Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Farm Animal Production".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2023) | Viewed by 14580

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Animal Science and Fisheries, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Bolesława Prusa 14, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
Interests: feed; nutrition; rations; broiler chickens; pigs; performance results; slaughter value; meat quality
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, poultry farming has been one of the fastest developing branches of animal production. The main drive for developing broiler chicken production is the growing demand for poultry meat, which is mainly due to its dietetic values and great number of culinary applications, supported by its outstanding physical and chemical properties and sensory value. Those expectations are being met thanks to the appropriate choice of feed raw materials in poultry diets. It is necessary to promote research and the dissemination of results in the field of the performance, slaughter value and product quality of poultry which are modified due to dietary interventions.

This Special Issue focuses on the role that dietary interventions play in poultry production (broiler chickens, turkeys, laying hens, etc.). Original research articles and reviews are accepted.

Dr. Anna Milczarek
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • rations
  • feeding
  • broiler chicken
  • hen
  • turkey
  • performance results
  • slaughter value
  • meat or egg quality

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1387 KiB  
Article
Myofibrillar Protein Profile of the Breast Muscle in Turkeys as a Response to the Variable Ratio of Limiting Amino Acids in Feed
by Paweł Konieczka, Wiesław Przybylski, Danuta Jaworska, Elżbieta Żelechowska, Piotr Sałek, Dominika Szkopek, Aleksandra Drażbo, Krzysztof Kozłowski and Jan Jankowski
Agriculture 2024, 14(2), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14020197 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 653
Abstract
The effects of the different dietary levels of Arginine (Arg) in low- and high-methionine (Met) diets on the meat quality and myofibrillar protein profile of breast muscles from turkeys were determined. The experiment had a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial design with [...] Read more.
The effects of the different dietary levels of Arginine (Arg) in low- and high-methionine (Met) diets on the meat quality and myofibrillar protein profile of breast muscles from turkeys were determined. The experiment had a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial design with three levels of Arg (90%, 100%, and 110%) relative to the dietary Met levels (30% or 45%). At 42 days of age, eight turkeys from each treatment were sacrificed; the meat pH value was measured at 48 h post-slaughter, and meat color was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The SDS-PAGE method was performed to investigate the myofibrillar protein profile of the breast muscle. The analysis of variance showed a significant effect of the Arg or Met dietary levels on the color parameter b* and the profile of myofibrillar proteins in muscles. The results of the cluster analysis of the myofibrillar protein profile showed that, with a high level of Arg (i.e., 110%), the level of Met 35% or 45% was less important. It can be concluded that the increase in the share of Arg and Met in the diet of turkeys increases the content of some myofibrillar proteins (actinin, desmin, actin) and reduces degradation during the post-slaughter proteolysis of proteins that are considered tenderization indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production)
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12 pages, 4457 KiB  
Article
Growing Patterns of the Branca Chicken Breed—Concentrate vs. Maize-Based Diet
by Laura Soares, Fernando Mata, Joaquim L. Cerqueira and José Araújo
Agriculture 2023, 13(12), 2282; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13122282 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 789
Abstract
Local chicken breeds are threatened with extinction. They must be preserved in order to maintain genetic diversity. The best strategy to preserve these breeds is to understand how they can be made interesting in production systems. With this strategy in mind, this study [...] Read more.
Local chicken breeds are threatened with extinction. They must be preserved in order to maintain genetic diversity. The best strategy to preserve these breeds is to understand how they can be made interesting in production systems. With this strategy in mind, this study aimed to understand the growth patterns of the Branca breed, which is fed maize and commercial rations. A trial was conducted with N = 40 chickens, n = 10, in each of the combinations of gender and diet (cocks fed on ration, cocks fed on maize, hens fed on ration, and hens fed on maize). The first step was to determine the best nonlinear model to fit the growth data. After selecting the best fitting model, this was used to estimate the growth, relative growth rate, and instantaneous growth rate curves. The best fit was achieved with the Brody model. Ration-fed cocks grow faster and mature later, as the relative growth rate converges to zero later, while maize-fed hens show slower growth. Maize-fed cocks mature earlier as the relative growth rate converges to zero earlier. Maize-fed cocks and ration-fed hens show intermediate growth patterns compared to ration-fed cocks and maize-fed hens, and similar while comparing with each other. This is a slow-growing breed that reaches the slaughter-ready size at around the fifth month of age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production)
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20 pages, 3955 KiB  
Article
Regulation of Inorganic Zinc Supplementation on Intestinal Absorption, Metabolism, and Muscle Development in Broilers Fed Low-Protein Diets
by Ruihong Sun, Changhai Zhou, Yougang Jia, Yumei Li, Yuntong He, Haoyu Che, Yonghong Zhang, Jing Zhang and Dongqiao Peng
Agriculture 2023, 13(12), 2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13122239 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 983
Abstract
The issue of nitrogen fertilizer contamination resulting from high-protein diets can be effectively solved by adopting low-protein diets. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of inorganic zinc supplementation in low-protein diets on 42-day-old broilers across a multitude of parameters. [...] Read more.
