Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Protection, Diseases, Pests and Weeds".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2020) | Viewed by 56557

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation-State Research Institute, Department of Forage Crop Production, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
Interests: plant production; abiotic stress; plant physiology; weed control; biodiversity; organic farming; legumes; cover crops
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Satisfying consumer needs through the production of healthy and nutritious agricultural products is a substantial challenge facing modern agriculture. However, agricultural production should be carried out with care for plant health, biological safety of products, and environmental safety while minimizing the risks to human health. Therefore, the implementation of agricultural practices while respecting these principles is very important for improving the quantity and quality of crops. Additionally, ecosystems have altered as a result of human activities and climate change, resulting in the reduction of biodiversity and creation of new niches where pests can thrive. This is of particular importance in 2020, as the United Nations General Assembly declared this year as the International Year of Plant Health (IYPH), with “protecting plants, protecting life” as a leading subject.

This Special Issue will promote the subject of plant health and emphasize the importance of preventing the spread of pests, including weeds, which cause substantial economic losses. Research articles will cover topics related to the biology and harmfulness of weeds, particularly in connection with crop health, segetal weed communities and their biodiversity, and integrated methods of weed control. For this Special Issue, we welcome all types of articles, including original research, opinions, and reviews.

Dr. Anna Kocira
Dr. Mariola Staniak
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • biodiversity
  • weed management
  • weed biology
  • cropping systems
  • sustainable agriculture

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 221 KiB  
Editorial
Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management
by Anna Kocira and Mariola Staniak
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030262 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3280
Abstract
The rich biodiversity of agricultural fields and their surroundings enhances natural ecosystems and has a positive impact on their productivity and resistance, e [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

24 pages, 2595 KiB  
Article
Diversity of Segetal Flora in Salix viminalis L. Crops Established on Former Arable and Fallow Lands in Central Poland
by Maria Janicka, Aneta Kutkowska and Jakub Paderewski
Agriculture 2021, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11010025 - 02 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
The flora of willow (Salix viminalis L.) plantations consists of various plant groups, including plants related to arable land, called segetal plants. Knowledge of this flora is important for maintaining biodiversity in agroecosystems. The aim of the study was to assess the [...] Read more.
The flora of willow (Salix viminalis L.) plantations consists of various plant groups, including plants related to arable land, called segetal plants. Knowledge of this flora is important for maintaining biodiversity in agroecosystems. The aim of the study was to assess the segetal flora of the willow plantations in central Poland, depending on the land use before the establishment of the plantations (arable land or fallow) and the age of the plantations. Moreover, the aim was also to check for the presence of invasive, medicinal, poisonous and melliferous species. The vegetation accompanying willow was identified based on an analysis of 60 phytosociological relevés performed using the Braun-Blanquet method. For each species, the following parameters were determined: the phytosociological class; family; geographical and historical group; apophyte origin; biological stability; life-form; and status as an invasive, medicinal (herbs), poisonous or melliferous species. The results were statistically processed. Segetal species accounted for 38% of the flora accompanying willow. The plantations on former arable land were richer in segetal species than those on fallow. Mostly, short-lived and native species dominated. In line with the age of the plantations, the number of segetal species decreased. The share of apophytes increased, and anthropophytes decreased. Furthermore, many valuable plants were found among the flora accompanying willow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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14 pages, 6302 KiB  
