of PE-packaged and unpackaged control groups, respectively. The results showed that nano-packaging could effectively inhibit the harvest stipe elongation and prolong the shelf quality of F. velutipes. Full article
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Review

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30 pages, 6469 KiB  
Review
Nano-Food Farming: Toward Sustainable Applications of Proteins, Mushrooms, Nano-Nutrients, and Nanofibers
by József Prokisch, Greta Törős, Duyen H. H. Nguyen, Chaima Neji, Aya Ferroudj, Daniella Sári, Arjun Muthu, Eric C. Brevik and Hassan El-Ramady
Agronomy 2024, 14(3), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14030606 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 670
Abstract
The relationship between agriculture and food is very close. It is impossible to produce adequate crops for global food security without proper farm management. Farming practices represent direct and indirect controlling factors in terms of global food security. Farming management practices influence agro-food [...] Read more.
The relationship between agriculture and food is very close. It is impossible to produce adequate crops for global food security without proper farm management. Farming practices represent direct and indirect controlling factors in terms of global food security. Farming management practices influence agro-food production from seed germination through to the post-harvest treatments. Nano-farming utilizes nanotechnologies for agricultural food production. This review covers four key components of nano-farming: nano-mushroom production, protein-based nanoparticles, nano-nutrients, and nanofibers. This provides a comprehensive overview of the potential applications of nanotechnology in agriculture. The role of these components will be discussed in relation to the challenges faced and solutions required to achieve sustainable agricultural production. Edible mushrooms are important to food security because they are a nutritious food source and can produce nanoparticles that can be used in the production of other food sources. Protein-based nanoparticles have considerable potential in the delivery of bioactives as carriers and other applications. Nano-nutrients (mainly nano-selenium, nano-tellurium and carbon nanodots) have crucial impacts on the nutrient status of plant-based foods. Carbon nanodots and other carbon-based nanomaterials have the potential to influence agricultural crops positively. There are promising applications of nanofibers in food packaging, safety and processing. However, further research is needed to understand the impacts and potential risks of nanomaterials in the food production system. Full article
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