Extraction and Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Crops—Series II

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Biosystem and Biological Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 6741

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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, IVAGRO, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3), University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spain
Interests: chemometrics; fire investigation; headspace-mass spectrometry electronic nose; ignitable liquids; petroleum-based products; volatile organic compounds; food adulteration; ion mobility spectroscopy; forensic chemistry; food analysis; analytical chemistry; HPLC; GC; UHPLC; MS; extraction techniques
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a growing interest in the consumption of crops rich in bioactive compounds, which seem to be responsable for a wide range of biological properties associated with an improvement of health, as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and so on. Many of these crops and their extracts are used in agri-food, pharmaceutical or agrochemical industries, as well as food supplements or functional products. The development of extraction and analysis methodologies is essential both for quality control and to obtain extracts with the largest amount of bioactive compounds. This Special Issue will focus on the extraction, identification and analysis of bioactive compounds present in crops. We welcome novel research and reviews covering all related topics in extraction methods, identification, separation, determination and analysis of bioactive compounds in crops, the obtaining and the usage of plant extracts, the use of by-products for different industries and quality control of raw material.

Prof. Dr. Gerardo Fernández Barbero
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • secondary metabolites
  • crop analysis
  • identification
  • ultrasound-assisted extraction
  • microwave-assisted extraction
  • pressurized liquid extraction
  • supercritical fluid extraction
  • quality control
  • by-products valorization

