Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Farming Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 72285

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Industrial Management, Economics and Trade, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, 195251 St. Petersburg, Russia
Interests: economy; institutional economy; circular economy; environment; entrepreneurship; innovation; technology; Industry 4.0 development; rural area
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Guest Editor
Institute of Finance and Economics, University of Tyumen, 6 Volodarskogo Street, 625003 Tyumen, Russia
Interests: sociology; economic sociology; mathematical methods and models in economics; data analysis methods; food security; sociocultural development; human capital, behavior; agroecology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite the ongoing changes in the institutional structure of all regions of the world due to industrialization, intellectual interest in rural life is perhaps more pronounced than ever. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the stability of the global economy for agriculture, as well as to protect markets from unforeseen environmental, political, and economic shocks.

To meet these challenges, we need to strengthen our knowledge of the economic and social aspects of agriculture; agroecology; sustainable development of rural areas; food security, including production, distribution, delivery, and consumption of safe and quality food; and environmental protection.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to consolidate original research and/or review articles on the possibilities and limitations of sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas, and food security and self-sufficiency, including social, political, economic, and technological aspects.

We are interested in local practices of sustainable development and activities in agriculture. We are also looking for research on organic farming; conservation agriculture, including the concept of “agroecological intensification”; opportunities for the development and management of soil and water; pest, weed, and disease control; and social innovation (including value chains) to support agricultural diversification.

The solution of food security problems largely depends on the provision of quality food, as well as on the physical and economic availability of food for different countries, territories, and social strata.

Prof. Dr. Djamilia Skripnuk
Prof. Dr. Gulnara Romashkina
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agronomy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • economics
  • sociology
  • agriculture
  • environment
  • technology
  • farmers
  • agroecology
  • food security
  • settlement
  • territory
  • institutions
  • sociocultural development
  • factors
  • entrepreneurship
  • social
  • nutrition
  • culture
  • behavior
  • rural areas

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 2990 KiB  
Article
Economic Evaluation and Risk Premium Estimation of Rainfed Soybean under Various Planting Practices in a Semi-Humid Drought-Prone Region of Northwest China
by Zhenqi Liao, Shengzhao Pei, Zhentao Bai, Zhenlin Lai, Lei Wen, Fucang Zhang, Zhijun Li and Junliang Fan
Agronomy 2023, 13(11), 2840; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13112840 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Economic benefits and risk premiums significantly affect the production system decision making of farmers and government departments. This study evaluated the economic feasibility and estimated the risk premium of 12 rainfed soybean production systems with various planting densities, fertilization rates and planting patterns [...] Read more.
Economic benefits and risk premiums significantly affect the production system decision making of farmers and government departments. This study evaluated the economic feasibility and estimated the risk premium of 12 rainfed soybean production systems with various planting densities, fertilization rates and planting patterns by considering the impact of soybean price fluctuation. There were two planting densities (D1: 160,000 plants ha−1 and D2: 320,000 plants ha−1), two fertilization rates (F1: 20 kg ha−1 N, 30 kg ha−1 P, 30 kg ha−1 K; F2: 40 kg ha−1 N, 60 kg ha−1 P, 60 kg ha−1 K) and three planting patterns (F+W0: flat cultivation with no irrigation; R+W0: plastic-mulched ridge-furrow cultivation (PMRF) with no irrigation; R+W1: PMRF with supplemental irrigation of 30 mm at the pod-filling stage). Based on the two-year (2019–2020) field data in a semi-humid drought-prone region of northwest China and soybean price fluctuation from January 2014 to June 2021, the net income (NI) was calculated by considering the impact of soybean price fluctuation and assuming constant soybean production costs. The net present value (NPV) method and the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) method were used to evaluate the profitability of protective alternatives and the risk of these alternatives. The results showed that the 12 proposed soybean production systems were economically feasible. Reducing the fertilization rate reduced the input costs, but it did not necessarily result in a decrease in soybean yield and NI. The payback period of all production systems was within two years for farmers investing through loans. High-fertilizer and high-density production systems made personal investment obtain the highest economic benefit in this study, which was not the best investment strategy from the perspective of production-to-investment ratio and environmental protection departments. The preferences of farmers with various risk aversion and environmental protection departments in terms of risk premium were also proposed. The economic and risk assessment framework of this study can enhance the understanding of the adjustment of production systems from different perspectives, and provide strategies for promoting the protection of economic, environmental and socially sustainable agricultural systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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28 pages, 10016 KiB  
Article
What Affects the Corporate Performance of Listed Companies in China’s Agriculture and Forestry Industry?
by Hui Liu, Mingyu Sun, Qiang Gao, Jiwei Liu, Yong Sun and Qun Li
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3041; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123041 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
China is embarking on a new journey to build a comprehensive socialist modern state in the new era. Modernization of agriculture and forestry is the basis of agricultural modernization, but China’s traditional agriculture and forestry industry are facing a more serious crisis of [...] Read more.