The issue of nitrogen fertilizer contamination resulting from high-protein diets can be effectively solved by adopting low-protein diets. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of inorganic zinc supplementation in low-protein diets on 42-day-old broilers across a multitude of parameters. To determine the optimal dose of inorganic zinc in broiler diets with a 1.5% reduction in crude protein, 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers (n = 270) were randomly assigned to five groups, each containing 54 broilers. Our results revealed that inorganic zinc supplementation at levels of 130 mg/kg elevated growth performance and carcass traits (p < 0.05). It also significantly increased the ratio of intestinal villi heights to crypt depths (p < 0.001), changed intestinal morphology, and significantly increased albumin content in serum (p < 0.05). Furthermore, analysis of mRNA expression showed that 130 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg of inorganic zinc improved the myogenic differentiation involved in muscle development, as well as intestinal tight junction and liver metallothionein capacity (p < 0.001). Additionally, these groups exhibited lower zinc excretion compared with other treatments (p < 0.001). In summary, our findings suggest that inorganic zinc supplementation in low-protein diets holds the potential to support muscle and intestinal development in broilers, presenting a viable nutritional strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production)
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14 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Dried Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Meal Inclusion in the Diets of Broilers Affects Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Nutrients Digestibility, Fecal Microbiota and Economics
by Muhammad Haseeb Raza, Muhammad Tahir, Shabana Naz, Ibrahim A. Alhidary, Rifat Ullah Khan, Caterina Losacco and Vincenzo Tufarelli
Agriculture 2023, 13(10), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13101978 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
The availability of suitable feedstuffs for poultry nutrition is a significant challenge faced by the global poultry production industry. This issue has been exacerbated by the shift towards using grains for biofuel production, leading to a subsequent rise in feedstuff prices. The study [...] Read more.
The availability of suitable feedstuffs for poultry nutrition is a significant challenge faced by the global poultry production industry. This issue has been exacerbated by the shift towards using grains for biofuel production, leading to a subsequent rise in feedstuff prices. The study aimed to assess the impact of different levels of dried date wastes in the diet of broiler chicks on their growth, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbiota and economics. A total of 240 day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308/Ross 308 FF) were divided into five experimental groups and fed 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% of dietary date meal (DDM). The formulated diets were provided to chicks for a duration of 35 days. The findings of the study indicated that chicks fed with a diet containing 9% dried dates exhibited a significantly (p < 0.05) higher increase in body weight compared to the control group by the end of the study period. Additionally, dressing percentage, carcass weight, leg weight and breast weight were notably higher (p < 0.05) among birds that consumed the 9% dried dates diet. Moreover, the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ether extract showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in birds that were fed a 9% dried dates diet. Furthermore, DDM at 9% experienced significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of Lactobacillus and decreased (p < 0.05) the level of E. coli count. Similarly, economically, birds supplemented with 9% DDM exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher profit compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that broiler chicks fed with a diet including 9% dried date waste experienced improved growth performance, enhanced carcass quality, supported digestibility of nutrients, elevated the count of fecal Lactobacillus, reduced E. coli count and economics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production)
15 pages, 5285 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Galla Chinensis Tannin Supplementation on Antioxidant Capacity and Intestinal Microbiota Composition in Broilers