Article
Segetal Diversity in Selected Legume Crops Depending on Soil Tillage
by Jolanta Bojarszczuk and Janusz Podleśny
Agriculture 2020, 10(12), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10120635 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2160
Abstract
The aim of the paper was to determine weed infestation expressed by weeds number and weed weight and other index under a three different tillage system: no-tillage (NT), reduced tillage (RT), and ploughing tillage (CT) in two legume species crops: pea and narrowed-leaved [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper was to determine weed infestation expressed by weeds number and weed weight and other index under a three different tillage system: no-tillage (NT), reduced tillage (RT), and ploughing tillage (CT) in two legume species crops: pea and narrowed-leaved lupine. The research proved that growing legume under no-tillage conditions caused the increasing weed infestation. Weather conditions in each of the study years were shown to influence the weed infestation. The dry weight of weeds was higher in narrow-leaved lupine by 7% in flowering stage assessment and by 6% before harvest than in pea crop. The weeds number in the conventional tillage system in the flowering stage in pea and lupine crops was 24 and 26 plants·m−2, respectively, under the reduced tillage conditions it was 33 and 29% higher, while under no-tillage it was 58 and 67% higher. In all tillage systems the dominant species were Chenopodium album L., Viola arvensis L., Anthemis arvensis L., and Cirsium arvense L. The results prove that soil tillage system affect weed infestation of legume crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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17 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Biodiversity of Weeds in Fields of Grain in South-Eastern Poland
by Barbara Sawicka, Barbara Krochmal-Marczak, Piotr Barbaś, Piotr Pszczółkowski and Marek Ćwintal
Agriculture 2020, 10(12), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10120589 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2839
Abstract
Analysis of weed infestation of selected fields of grain (winter wheat, spring wheat, spring triticale) was conducted between 2013 and 2016 in five commercial farms in south-eastern Poland (49°52’ N, 21°46’ E) based on a quantitative and qualitative (quadrat) method and an agro-phytosociological [...] Read more.
Analysis of weed infestation of selected fields of grain (winter wheat, spring wheat, spring triticale) was conducted between 2013 and 2016 in five commercial farms in south-eastern Poland (49°52’ N, 21°46’ E) based on a quantitative and qualitative (quadrat) method and an agro-phytosociological method. The quadrat analysis was conducted prior to weeding procedures, and the agro-phytosociological analysis by grain harvest. The biodiversity of weed communities was measured with the Shannon and Simpson indices. The degree of weed infestation of grain species was significantly differentiated by weeding procedures carried out by farmers. The highest share of weeds in grain crops included dicot weeds (80.6–86.4% of all species, depending on location), and the remaining weed groups were a much smaller issue. The greatest weed infestation was found in spring triticale, and the smallest in winter wheat. The highest Shannon biodiversity index was recorded in the field of triticale, and the lowest in the field of winter wheat. The Simpson index points to the greatest biodiversity in fields of triticale and the smallest in fields of spring wheat. The conducted research will help categorize segetal flora characteristics for a given crop, determine its quantity and species composition, and evaluate biodiversity of weeds in fields of grain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
10 pages, 598 KiB  
Article
Influence of Farming System on Weed Infestation and on Productivity of Narrow-Leaved Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)
by Agnieszka Faligowska, Katarzyna Panasiewicz, Grażyna Szymańska, Karolina Ratajczak, Hanna Sulewska, Agnieszka Pszczółkowska and Anna Kocira
Agriculture 2020, 10(10), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10100459 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
Legumes have become important crops, due to an increasing global population and its demand for feed protein. Furthermore, legumes can improve the characteristics of the soil, improve biodiversity levels in crop rotations, and be cultivated in both organic and sustainable farming systems. In [...] Read more.