China is embarking on a new journey to build a comprehensive socialist modern state in the new era. Modernization of agriculture and forestry is the basis of agricultural modernization, but China’s traditional agriculture and forestry industry are facing a more serious crisis of independent research and innovation. As the listed agroforestry companies are directly facing the demands of the market, it becomes essential to study the technological innovation of listed agroforestry companies. Therefore, this paper investigates the relationship between R&D innovation, corporate management, supply chain management, growth capacity, debt servicing capacity, and corporate performance of listed agroforestry companies. Based on the annual panel data of agroforestry listed companies in the CSMAR database from 2010–2021, the empirical study was conducted using panel PVAR models, OLS, 2SLS, LIML, and GMM estimation. The findings show that: (1) Granger causes affecting the supply chain management of listed companies in agroforestry are corporate management, debt servicing capacity, and growth capacity. Granger causes affecting the debt servicing capacity of listed companies in the agroforestry industry are R&D innovation, growth capacity, and corporate performance. Among them, there is a causal influence relationship between debt servicing capacity and corporate performance. (2) R&D innovation, corporate management, supply chain management, growth capacity, debt servicing capacity, and corporate performance contribute the most to its own impulse response, with an average contribution of 87.4%, 81.8%, 86.9%, 96.9%, 86.5%, and 94.7%, respectively. Compared to the other variables, the impulse response contribution of debt servicing capacity to corporate performance was the largest. (3) When supply chain management and growth capability play a fully mediating role, there is a significant positive effect of R&D innovation on corporate performance. Finally, we offer some policy recommendations and suggestions to the Chinese government, as well as some suggestions on how Chinese-listed companies in the agroforestry industry can improve their corporate performance. This paper provides a Chinese case study on the corporate performance of listed companies in the global agroforestry industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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12 pages, 2834 KiB  
Article
Farmers’ Knowledge and Acceptance of Microalgae in Almería Greenhouse Horticulture
by Ángela Ruiz-Nieto, Cintia Gómez-Serrano, Gabriel Acién and Antonio J. Castro
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2778; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112778 - 08 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
Almería horticulture in SE Spain hosts the largest concentration of greenhouses in the world and faces important environmental sustainability challenges. Microalgae-derived applications are efficient nature-based solutions as they are used for wastewater regeneration or as biostimulants and biopesticides in agriculture. However, farmers’ knowledge [...] Read more.
Almería horticulture in SE Spain hosts the largest concentration of greenhouses in the world and faces important environmental sustainability challenges. Microalgae-derived applications are efficient nature-based solutions as they are used for wastewater regeneration or as biostimulants and biopesticides in agriculture. However, farmers’ knowledge and acceptance of microalgae-derived applications remain unknown, which is a major barrier to its commercialization. This study explores current farmers’ knowledge and acceptance of microalgae in Almería horticulture. Results revealed that there exists a significant lack of knowledge regarding the use of microalgae agricultural-based applications. Over sixty percent of farmers indicated that microalgae can have beneficial uses in agriculture, such as biostimulants or biofertilizers. However, although seventy percent of farmers expressed their willingness to use them, results also showed that only 32% of farmers using microalgae-derived applications have obtained satisfactory results. We call the urgent need for new communication strategies based on transdisciplinary approaches that increase farmers’ knowledge around the multiple microalgae-derived products and applications in agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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17 pages, 2304 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Cotton Production through Increased Competitiveness: Analysis of Comparative Advantage and Influencing Factors of Cotton Production in Xinjiang, China
by Zhongna Yang, Jijun Tang, Mark Yu, Yong Zhang, Azhar Abbas, Shengde Wang and Salim Bagadeem
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102239 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3081
Abstract
Cotton production makes an important contribution to the income of rural residents and the economy in Xinjiang province, which leads other provinces in terms of planted area, total production, and average yield of cotton in China. This study analyzed the competitiveness of cotton [...] Read more.
Cotton production makes an important contribution to the income of rural residents and the economy in Xinjiang province, which leads other provinces in terms of planted area, total production, and average yield of cotton in China. This study analyzed the competitiveness of cotton production in the study area using the efficiency advantage index (EAI), scale advantage index (SAI), and aggregated advantage index (AAI). Moreover, the factors influencing the productivity of cotton have been investigated by the use of ridge regression and correlation matrix using a dataset for the period 2005 to 2018. The results showed that cotton production had a large comparative advantage in Xinjiang from 2005 to 2018. The average of efficiency advantage index (EAI), scale advantage index (SAI), and aggregated advantage index (AAI) are 1.50, 12.96, and 4.35, respectively. Overall, Xinjiang cotton production has a higher planting scale advantage and productivity. By using ridge regression to calculate the impact of cotton production on agricultural output value in Xinjiang, the results showed that total cotton production, fiscal expenditure on agricultural support, total agricultural machinery power, and fertilizer use had significant positive effects, whereas cotton sown area, average cotton yield, and the proportion of affected area by insects and diseases had negative impact agricultural output value. The study implies the need for a implementing a well-thought and empirically backed plan to support cotton production based on comparative advantage for a specific area, building a cotton production standard system, reducing the cost of cotton production, and building a cotton risk-protection system to protect the interests of cotton farmers and promote the sustainable development of the cotton industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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15 pages, 998 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Agricultural Socialized Services on Sustainable Agricultural Practice Adoption among Smallholder Farmers in China
by Meili Huan, Yajuan Li, Liang Chi and Shaoguo Zhan
Agronomy 2022, 12(9), 2198; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12092198 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
In recent years, a growing body of literature has explored the determinants and impacts of sustainable agricultural technologies. However, little is known about the relationship between agricultural socialized services that have reshaped the smallholder agricultural system and promoted scale operation in rural China [...] Read more.