by Peng Yuan, Xiaojie Ren, Jiaxing Niu, Yang Liu, Libo Huang, Shuzhen Jiang, Ning Jiao, Xuejun Yuan, Weiren Yang and Yang Li
Agriculture 2023, 13(9), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13091780 - 08 Sep 2023
Viewed by 872
Abstract
The current study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary Galla Chinensis tannin (GCT) supplementation on antioxidant capacity and gut microbiota composition in broilers. Two hundred eighty-eight Arbor Acres broiler chicks were divided into the CON group and the GCT group; each treatment [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary Galla Chinensis tannin (GCT) supplementation on antioxidant capacity and gut microbiota composition in broilers. Two hundred eighty-eight Arbor Acres broiler chicks were divided into the CON group and the GCT group; each treatment group contained 6 replicates with 24 broiler chicks per replicate for a period of 42 days, and were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg GCT. Results revealed that GCT supplementation significantly increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (p < 0.05) and significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MAD) concentrations in serum (p < 0.05) and significantly increased GSH-Px and catalase (CAT) (p < 0.05) and significantly decreased MDA concentrations in the small intestine. In addition, GCT significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) the gene expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1). High-throughput sequencing results showed that GCT supplementation significantly increased abundances of Faecalibacterium and Megamonas (p < 0.05). These findings will contribute to our understanding of the effects of dietary Galla Chinensis tannin supplementation on antioxidant capacity and intestinal microbiota composition in broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production)
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9 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Chemical Composition and Nutritional Quality of Breast Muscle from Broiler Chickens Receiving Various Levels of Fe Glycine Chelate
by Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Karolina Jachimowicz-Rogowska, Svitlana Kislova, Zvenyslava Zasadna and Dmytro Yanovych
Agriculture 2023, 13(7), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13071455 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 908
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Fe glycine chelate supplementation on the chemical composition and nutritional quality of breast meat from broiler chicken. The following parameters were assessed: fat content, cholesterol content, fatty acid profile, atherogenic index (AI), [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Fe glycine chelate supplementation on the chemical composition and nutritional quality of breast meat from broiler chicken. The following parameters were assessed: fat content, cholesterol content, fatty acid profile, atherogenic index (AI), thrombogenic index (TI), and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (H/H) fatty acid ratio. The 42-day experiment involved 200 broiler chickens assigned into four dietary groups: the control receiving Fe sulfate in the dose of 40 mg/kg of feed and three experimental groups of chickens supplemented with 40 mg (Fe-Gly40), 20 mg (Fe-Gly20), or 10 mg (Fe-Gly10) of Fe glycine chelate per 1 kg of diet. The results showed no negative effect of the application of Fe glycine chelate on the chemical composition and nutritional quality of breast muscle. Therefore, the advisability of the application of Fe glycine chelates in the nutrition of broiler chickens should be revised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production)
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16 pages, 347 KiB  
Article
Oat Hull as a Source of Lignin-Cellulose Complex in Diets Containing Wheat or Barley and Its Effect on Performance and Morphometric Measurements of Gastrointestinal Tract in Broiler Chickens
by Tomasz Hikawczuk, Anna Szuba-Trznadel, Patrycja Wróblewska and Andrzej Wiliczkiewicz
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040896 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
The purpose of the experiment was to determine the effect of oat hull on the performance and morphometric measurements of the gastrointestinal tract, and to correlate the results of these measurements with the type of the determined dietary fiber in feed and the [...] Read more.