Legumes have become important crops, due to an increasing global population and its demand for feed protein. Furthermore, legumes can improve the characteristics of the soil, improve biodiversity levels in crop rotations, and be cultivated in both organic and sustainable farming systems. In this study, a two-factor field experiment was conducted in Gorzyń, Poland in 2011–2015. The first factor was the farming system: low-external inputs (LI; without fertilization and chemical protection), medium-input (MI; medium fertilization level and chemical protection), and high-input (conventional—CONV; high fertilization level and chemical protection). Narrow-leaved lupin cultivar was the second factor; the indeterminate cv. Kalif and the determinate cv. Regent. We evaluated (a) weed infestation levels, (b) seed and protein production, and (c) the economic effects of narrow-leaved lupin cultivation under different farming conditions. A total of 12 weed species were identified, with the lowest weed density level and biomass production observed in CONV, and the greatest weed density level observed in LI. Seed yield was determined by the farming system; the greatest in CONV and significantly lower in LI (by 0.73 t h−1) and MI (by 0.18 t ha–1). Little difference was observed in seed yield between cultivars. The greatest production values for the Kalif and Regent cultivars (996€ and 949€ ha–1, respectively) were recorded in CONV, although LI proved to be the most profitable (with the highest gross agricultural income and lowest total cost of production). LI farming systems, in conjunction with chemical weed control, should be investigated in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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17 pages, 623 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mechanical and Herbicide Treatments on Weed Densities and Biomass in Two Potato Cultivars
by Piotr Barbaś, Barbara Sawicka, Barbara Krochmal Marczak and Piotr Pszczółkowski
Agriculture 2020, 10(10), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10100455 - 03 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2768
Abstract
The effect of potato cultivar and mechanical or herbicide treatments on weed densities and biomass was determined in a research study on a field, conducted from 2007 to 2009 at the Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization. Included in the study were two [...] Read more.
The effect of potato cultivar and mechanical or herbicide treatments on weed densities and biomass was determined in a research study on a field, conducted from 2007 to 2009 at the Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization. Included in the study were two cultivars and different weed control treatments, including a mechanical method and metribuzin combined with various herbicides and application timings. Chemical methods of controlling weeds were more effective than mechanical methods to reduce weed densities and biomass. The combination of metribuzin with rimsulfuron + SN oil, applied before potato emergence (PRE), was more effective than the other metribuzin combinations. The weed infestation of potato cv. “Irga” was greater than that of cultivar “Fianna” due to differences in the type of growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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16 pages, 4904 KiB  
Article
Organic but Also Low-Input Conventional Farming Systems Support High Biodiversity of Weed Species in Winter Cereals
by Adam Kleofas Berbeć, Mariola Staniak, Beata Feledyn-Szewczyk, Anna Kocira and Jarosław Stalenga
Agriculture 2020, 10(9), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10090413 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3375
Abstract
In recent years, the European Union has been paying particular attention to the problem of biodiversity loss. The possibilities of its assessment and conservation are included in the latest European Union (EU) policies and reflected in the European Biodiversity Strategy. The biodiversity of [...] Read more.
In recent years, the European Union has been paying particular attention to the problem of biodiversity loss. The possibilities of its assessment and conservation are included in the latest European Union (EU) policies and reflected in the European Biodiversity Strategy. The biodiversity of weeds in winter cereals in organic and conventional low-input farms in Eastern Poland was investigated during a 3-year period. Significantly more species and larger abundance were found in organic than in conventional farming systems. The biodiversity of these communities was described by Shannon’s diversity and Simpson’s dominance indices, which showed diversity to be well maintained in both farming systems; however, significantly higher Shannon’s index and significantly lower Simpson’s index values were observed in organic farms. Both farming systems were the mainstay of endangered and rare species, as well as some invasive weed species. Weed communities of organic farms were dominated mostly by Setaria pumila and Elymus repens, while conventional farms were dominated by Juncus bufonius and Setaria pumila. The study showed the importance of organic farming systems for biodiversity conservation. It was also shown that low-input (traditional) conventional farms are also beneficial for biodiversity conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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16 pages, 1170 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Exotic Tamarix Species on Riparian Plant Biodiversity