In recent years, a growing body of literature has explored the determinants and impacts of sustainable agricultural technologies. However, little is known about the relationship between agricultural socialized services that have reshaped the smallholder agricultural system and promoted scale operation in rural China and environmentally friendly agricultural innovation adoption of the farm. Our study examines the effects of agricultural socialized services on the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs). In this study, we capture the number of SAPs adopted, unlike most existing studies that analyze the dichotomous decision of agricultural technology adoption. We apply an endogenous-treatment Poisson regression model to analyze using a national representative farm-level survey data set with 1357 farm households from 132 villages in China. The results show that socialized service use has a significantly positive effect on the number of SAPs adopted. Our results suggest that agricultural socialized services can promote the adoption of sustainable agricultural technologies among smallholders, and thus help transform conventional agriculture into sustainable agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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12 pages, 1045 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Agriculture through Reduced Emission and Energy Efficiency: Estimation of Input–Output Energy and GHG Emission under Tunnel Cultivation of Tomato
by Qamar Ali, Azhar Abbas, Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan, Salim Bagadeem, Bader Alhafi Alotaibi, Muhammad Tariq and Abou Traore
Agronomy 2022, 12(8), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12081730 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
Tomato production under tunnel structures has shown promising returns in recent years in Pakistan. However, the energy use and GHGs dynamics remain largely unknown for tomato production under controlled conditions. This study estimates the energy budgeting and GHG emission in off-season (tunnel-farming) tomato [...] Read more.
Tomato production under tunnel structures has shown promising returns in recent years in Pakistan. However, the energy use and GHGs dynamics remain largely unknown for tomato production under controlled conditions. This study estimates the energy budgeting and GHG emission in off-season (tunnel-farming) tomato production. Study data were gathered from 70 tunnel tomato growers through a simple random sampling technique. Energy use efficiency, energy productivity, and net energy along with covariates of energy output were estimated through Cob–Douglas regression. The results indicate that the total input energy consumption and production were 91,376.38 MJ ha−1 and 56,764.64 MJ ha−1, on average, respectively. The contribution of fertilizers (60.78%) was higher in total input energy followed by diesel and chemicals. The value of energy use efficiency was 0.652, which was higher for small farms (0.678) and lower (0.604) for large farms. Energy productivity (0.815 kg MJ−1), specific energy (1.355 MJ Kg−1), and net energy (−34,611.743 MJ ha−1) were also estimated. The total greenhouse gas emission was 3426.66 kg CO2 eq. ha−1, which is low for large farms (3197.57 kg CO2 eq. ha−1). The contribution of farmyard manure to total GHG emissions was high. The results show the inefficient use of inputs, responsible for GHG emissions. Fertilizers were a major contributor both in total input energy and GHG emission. The efficient utilization of agricultural inputs is a solution to reduce GHGs emissions in crop production. Therefore, the agriculture department should play its role to ensure the optimal or efficient use of agricultural inputs. The Department of Extension is working to guide farmers about crop production at each stage. Thus, regular visits from extension staff are recommended to guide vegetable producers about efficient input use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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21 pages, 1292 KiB  
Article
Regional Business Environment, Agricultural Opening-Up and High-Quality Development: Dynamic Empirical Analysis from China’s Agriculture
by Dezhen Wang, Buwajian Abula, Quan Lu, Yang Liu and Yujiao Zhou
Agronomy 2022, 12(4), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12040974 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2748
Abstract
Agriculture is the foundation of every country’s survival and development. This paper analyzes the interaction between the business environment, agricultural opening-up and high-quality agricultural economy from the perspective of China’s provinces. According to the panel data of 31 provinces and municipalities in China [...] Read more.
Agriculture is the foundation of every country’s survival and development. This paper analyzes the interaction between the business environment, agricultural opening-up and high-quality agricultural economy from the perspective of China’s provinces. According to the panel data of 31 provinces and municipalities in China from 2009 to 2019, the empirical analysis was carried out based on the panel vector autoregression (PVAR) model. The results show that there is a quantitative interaction between China’s business environment, agricultural opening-up and high-quality agricultural development, and the long-term time effect is very obvious. Specifically, (1) the impact of the business environment and the high-quality development of agriculture on itself is decreasing year by year. The agriculture opening-up itself has a strong impact and has always maintained strong stability. (2) The high-quality development of the agricultural economy has little impact on the business environment and the opening of agriculture to the outside world, but it has a certain stable and continuous effect. It is particularly important that the agricultural opening-up has an increasingly strong effect on the business environment and the high-quality development of the agricultural economy as time progresses. Therefore, we must always adhere to the agriculture opening-up. The regional business environment and the agriculture opening-up can jointly promote the high-quality development of the agricultural economy. The research results can provide a basis and reference for the central and local governments to formulate relevant agricultural development policies and provide a reference for relevant agricultural economic entities and enterprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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10 pages, 2749 KiB  
Article
Injected Anhydrous Ammonia Is More Effective Than Broadcast Urea as a Source of Nitrogen for Drill Seeded Rice
by Elsayed Naeem, Taher Abd El-Megeed, Yasmin Emadeldin, Asmaa M. Abushady and Mohamed Abdelrahman
Agronomy 2022, 12(4), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12040942 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2345
Abstract
Anhydrous ammonia is a cheaper source of nitrogen (N) fertiliser than granular urea for rice production, but it is not widely used in developing countries. It can only be applied pre-crop with any in-crop applications being applied in the form of urea. This [...] Read more.