The purpose of the experiment was to determine the effect of oat hull on the performance and morphometric measurements of the gastrointestinal tract, and to correlate the results of these measurements with the type of the determined dietary fiber in feed and the number of microorganisms. The Asp method is simpler and quicker than non-starch polysaccharide analysis, and can give quick information in the analysis of fiber fractions (soluble and insoluble) in the component or in a diet, and also related the obtained results with the performance of broiler chickens. The utilization of oat hull in the amount of 1% of the diet of broiler chickens results in the highest body weight on the 28th day of life (p < 0.05) in comparison to the group not receiving oat hull in the diet and with a 3% share of this structural component. Oat hull in the diet of broiler chickens in the amount of 1% also reduces the total length of the intestines (p < 0.05), compared with the share of 0 and 3%. The soluble fiber contained in the grains of barley and wheat has an influence on the higher metabolic weight of the glandular stomach of broiler chickens compared to the birds receiving corn grain in their diet. Barley grain and oat hull in the amount of 3% significantly (p < 0.01) increase the weight of gizzards. The increase in the weight of the proventriculus (r = 0.392), gizzard (r = 0.486) and duodenum (r = 0.657) was positively correlated with the growth of E. coli bacteria in the crop. The opposite effect in the case of negative correlation was determined in the case of the duodenum and E. coli count (r = −0.593). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production)
16 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Intervention Using Spirulina at Graded Levels on Productive Performance and Physiological Status of Quail Birds Reared under Elevated Temperatures
by Farid S. Nassar, Abdulaziz A. Alaqil, Dalia A. A. El-Sayed, Nancy N. Kamel and Ahmed O. Abbas
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040789 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
The current study aimed to explore the effect of Spirulina platensis (SP) inclusion at various levels in quail diets, in terms of their production performance, physiological traits, stress measurements, and immunological parameters under heat stress (HS) conditions. Four hundred Japanese quail (Coturnix [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to explore the effect of Spirulina platensis (SP) inclusion at various levels in quail diets, in terms of their production performance, physiological traits, stress measurements, and immunological parameters under heat stress (HS) conditions. Four hundred Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) chicks, one day old, were equally distributed into forty wire cages, and the cages were placed in two chambers with environmentally controlled systems (20 cages in each chamber). From 21 to 42 d of age, the quails were randomly subjected to a factorial design of two HS treatments × four SP treatments. To induce HS treatments in the quails, the first chamber was maintained at a thermoneutral temperature of 24 °C (TN group), while the temperature of the second chamber was elevated to 35 °C during the daytime (9:00–17:00 h), followed by a thermoneutral temperature for the remaining 24 h cycle (HS group). The birds in each chamber were further allocated into four SP treatments (5 replicate cages × 10 birds per cage in each treatment), where the quails were fed on a basal diet that included 0, 5, 10, or 15 g/kg SP (SP0, SP5, SP10, and SP15 groups, respectively). After exposure to the HS, a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of 5% in body weight and 9% in both weight gain and feed intake was recorded, and the slaughter performance of the quails was adversely (p < 0.05) affected. In addition, HS significantly (p < 0.05) impaired the physiological traits (total protein, albumin, globulin, alanine transferase, aspartate transferase, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, and triglycerides) and immunological parameters (total white blood cells, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and T- and B-lymphocyte stimulation indexes), but increased the stress measurements (corticosterone, malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α). In contrast, most of these parameters were linearly (p < 0.05) improved by increasing the SP levels in the diets of the TN quail group. When the SP was included in the diets of the HS quail group, the deleterious effects of HS on the alanine and aspartate transferase activities, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, corticosterone, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and T- and B-lymphocyte stimulation indexes were remarkably (p < 0.05) relieved. These results concluded that SP nutritional application can improve the production performance and the overall physiological homeostasis of the Japanese quail, especially when suffering from heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production)
15 pages, 2137 KiB  
Article
Effect of Irrigation, Nitrogen Fertilization and Amino Acid Biostimulant on Proximate Composition and Energy Value of Pisum sativum L. Seeds
by Wioletta Biel, Cezary Podsiadło, Robert Witkowicz, Jagoda Kępińska-Pacelik and Sławomir Stankowski
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020376 - 04 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1703
Abstract
The study investigated the impact of biological and agricultural conditions on the chemical composition and energy value of pea seeds for poultry feed. In the experiment, the species assessed was pea (Pisum sativum L.), a determinate form, cultivar (cv.) Cysterski. During the [...] Read more.