by Kgalalelo Tshimologo Annie Setshedi and Solomon Wakshom Newete
Agriculture 2020, 10(9), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10090395 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3172
Abstract
This study investigated the impact of exotic Tamarix species on vascular plant biodiversity in riparian ecosystems in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Vegetation was sampled, using 5 m wide belt transects, along the Leeu, Swart, and Olifants riparian areas, which had varying [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of exotic Tamarix species on vascular plant biodiversity in riparian ecosystems in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Vegetation was sampled, using 5 m wide belt transects, along the Leeu, Swart, and Olifants riparian areas, which had varying invasion intensities. Each transect was split into three zones (Zone 1: 0–15 m; Zone 2: 15–35, and Zone 3: >35 m), which were identified at each site based on species composition across each riparian zone. Woody plant species were identified, counted, and their heights measured within the transects that were laid out from the waterpoint (Zone 1) outwards (Zone 2 and 3). Herbaceous aerial cover (HAC) was determined subjectively and objectified using the Walker aerial cover scale. Leeu River had the highest species richness (Dmg = 2.79), diversity (H′ = 2.17; −lnλ = 1.91; N1 = 8.76 and α = 4.13), and evenness (J′= 0.80). The Swart River had the lowest species richness, which declined from Dmg = 1.96 (Zone 1) to Dmg = 1.82 (Zone 3). Exotic Tamarix species ranked in the top three most abundant woody vascular plant species along the Swart and Olifants rivers, where they ranked first and third, respectively. The Jaccard’s and Sorenson’s coefficients of similarity indicated that species differed greatly between the different sites, x¯ < 27% for both indices. The indices also indicated that the Swart River had the lowest level of species distinctness between zones (x¯ > 80%) while the Leeu River had the highest level of species distinctness (x¯ < 50%) between the different zones. These findings suggest a possible displacement of herbaceous and woody tree species by exotic Tamarix invasion, inter alia, a decrease in ecosystem functions and services associated with the loss in biodiversity, as well as significant bearings on the agricultural ecosystem by reducing the faunal diversity such as crop pollinators, inter alia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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18 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Biological and Agrotechnical Aspects of Weed Control in the Cultivation of Early Potato Cultivars under Cover
by Piotr Pszczółkowski, Piotr Barbaś, Barbara Sawicka and Barbara Krochmal-Marczak
Agriculture 2020, 10(9), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10090373 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
Problems with weed infestation under cover were the reason to conduct research on the regulation of weed infestation in potato cultivation for early harvest. The field experiment was carried out in 2015–2017 at the Experimental Station for Cultivar Assessment in Uhnin (51°34′ N, [...] Read more.
Problems with weed infestation under cover were the reason to conduct research on the regulation of weed infestation in potato cultivation for early harvest. The field experiment was carried out in 2015–2017 at the Experimental Station for Cultivar Assessment in Uhnin (51°34′ N, 23°02′ E) using the method of random subblocks, in a dependent system (split-split-plot). The first order factor was edible potato cultivars ‘Denar’ and ‘Lord’. The second order factor was cultivation technologies: (A) traditional technology, (B) technology using polyethylene film cover, (C) technology using polypropylene agrotextile. The third order factor was weed management methods: (1) mechanical, (2) mechanical and chemical method using Afalon Dispersion 450 SC preparation, (3) mechanical and chemical methods using Racer 250 EC herbicide, and (4) mechanical and chemical methods using a mixture of herbicides Afalon Dispersion 450 SC and Command 480 EC. Mechanical and chemical methods proved to be more effective than the mechanical method. The best effectiveness in limiting both fresh and dry weed mass in potato cultivation under cover was achieved using the mechanical and chemical method using a mixture of herbicides, Afalon Dispersion 450 SC and Command 480 EC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
10 pages, 1734 KiB  
Article
Glyphosate Resistance in Amaranthus viridis in Brazilian Citrus Orchards
by Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Gabriel da Silva Amaral, Guilherme Moraes de Oliveira, Luiz Renato Rufino, Fernando Alves de Azevedo, Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho and Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da Silva
Agriculture 2020, 10(7), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10070304 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3278
Abstract
Glyphosate is the main tool for weed management in Brazilian citrus orchards, where weeds, such as Conyza bonariensis and Digitaria insularis, have been found with resistance to this herbicide. Field prospections have allowed the identification of a possible new case of glyphosate [...] Read more.