Anhydrous ammonia is a cheaper source of nitrogen (N) fertiliser than granular urea for rice production, but it is not widely used in developing countries. It can only be applied pre-crop with any in-crop applications being applied in the form of urea. This 2-year study conducted in the Nile delta region of Egypt compared pre-crop anhydrous ammonia injected to a depth of 20 cm with broadcast urea as N sources for rice, along with 4 combinations of pre-crop ammonia and in-crop urea. Each treatment supplied a total of 165 kg N/ha. The rice crop was direct seeded rather than transplanted. The highest yields were achieved in the full anhydrous ammonia treatment, which yielded 53% more grain than the nil-N control, while the full urea treatment yielded 22% more than the control; most combination treatments were intermediate. The higher grain yield of the anhydrous ammonia treatment was through a higher panicle density per unit area and more filled grains per panicle. An economic analysis found that the anhydrous ammonia treatment had a net return 70–94% higher than supplying the same quantity of N as urea. Counts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes showed a decline by day 2 after injection of anhydrous ammonia, followed by an increase to numbers similar to or above pre-injection levels by day 5. The findings indicated that pre-crop anhydrous ammonia in rice is both economically promising and not deleterious to soil microbes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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17 pages, 2535 KiB  
Communication
A Framework for Financing Post-Registration Variety Testing System: A Case Study from Poland
by Gniewko Niedbała, Anna Tratwal, Magdalena Piekutowska, Tomasz Wojciechowski and Jarosław Uglis
Agronomy 2022, 12(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020325 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
Agriculture is essential to ensuring food security and prosperity around the world. The importance of cultivating agricultural plant species cannot be overestimated. One of the key challenges faced by modern food producers is to increase efficiency while ensuring sustainability and improving resilience to [...] Read more.
Agriculture is essential to ensuring food security and prosperity around the world. The importance of cultivating agricultural plant species cannot be overestimated. One of the key challenges faced by modern food producers is to increase efficiency while ensuring sustainability and improving resilience to unfavorable environmental conditions brought about by ongoing climate change. To meet these challenges, it is vital to continue breeding work and to select plant varieties best adapted to local farming conditions. Undoubtedly, future yield increases will only be achievable by way of genetic improvement. In turn, crop-variety recommendations should rely on the results of properly designed post-registration variety testing (PRVT, in polish PDO), followed up by specific variety recommendations for growers. In this article, we attempt to fill a gap in the international literature regarding post-registration variety testing. We present PRVT as a unique scheme that is key to selecting agricultural plant varieties recommended for cultivation, with due account taken of Poland’s specific farming conditions. Every year, over 1000 field cultivar tests are carried out as part of PRVT. The results of these tests constitute reliable, objective source material for farmers and help them make choices regarding the most valuable varieties for cultivation that are also best adapted to local farming conditions. Among the financial benefits of selecting the right crop varieties for agriculture are lower cultivation costs, including reduced fertilizer and pesticide spending, and higher income generated by larger yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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21 pages, 1961 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Research on Profitability Measures in the Polish Meat and Poultry Industries
by Anna Zielińska-Chmielewska, Jerzy Kaźmierczyk and Ireneusz Jaźwiński
Agronomy 2022, 12(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010092 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4040
Abstract
Business entities strive for continuous adaptation to changing situations and needs. The decisions of business entities entangled in multifaceted processes of economic, social, and environmental progress must be taken on the basis of reliable knowledge, developed know-how, scrupulous recognition of the initial state, [...] Read more.
Business entities strive for continuous adaptation to changing situations and needs. The decisions of business entities entangled in multifaceted processes of economic, social, and environmental progress must be taken on the basis of reliable knowledge, developed know-how, scrupulous recognition of the initial state, and foresight of the multiple consequences of business actions over a long horizon. In such a situation, the measurement of financial efficiency in terms of the profitability of enterprises in meat and poultry industries is extremely desired and provides valuable information on the necessary modifications to reduce the potential risks of business operation. The Polish meat and poultry industries should take into account current and future market requirements, competition, and consumer response. The dynamic progress of technology is forced to take appropriate steps to improve and modernize products, services, and methods of solving profit losses. The aim of the paper is to calculate and evaluate the statistical relationships between profitability ratios in Polish meat and poultry enterprises divided into four groups: slaughterhouses, meat enterprises (small, medium, and large), poultry meat enterprises, and meat trade enterprises. In the theoretical part of the study, methods of descriptive, comparative, deductive, and synthetic analyses were used. In the practical part of the study, panel data from the entire meat and poultry industries in the period from 2010 to 2019 were used. For the measurement of financial efficiency, methods, such as financial indicator analysis, panel database modeling, and nonparametric ANOVA, were applied. The ANOVA method was used to test only the statistically significant relationships between profitability ratios across all groups of examined enterprises in the meat and poultry industries. To summarize, the optimal level of profitability was achieved by all groups of examined enterprises, except small meat enterprises. The highest financial efficiency in the area of profitability was reached by poultry enterprises. Moreover, financial support for small companies in the meat industry can bring tangible benefits such as maintaining a diversified product range locally and transforming small meat companies into buying centers for the local community. Both are effective solutions, especially in view of the post-pandemic situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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23 pages, 2455 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Development Goals, Financial Inclusion, and Grain Security Efficiency
by Shuaishuai Jia, Yushan Qiu and Cunyi Yang
Agronomy 2021, 11(12), 2542; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11122542 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3820
Abstract
The 17 sustainable development goals proposed in the 2030 sustainable development agenda are the shared vision of all humanity. The core of achieving the sustainable development goals is to ensure grain security. Although financial inclusion is not separately incorporated into the United Nations [...] Read more.
The 17 sustainable development goals proposed in the 2030 sustainable development agenda are the shared vision of all humanity. The core of achieving the sustainable development goals is to ensure grain security. Although financial inclusion is not separately incorporated into the United Nations sustainable development goals, it is an essential basis for supporting all sustainable development goals. Financial inclusion plays a critical role in improving grain security efficiency to ensure sustainable grain security. According to the Financial Access Survey implemented by IMF, this study calculated the financial inclusion index and grain security efficiency of 121 countries from 2015 to 2019. Based on calculating the efficiency of grain security in production and distribution, this study used an econometric model to empirically examine the role of financial inclusion in improving grain security efficiency. The study found that financial inclusion can promote grain security efficiency from the two links of production and distribution. Still, the improvement of grain security efficiency by financial inclusion is mainly reflected in the distribution. Further, the study found that the advancement of financial inclusion promotes the efficiency of grain distribution through the effects of residents’ income distribution, residents’ income growth, and consumption capacity upgrading, which achieves the goal of ensuring grain security and promoting sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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21 pages, 1575 KiB  
Article
Mapping Online Geographical Indication: Agri-Food Markets on E-Retail Shelves
by Guilherme Silva Fracarolli
Agronomy 2021, 11(12), 2385; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11122385 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Economics has been trying to understand market functioning for a long time. However, the neoclassical approach does not satisfy the understanding of the mechanisms that operate in the construction, stabilization, and transformation of markets. For this reason, economic sociology proposes to provide subsidies [...] Read more.