The study investigated the impact of biological and agricultural conditions on the chemical composition and energy value of pea seeds for poultry feed. In the experiment, the species assessed was pea (Pisum sativum L.), a determinate form, cultivar (cv.) Cysterski. During the field experiment, the response of peas to the following experimental factors was assessed: first factor—irrigation (yes, no), second factor—nitrogen fertilization (0, 20 and 40 kg N·ha−1), third factor—amino acid biostimulant (yes, no). In both years of experiments, representative seed samples were collected, in which the chemical composition was assessed for the content of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and nitrogen free extract. Additionally, in order to assess the suitability of the evaluated pea seeds as poultry feed, the energy value expressed in the form of apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) was estimated. The protein content in pea seeds increased after the application of the biostimulant, both with and without irrigation. Statistically significant differences in the crude fiber content in pea seeds were found under the influence of the interaction of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization. The use of the biostimulant significantly increased the energy value of pea seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production)
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13 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
Effects of Genotype and Diet on Performance, Carcass Traits, and Blood Profiles of Slow-Growing Chicks Obtained by Crosses of Local Breed with Commercial Genotype
by Minodora Tudorache, Ioan Custura, Anca Gheorghe, Mihaela Habeanu, Nicoleta Aurelia Lefter, Elena Narcisa Pogurschi and Dana Catalina Popa
Agriculture 2022, 12(11), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12111906 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
The effects of genotype and diet on growth performance, carcass traits and blood metabolites were investigated. The commercial Ross 308 (R) chickens genotype, a local Black Transylvanian Naked Neck (BTNN) breed, and their crosses were used in an 81-day study. A total of [...] Read more.
The effects of genotype and diet on growth performance, carcass traits and blood metabolites were investigated. The commercial Ross 308 (R) chickens genotype, a local Black Transylvanian Naked Neck (BTNN) breed, and their crosses were used in an 81-day study. A total of 720 one-d-old chicks were allotted into eight groups in a 4 × 2 factorial design with 4 genotypes: Rmale × Rfemale (R), BTNNmale × Rfemale (BTNN-R), BTNNmale × BTNNfemale (BTNN), Rmale × BTNNfemale (R-BTNN), and 2 diets: control and low-metabolisable energy (LME). Genotype affected performance parameters, namely body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), energy intake (EI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), energy conversion ratio (ECR), and production efficiency factor (PEF), irrespective of growth phase (p < 0.05). Diet had no significant effect on overall BWG, EI, ECR and PEF, except that it increased FI and FCR. Genotype influenced the carcass and organ yields (p < 0.05), except bursa weight, while diet had no significant effect. Blood parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, albumin and phosphorus) were affected only by genotype (p < 0.05). In summary, results show that from the two crossbreedings obtained between R and BTNN genotypes, the BTNN-R growth performance and carcass traits were superior to R-BTNN, even though both have had a similar improved plasma response. Lowering the ME level did not significantly affect the BWG but increased FI and FCR, whereas the production index was similar regardless of the genotype. Based on the present results, we concluded that the BTNN-R crosses are the most suitable for use in alternative rearing systems for slow-growing chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production)
17 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Rearing Performance and Carcass Composition of Broiler Chickens Fed Rations Containing Guar Meal at Graded Levels
by Anna Milczarek, Magdalena Pachnik, Maria Osek and Renata Świnarska
Agriculture 2022, 12(9), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12091385 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1873
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate how different percentages of guar meal in feed rations for broiler chickens affect their rearing performance and carcass composition. The experiment was conducted in a group of one hundred sixty Ross 308 broilers randomly allocated to four equinumerous [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate how different percentages of guar meal in feed rations for broiler chickens affect their rearing performance and carcass composition. The experiment was conducted in a group of one hundred sixty Ross 308 broilers randomly allocated to four equinumerous groups (K, G4, G8 and G12). The birds were reared over 42 days with the application of three feeding periods: starter (days 1–21), grower (days 22–35) and finisher (days 36–42). All the feed rations were prepared using maize meal, soybean meal, oil and mineral and vitamin additives. An experimental factor was the share of guar meal in feed rations: group K—0%, G4—4%, G8—8% and G12—12%. It was demonstrated that a higher percentage (8% or 12%) of guar meal in the feed rations had a negative effect on the chickens’ weight gain and feed intake. The birds receiving feed rations supplemented with guar meal featured higher feed conversion levels than those fed rations in which soybean meal was the only protein-rich component (p ≤ 0.05). Birds fed rations with the highest percentage (12%) of guar meal showed a significant decrease in chilled carcass weight and dressing percentage compared with other chickens. A higher percentage (8% or 12%) of guar meal in feed rations had an adverse effect on the birds’ muscularity. In addition, it was demonstrated that their meat was DFD (dark, firm and dry; pH1 > 6.4), but from a dietary point of view, it contained the smallest amount of intramuscular fat. To sum up, 4% of guar meal should be recommended in broiler chicken feeding to ensure their satisfactory rearing performance and carcass composition, including the physico-chemical properties of their muscles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on Poultry Production)
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