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 4016 KiB  
Article
Allelopathic Activity of a Novel Compound and Two Known Sesquiterpene from Croton oblongifolius Roxb.
by Seinn Moh Moh, Shunya Tojo, Toshiaki Teruya and Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
Agronomy 2024, 14(4), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14040695 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Plant extracts with allelopathic activity and their related compounds have been investigated for a long time as an eco-friendly approach to sustainable weed management. Croton oblongifolius (Roxb.) is a traditional medicinal plant valued for its diverse source of bioactive compounds that have been [...] Read more.
Plant extracts with allelopathic activity and their related compounds have been investigated for a long time as an eco-friendly approach to sustainable weed management. Croton oblongifolius (Roxb.) is a traditional medicinal plant valued for its diverse source of bioactive compounds that have been used to treat various diseases. C. oblongifolius leaf extract was previously described to involve a number of allelochemicals. Therefore, we conducted this research to explore more of the allelochemicals in the leaves of C. oblongifolius. The leaf extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against two test plants, Lolium multiflorum (monocot) and Medicago sativa (dicot). The bioassay-directed chromatographic purification of the leaf extracts yielded three compounds, including one novel compound, identified using spectral data, as follows: (1) alpinolide peroxide, (2) 6-hydroxy alpinolide, and (3) 3-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (a novel sesquiterpene). These compounds considerably limited the growth of L. sativum. The compound concentrations affecting a 50% growth limitation (IC50) of L. sativum varied from 0.16 to 0.34 mM. Therefore, these characterized compounds may be allelopathic agents that cause the allelopathy of C. oblongifolius. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Crops—Series II)
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15 pages, 1944 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Starch from Jinicuil (Inga jinicuil) Seeds and Its Evaluation as Wall Material in Spray Drying
by Alejandro Aparicio-Saguilán, Lucio Abel Vázquez-León, Ana Sofía Martínez-Cigarroa, Violeta Carpintero-Tepole, Gerardo Fernández Barbero, Andrés Antonio Acosta-Osorio and Delia Esther Páramo-Calderón
Agronomy 2024, 14(2), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14020272 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Jinicuil seed starch (JSS) was partially characterized and then evaluated as wall material. JSS showed higher content of proteins, lipids, and resistant starch than commercial corn starch (CCS). JSS granules presented both oval-spherical shapes and heterogeneous sizes (~1–40 µm) and exhibited a crystallinity [...] Read more.
Jinicuil seed starch (JSS) was partially characterized and then evaluated as wall material. JSS showed higher content of proteins, lipids, and resistant starch than commercial corn starch (CCS). JSS granules presented both oval-spherical shapes and heterogeneous sizes (~1–40 µm) and exhibited a crystallinity lower than CCS with an A-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Both gelatinization peak and final viscosity values in the pasting profile were higher in JSS than in CCS. At 90 °C, the water solubility was 22% and the swelling power was 17 g g−1. Under refrigeration and freeze-thaw, the JSS gel showed high stability. JSS showed a significant presence of protein and small particles; therefore, it was evaluated as wall material in spray drying. The results showed the formation of spherical aggregates and encapsulation efficiencies of L-ascorbic acid of 14.97–81.84%, with process yields of 19.96–27.64%, under the conditions evaluated. JSS has a potential application in the food industry but also as wall material for microencapsulation by spray drying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Crops—Series II)
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21 pages, 3394 KiB  
Article
Influence of Extraction Methods on the Phytochemical Profile of Sambucus nigra L.
by Doris Floares (Oarga), Ileana Cocan, Ersilia Alexa, Mariana-Atena Poiana, Adina Berbecea, Marius Valentin Boldea, Monica Negrea, Diana Obistioiu and Isidora Radulov
Agronomy 2023, 13(12), 3061; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13123061 - 14 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of drying methods, extraction solvent, and extraction methods on the phytochemical profile of Sambucus nigra L. flowers harvested from the western region of Romania. Two drying methods for plant conditioning (room temperature and [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of drying methods, extraction solvent, and extraction methods on the phytochemical profile of Sambucus nigra L. flowers harvested from the western region of Romania. Two drying methods for plant conditioning (room temperature and lyophilization), two extraction solvents (70% ethyl alcohol and water), and three extraction methods (conventional extraction (C), ultrasound-assisted extraction, and microwave extraction) were used. For the evaluation of the phytochemical profile, the following spectrophotometric methods were investigated: total polyphenol content, total antioxidant activity using the DPPH and FRAP methods, and flavonoid content. In addition to the spectrophotometric methods, the individual polyphenols were evaluated using the LC/MS method. Using atomic absorption spectrometry, the macro and microelement content of Sambucus nigra L. flowers was assessed. The results showed that the drying method, the solvent used for extraction, and the extraction method influenced the phytocompound content. The analyses showed that in terms of polyphenols, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity, high values were recorded for lyophilization-dried samples compared to samples dried at room temperature. Also, higher values were recorded for alcoholic extracts compared to aqueous extracts, but also for extracts obtained by the ultrasound-assisted method, followed by extracts obtained via microwave compared to extracts obtained by conventional extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Crops—Series II)
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13 pages, 1665 KiB  
Article
Determination of Gingerols and Shogaols Content from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) through Microwave-Assisted Extraction
by Monserrat Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Beatriz Juliana Yerena-Prieto, Ceferino Carrera, Mercedes Vázquez-Espinosa, Ana V. González-de-Peredo, Miguel Ángel García-Alvarado, Miguel Palma, Guadalupe del Carmen Rodríguez-Jimenes and Gerardo Fernández Barbero
Agronomy 2023, 13(9), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13092288 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a plant recognized for its pungent taste and aromatic qualities, primarily derived from its underground rhizome. Apart from its widespread culinary applications, ginger is valued for its potential health benefits attributed to the presence of gingerols and [...] Read more.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a plant recognized for its pungent taste and aromatic qualities, primarily derived from its underground rhizome. Apart from its widespread culinary applications, ginger is valued for its potential health benefits attributed to the presence of gingerols and shogaols. For this reason, this work proposes the development of a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for the extraction of gingerols and shogaols present in ginger rhizomes. The influence of the extraction temperature (50–100 °C), the solvent composition (50–100% ethanol in water), and the sample-to-solvent ratio (0.3–0.7 g sample: 20 mL) on the extraction of these bioactive compounds has been studied. To this end, a Box–Behnken experimental design (BBD) in combination with a response surface methodology (RSM) has been applied. The optimum conditions for the total extraction of gingerols and shogaols were: 87% ethanol in water, 100 °C, and 0.431 g of ginger sample in 20 mL solvent. The developed method required short extraction times (5 min) and demonstrated favorable levels of repeatability and intermediate precision (CV < 5%). Finally, the MAE method was successfully used for the extraction of gingerols and shogaols from a variety of ginger samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Crops—Series II)
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16 pages, 3201 KiB  
Article
Optimization of an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Method for the Extraction of Gingerols and Shogaols from Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
by Monserrat Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Beatriz Juliana Yerena-Prieto, Ceferino Carrera, Mercedes Vázquez-Espinosa, Ana Velasco González-de-Peredo, Miguel Ángel García-Alvarado, Miguel Palma, Guadalupe del Carmen Rodríguez-Jimenes and Gerardo Fernández Barbero
Agronomy 2023, 13(7), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13071787 - 02 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2044
Abstract
The goal of this study is to optimize a UAE method for the extraction of the main bioactive compounds present in the ginger rhizome (gingerols and shogaols). Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) has a considerable content of bioactive compounds, in particular gingerols [...] Read more.
The goal of this study is to optimize a UAE method for the extraction of the main bioactive compounds present in the ginger rhizome (gingerols and shogaols). Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) has a considerable content of bioactive compounds, in particular gingerols and shogaols, with interesting pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and antimicrobial properties, among others. The isolation of these compounds requires an efficient extraction process with short extraction times and the employment of specific non-toxic solvents for humans. In this work, the optimization of an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method for the extraction of the main pungent compounds in the ginger rhizome, i.e., gingerols and shogaols, has been carried out. For this purpose, a Box–Behnken design (BBD) has been used to optimize the experimental design through a response surface methodology (RSM). The percentage of ethanol in the extraction solvent, the temperature, the amplitude, and the cycle of the ultrasounds, as well as the sample-to-solvent ratio, were the variables to be studied. Thus, the percentage of ethanol in the extraction solvent was identified as the most influential factor. Once the compounds were extracted, the identification of gingerols and shogaols was performed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Q-ToF-MS), and the quantification by UHPLC coupled to a diode array detector (DAD) detector. Finally, the optimized UAE method required only 10 min of extraction time, presenting good repeatability and intermediate precision levels (<5%). The method was applied to extract gingerols and shogaols from diverse sources, thereby demonstrating its applicability and highlighting the potential variations in compound concentrations across different samples based on factors such as origin, and growing conditions, among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Crops—Series II)
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