Economics has been trying to understand market functioning for a long time. However, the neoclassical approach does not satisfy the understanding of the mechanisms that operate in the construction, stabilization, and transformation of markets. For this reason, economic sociology proposes to provide subsidies from causal pluralism, rejecting explanatory theories of purely rational choices. Therefore, the use of sociological theories in the understanding of agri-food markets is also necessary. In this sense, this work aimed to compare the market for agri-food products with a geographical indication (GI) between the European Union (EU) and Mercosur, based on the performance of brands and supermarkets in both regions. For this, we used a data survey of thousands of products and respective GI registrations in the most prominent online markets of countries in both regions. We applied analyses that differentiated the economic blocs and used field theory to explain the phenomena found in the findings. The results indicated the formation of relevant bands in the GI market, a little voluminous, but capable of crossing borders, a second, with the majority of GIs found that are only commercialized locally, and a third invisible, where most products are located, which do not exist in these markets. Furthermore, supermarkets’ own brands have great relevance and are decisive in building the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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20 pages, 806 KiB  
Article
Measurement and Evaluation of the Efficiency and Total Productivity of Dairy Farms in Poland
by Michał Świtłyk, Agnieszka Sompolska-Rzechuła and Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska
Agronomy 2021, 11(11), 2095; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112095 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
The aim of the article is to measure and evaluate the economic and technical efficiency as well as the total productivity of dairy farms in Poland. The research used data from the Polish FADN. The analysis covered the years 2008–2017. The study group [...] Read more.
The aim of the article is to measure and evaluate the economic and technical efficiency as well as the total productivity of dairy farms in Poland. The research used data from the Polish FADN. The analysis covered the years 2008–2017. The study group consisted of 730 farms. An iteration-optimization method, k-means clustering, non-parametric DEA method, and aggregated Färe–Primont indexes were used to achieve the goal. The conducted research allowed for the distinction of four types of dairy farms with different levels of economic efficiency. We prove that the costs of labor, energy, maintenance of machines and buildings, fodder, depreciation, and overheads, as well as agricultural land, affect the technical efficiency and total productivity of dairy farms. We also prove that over the analyzed years, technical efficiency decreased in all groups of dairy farms, while the Färe–Primont index of total productivity changes slightly increased. The validity of these studies and their practical significance result from the need to improve the competitiveness of dairy farms and increase their profitability. Our research fills a gap in research on measuring and evaluating the efficiency and productivity of dairy farms, and at the same time represents an original approach to the studied phenomenon. Moreover, it allows for the explanation of differences in the effectiveness of different types of dairy farms, providing useful information for the design of effective targeted policy interventions to improve the competitiveness of the Polish dairy sector. There are opportunities to improve both the technical efficiency and productivity of dairy farms in Poland. This increase will be possible thanks to the improvement of agricultural advisory services and ensuring that farmers participate in training in proper nutrition, reproduction, milk marketing and other management skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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21 pages, 2678 KiB  
Article
Implementation of Food Retail Functions in Poland in the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
by Eulalia Skawińska, Romuald I. Zalewski, Joanna Wyrwa and Bogdan Ślusarz
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11101962 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Retail trade is one of many links of the food supply chain to the consumer. Therefore, the efficiency of its operation is influenced by the earlier located links in the chain, first of all by agriculture, processing, logistics, and wholesale trade, as well [...] Read more.
Retail trade is one of many links of the food supply chain to the consumer. Therefore, the efficiency of its operation is influenced by the earlier located links in the chain, first of all by agriculture, processing, logistics, and wholesale trade, as well as by consumers. The research problem in this paper, specified in the form of questions, is as follows: Has the 2020 pandemic reduced the performance of food retailing functions in less-developed regions of Poland? What is the assessment of the degree of their implementation? What directions should be taken at the micro and macro level to increase resilience to the negative effects of future crisis phenomena, in the implementation of the functions of this trade? The cognitive aim of the study was to examine the degree of performance of economic and social functions by the food retail trade in Poland, after one year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (with the example of the Lubuskie region). For its implementation, four research hypotheses were formulated. The work was carried out in three stages, theoretical-interpretative, methodological, empirical, and consisted of three parts. In the experimental part, the method of CATI interviews with store owners/managers and the method of advanced statistics, classification, and visualization were used. The article brings new cognitive and normative value concerning food retailing in Poland. The results of the study enabled the realization of the aim of the paper and the verification of the hypotheses. The conclusions are presented in the summary of the individual parts of the empirical data analysis and in the conclusion of the paper. The paper contributes to the literature a new recognition of the degree of performance of the seven examined functions by food retail units, during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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17 pages, 811 KiB  
Article
Toward Fraudulent Pesticides in Rural Areas: Do Farmers’ Recognition and Purchasing Behaviors Matter?
by Hazem S. Kassem, Mohamed A. Hussein and Hamed Ismail
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1882; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091882 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
The growth of fraudulent pesticide trade has become a threat to farmers’ health, agrochemical businesses, and agricultural sustainability, as well as to the environment. However, assessment of the levels of farmers’ exposure to fraudulent pesticides in the literature is often limited. This paper [...] Read more.
The growth of fraudulent pesticide trade has become a threat to farmers’ health, agrochemical businesses, and agricultural sustainability, as well as to the environment. However, assessment of the levels of farmers’ exposure to fraudulent pesticides in the literature is often limited. This paper conducted a quantitative study of farmers’ recognition and purchasing behaviors with regard to fraudulent pesticides in the Dakhalia governorate of Egypt. Using a structured questionnaire, data were collected by face-to-face interviews with 368 farmers in three districts of the governorate. The questionnaire included questions on socioeconomic characteristics, risk perception, recognition behavior, and purchasing behavior regarding fraudulent pesticides. The findings indicate that farmers perceived high risks to farmer health and crop yield (a score of 4 out of 5) and a moderate risk to the environment (3.5 out of 5) from fraudulent pesticides. Nonetheless, nearly three-fourths of the farmers had purchased fraudulent pesticides anyway. The statistical analysis suggests that farmers who resist purchasing fraudulent pesticides have higher education, longer experience in farming, and better recognition of fraudulent pesticides. To improve farmers’ ability to distinguish and avoid fraudulent pesticides, the paper recommends communication-related anti-counterfeiting measures such as awareness extension programs, as well as distribution measures in cooperation with other stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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18 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
Does Intellectual Capital Measurement Matter in Financial Performance? An Investigation of Chinese Agricultural Listed Companies
by Jian Xu and Yi Zhang
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091872 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2323
Abstract
Intellectual capital (IC) has become a crucial strategic resource in the knowledge economy. The purpose of this study is to understand the IC-financial performance relationship of listed Chinese agricultural companies. This paper uses the original value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) model, the adjusted [...] Read more.
Intellectual capital (IC) has become a crucial strategic resource in the knowledge economy. The purpose of this study is to understand the IC-financial performance relationship of listed Chinese agricultural companies. This paper uses the original value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) model, the adjusted VAIC (AVAIC) model, and the modified VAIC (MVAIC) model to measure IC. The results show a positive and significant relationship between IC and financial performance (return on assets and return on equity) in three models. Additionally, human capital and physical capital are two major driving forces. In the AVAIC model, innovation capital exerts a positive impact on financial performance, whereas this impact is not significant at the 5% level in the MVAIC model. The results suggest that further improvements in IC measurement are still needed. This study has important implications for both academia and industry regarding IC measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
33 pages, 2943 KiB  
Article
An Economic Model of Sustainable Development in the Russian Arctic: The Idea of Building Vertical Farms
by Nikolay Didenko, Djamilia Skripnuk, Igor Ilin, Vitally Cherenkov, Alexander Tanichev and Sergei V. Kulik
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1863; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091863 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3246
Abstract
The main aim of the article is to find out the key factors of sustainable development of the Russian Arctic, which is strategically significant for Russia. The academic literature was reviewed to find out the time dynamics of the references to the economic [...] Read more.
The main aim of the article is to find out the key factors of sustainable development of the Russian Arctic, which is strategically significant for Russia. The academic literature was reviewed to find out the time dynamics of the references to the economic models suitable for achieving the goals of sustainable development, and there has been hyperbolic growth in the attention paid to similar problems all around the world. The article compares three relatively new economic models in order to understand which of them is the most applicable to the promotion of sustainable development in the Russian Arctic: (a) bioeconomy, (b) green economy and (c) circular economy. The analysis of the relevant sources shows that the model of the circular economy is preferable for the Russian Arctic. Most of the article is dedicated to understanding the sources and mechanisms of the circular economy. The schematic description of vertical greenhouses and possibility of using vertical farms are presented in the paper as an example of organization of local food production according to the principles of the circular economy. The article considers a modeled project of creating a vertical farm in the Russian Arctic and a simulated indicator—profit of the vertical farm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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21 pages, 876 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Organic Farm Assessment Procedures on the Example of Organic Farming in Poland—Recommendations for Organic Farming in Poland
by Małgorzata Miśniakiewicz, Jacek Łuczak and Natalia Maruszewska
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081560 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2775
Abstract
Organic farming is an agricultural production system that combines tradition, innovation, and science to provide high-quality food, benefit the shared environment, and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. It is a subject of certification (i.e., issuing a [...] Read more.
Organic farming is an agricultural production system that combines tradition, innovation, and science to provide high-quality food, benefit the shared environment, and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. It is a subject of certification (i.e., issuing a declaration by a third party) based on a decision preceded by a review that compliance with specified requirements has been demonstrated in relation to products, processes, systems, or persons. As a result, organic food is created. The aim of the article was to conduct a critical analysis of the procedures and practices for the evaluation of organic farms carried out by Polish certification bodies and to identify areas for their improvement. The presented results are the effect of qualitative research based on in-depth interviews with the representatives of organic farms certifiers. They were preceded by preparatory research, in which the Delphi method was used. The questioned units in total provide services to approximately 50% of organic producers in Poland and each of them have at least 10 years of experience in the certification of organic farms. Specific areas of improvement in the process of evaluation of organic farms were identified and briefly discussed. As a result, the authors also formulated appropriate recommendations for improvement in the identified areas. Implementation of these recommendations would make it possible to standardize the activities of individual certification bodies and increases the transparency and credibility of the organic farming control system in Poland. Consequently, such implementation has the potential to increase consumer confidence in organic food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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16 pages, 1251 KiB  
Article
Do Erratic Rainfalls Hamper Grain Production? Analysis of Supply Response of Rice to Price and Non-Price Factors
by Ghulam Mustafa, Azhar Abbas, Bader Alhafi Alotaibi and Fahd O. Aldosri
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081463 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2110
Abstract
Increasing rice production has become one of the ultimate goals for South Asian countries. The yield and area under rice production are also facing threats due to the consequences of climate change such as erratic rainfall and seasonal variation. Thus, the main aim [...] Read more.
Increasing rice production has become one of the ultimate goals for South Asian countries. The yield and area under rice production are also facing threats due to the consequences of climate change such as erratic rainfall and seasonal variation. Thus, the main aim of this work was to find out the supply response of rice in Malaysia in relation to both price and non-price factors. To achieve this target, time series analysis was conducted on data from 1970 to 2014 using cointegration, unit root test, and the vector error correction model. The results showed that the planted area and rainfall have a significant effect on rice production; however, the magnitude of the impact of rainfall is less conspicuous for off-season (season 2) rice as compared to main-season rice (season 1). The speed of adjustment from short-run to long-run for season-1 rice production is almost two-and-a-half years (five production seasons), while for season-2 production, it is only about one-and-a-half year (three production seasons). Consequently, the study findings imply the supply of water to be enhanced through better water infrastructure for both seasons. Moreover, the area under season 2 is continuously declining to the point where the government has to make sure that farmers are able to cultivate the same area for rice production by providing uninterrupted supply of critical inputs, particularly water, seed and fertilizers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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25 pages, 1699 KiB  
Article
Economic and Social Barriers of Precision Farming in Hungary
by Péter Balogh, Attila Bai, Ibolya Czibere, Imre Kovách, László Fodor, Ágnes Bujdos, Dénes Sulyok, Zoltán Gabnai and Zoltán Birkner
Agronomy 2021, 11(6), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061112 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4091
Abstract
Precision farming may play an important role in agricultural innovation. The study focuses on the attitude of Hungarian farmers toward precision farming. Based on the relevant technical literature, we performed a nationally representative questionnaire survey of 594 farmers and deep interviews with experts [...] Read more.
Precision farming may play an important role in agricultural innovation. The study focuses on the attitude of Hungarian farmers toward precision farming. Based on the relevant technical literature, we performed a nationally representative questionnaire survey of 594 farmers and deep interviews with experts and farmers (30 persons). As regards the questionnaire, the authors found that the management of the average farm size in Hungary has the highest willingness to innovate and the second highest level of education among the developed clusters. The survey shows undertrained farmers with large farms to be the second most open group, which may result in the partial application of precision farming techniques. One of the most unexpected results of the Precision Farmers’ cluster is that the positive socio-economic utility of precision farming is rated as extremely low. In-depth interviews prove that the use of precision technologies does not increase local social cohesion. Strong organisational isolation of precision farmers prevents the spread of innovation knowledge and precision farming amongst the farming community, and the challenges of competitiveness alone do not force farmers to apply precision farming. Our results may be useful for the establishment of agricultural strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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17 pages, 1068 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Crop Production, the Concurrent Adoption of Contract Farming, and Managing Risks through Income Diversification
by Shoaib Akhtar, Azhar Abbas, Hazem S. Kassem, Salim Bagadeem, Raza Ullah and Bader Alhafi Alotaibi
Agronomy 2021, 11(5), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11050973 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
This paper is aimed at evaluating the factors affecting the concurrent adoption of two risk coping strategies among hybrid maize farmers, namely income diversification supplemented with off-farm work and contract farming in the wake of changing climatic conditions. Climatic changes and food insecurity [...] Read more.
This paper is aimed at evaluating the factors affecting the concurrent adoption of two risk coping strategies among hybrid maize farmers, namely income diversification supplemented with off-farm work and contract farming in the wake of changing climatic conditions. Climatic changes and food insecurity at the national level have emerged as key risk elements for hybrid maize production due to varying economic conditions. The present paper addresses these risks by examining various sources of risks faced by hybrid maize farmers and develops ideas to tackle these risks. Bivariate and multinomial probit models were employed to analyze numerous factors that influence farmers’ choice of the simultaneous adoption of income diversification (both on and off the farm) and contract farming at the farm level. The results reveal that hybrid maize farmers’ socioeconomic attributes significantly affect their adoption of risk coping tools. Similarly, the climatic, economic (price-related), biological, and financial risk perceptions and risk preference significantly influence the utilization of risk coping strategies in maize production. These outcomes extend our understanding of farmers’ risk preferences and provide parameters for policymakers to forestall diverse risk sources associated with hybrid maize production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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16 pages, 5281 KiB  
Article
Green Infrastructures and Grand Environmental Challenges: A Review of Research Trends by Keyword
by José Luis Caparrós-Martínez, Juan Milán-García, Rosa María Martínez-Vázquez and Jaime de Pablo Valenciano
Agronomy 2021, 11(4), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040782 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3172
Abstract
This article aims to analyze research trends on the role played by green infrastructures as a tool seeking to address current environmental challenges, such as climate change, that put human well-being at risk. For this purpose, a bibliometric analysis was used on documents [...] Read more.
This article aims to analyze research trends on the role played by green infrastructures as a tool seeking to address current environmental challenges, such as climate change, that put human well-being at risk. For this purpose, a bibliometric analysis was used on documents obtained from the WoS database, and selecting the combination of words “green infrastructures”, “ecosystem services”, and “climate change”. The results of this study point to the potential for Green Infrastructures to become a major strategic factor in addressing the global environmental and social challenges facing cities. The findings obtained are relevant to researchers, professionals, and others working on green infrastructure research as tools to address current global environmental problems, such as climate change, urban pollution, loss of biodiversity, or the risk of emergence of new epidemics or diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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13 pages, 676 KiB  
Article
Advantages and Constraints of Eco-Efficiency Measures: The Case of the Polish Food Industry
by Anna Zielińska-Chmielewska, Anna Olszańska, Jerzy Kaźmierczyk and Elena Vladimirovna Andrianova
Agronomy 2021, 11(2), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020299 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2635
Abstract
The issue of the efficiency of food processing enterprises is ever-present because of the continuous process of improving the quality standards of raw materials, complying with the procedures in food production, introducing modern production technology, and, above all, due to the large number [...] Read more.
The issue of the efficiency of food processing enterprises is ever-present because of the continuous process of improving the quality standards of raw materials, complying with the procedures in food production, introducing modern production technology, and, above all, due to the large number of actors who are competing for customers in the domestic and foreign food market. In the coming years, the Polish food processing sector will be facing significant challenges with the inevitable slow and gradual decrease in the cost advantages of raw material prices as well as ready-to-eat products. Manufacturing businesses, in the long run, will need to determine the efficiency, and hence the competitiveness of the Polish food processing sector. The aim of this paper was to review the domestic and foreign literature in terms of the classification and systematization of the concept of eco-efficiency and to find the most optimal set of eco-efficiency measures based on the research in chosen food processing enterprises in Poland. In the theoretical part of the study, methods of descriptive, comparative, deductive, and synthetic analysis were used. In the practical part of the study, appropriately selected qualitative methods, such as a questionnaire, were presented. The results of the analysis were based on the results of the authors’ own calculations, as well specific findings from business practice, both from inland and abroad. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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16 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Intellectual Capital on the Profitability of Russian Agricultural Firms
by Danila V. Ovechkin, Gulnara F. Romashkina and Vladimir A. Davydenko
Agronomy 2021, 11(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020286 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2741
Abstract
Economic efficiency is a function of two types of resources: those that are presented in financial statements and those that are not. Non-balance sheet resources are referred as to intellectual capital (IC). The purpose of the paper is to investigate the relationship between [...] Read more.
Economic efficiency is a function of two types of resources: those that are presented in financial statements and those that are not. Non-balance sheet resources are referred as to intellectual capital (IC). The purpose of the paper is to investigate the relationship between IC, its components and the level of financial profitability. To conduct the analysis, we used the system generalized method of moments for a broad sample of Russian firms that operate in the agribusiness industry. We employed two financial approaches to IC estimation. The first one is the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC). The second one is own-created approach that is supposed to respond the criticism regarding VAIC. Comparison between VAIC and own-created approach to IC estimation revealed that the latter is more appropriate due to its advantages. Our approach unlike VAIC allows measuring both efficiency ratios and the stocks of IC. The results showed that the efficiency of structural capital usage and the stock of human capital have the biggest impact on the profitability level of the agricultural businesses among employed measures of IC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
20 pages, 710 KiB  
Article
Consumer Trust in Quality and Safety of Food Products in Western Siberia
by Djamilia F. Skripnuk, Vladimir A. Davydenko, Gulnara F. Romashkina and Roman R. Khuziakhmetov
Agronomy 2021, 11(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020257 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3007
Abstract
Modern Russia faces difficulties in ensuring food quality and safety. The updated federal food security doctrine focuses on export opportunities and monitoring the ratio between domestic production and consumption. This agenda is determined by possible external threats: sanctions and trade wars, various conflicts, [...] Read more.
Modern Russia faces difficulties in ensuring food quality and safety. The updated federal food security doctrine focuses on export opportunities and monitoring the ratio between domestic production and consumption. This agenda is determined by possible external threats: sanctions and trade wars, various conflicts, and economic and agricultural crises. The aim is to reveal the features of consumer behavior when interacting with food operators and to show the influence of socio-economic characteristics on individual practices. Empirical data are obtained from the authors’ mass survey and in-depth interviews. Results might signify that society came to a consensus on trust in quality and safety of food. Observed differences in outlet and product choices can be explained by income, settlement type, and age. Local producers are struggling to enter retail chains, as there are contradictions between consumer expectations and internal policies of sales operators. Experts argue that people poorly assess the real risks of economizing and favoring low-quality food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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19 pages, 22718 KiB  
Article
Analysing the Structure of the Global Wheat Trade Network: An ERGM Approach
by Ester Gutiérrez-Moya, Sebastián Lozano and Belarmino Adenso-Díaz
Agronomy 2020, 10(12), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121967 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3911
Abstract
This paper studies the relationship between wheat trading countries using both descriptive and statistical inference methods for complex networks. The global Wheat Trade Network (WTN) and its evolving topological characteristics is analysed for the periods 2009–2013 and 2014–2018, using the Food and Agriculture [...] Read more.
This paper studies the relationship between wheat trading countries using both descriptive and statistical inference methods for complex networks. The global Wheat Trade Network (WTN) and its evolving topological characteristics is analysed for the periods 2009–2013 and 2014–2018, using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) data. The network characterisation measures in both periods are rather stable. There are some differences, however, in the magnitude of some measures (e.g., connectivity or disassortativity), and a higher degree of inequality in the distribution of the number of partners and the distribution of trade volume in the period 2014–2018. An Exponential Random Graph Model (ERGM) has been applied to identify significant determinants associated with the presence/absence of trade links between countries. The results indicate that wheat trade links are driven mainly by country openness, reciprocity (mutual importer-exporter relationship), whether the exporting country is US or Canada and the geographical location of importer and exporter. Other factors, such as the economic size of the importing country, if the importing country is US or Canada and the land surface of the exporting country also contribute less to capture interlinkages of WTN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Sociology in Sustainable Agriculture)
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