Glyphosate is the main tool for weed management in Brazilian citrus orchards, where weeds, such as Conyza bonariensis and Digitaria insularis, have been found with resistance to this herbicide. Field prospections have allowed the identification of a possible new case of glyphosate resistance. In this work, the susceptibility levels to glyphosate on three Amaranthus viridis L. populations, with suspected resistance (R1, R2, and R-IAC), collected in citrus orchards from the São Paulo State, Brazil, as well as their accumulation rates of shikimic acid, were determined. The fresh weight of the susceptible population (S) was reduced by 50% (GR50) with ~30 g ea ha−1 glyphosate, while the GR50 values of the R populations were between 5.4 and 11.3 times higher than that for S population. The LD50 (herbicide dose to kill 50% of individuals of a weed population) values of the S population were ≤150 g ea ha−1 glyphosate, while the LD50 of the R populations ranged from 600 to 920 g ea ha−1. Based on the reduction of fresh weight and the survival rate, the R1 population showed the highest level of glyphosate resistance, which had GR50 and LD50 values of 248 and 918 g ea ha−1 glyphosate, respectively. The S population accumulated 240 µg shikimic acid at 1000 µM glyphosate, while the R1, R2, and R-IAC populations accumulated only 16, 43, and 33 µg shikimic acid, respectively (between 5.6 to 15 times less than the S population). Enzyme activity assays suggested that at least one target site-type mechanism was involved in resistance. This result revealed the first report of glyphosate resistance in A. viridis reported in the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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20 pages, 1564 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Weed Infestation, Grain Health, and Productivity Parameters of Two Spelt Wheat Cultivars Depending on Crop Protection Intensification and Seeding Densities
by Małgorzata Haliniarz, Dorota Gawęda, Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek, Agnieszka Najda, Sylwia Chojnacka, Justyna Łukasz, Łukasz Wlazło and Monika Różańska-Boczula
Agriculture 2020, 10(6), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10060229 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3522
Abstract
Spelt wheat is one of the oldest wheat with very high nutritional value. It does not have particular climatic requirements and tolerates adverse environmental conditions well. The versatile advantages of spelt wheat make it attractive to farmers, plant breeders, food technologists, and consumers. [...] Read more.
Spelt wheat is one of the oldest wheat with very high nutritional value. It does not have particular climatic requirements and tolerates adverse environmental conditions well. The versatile advantages of spelt wheat make it attractive to farmers, plant breeders, food technologists, and consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different crop protection systems and seeding densities on yield, weed infestation, and grain health of the spelt wheat cultivars “Rokosz” and “Schwabenspelz”. The research showed that the spelt wheat cultivars studied responded differently to production intensification. The use of crop protection chemicals in the crop of the cultivar “Rokosz” resulted in lower weed infestation and in obtaining higher yields. In the case of the cultivar “Schwabenspelz”, production intensification did not have a significant effect on its productivity and quantitative weed infestation parameters. Therefore, this cultivar can be recommended for cultivation in farms with extensive farming methods, for example, in organic farms. In both cultivars studied, an increase in seeding density and chemical plant protection with fungicide caused lower grain contamination with mycotoxins, and the content of individual mycotoxins did not exceed the maximum levels set for grain intended for food and animal feed purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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20 pages, 2247 KiB  
Article
Weed Infestation and Health of the Soybean Crop Depending on Cropping System and Tillage System
by Dorota Gawęda, Małgorzata Haliniarz, Urszula Bronowicka-Mielniczuk and Justyna Łukasz
Agriculture 2020, 10(6), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10060208 - 07 Jun 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3229
Abstract
This study evaluated weed infestation and health of the soybean crop grown in crop rotation (CR) and monoculture (CM) under conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) conditions. The research proved that growing soybean in monoculture and under no-tillage conditions increases weed infestation and [...] Read more.
This study evaluated weed infestation and health of the soybean crop grown in crop rotation (CR) and monoculture (CM) under conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) conditions. The research proved that growing soybean in monoculture and under no-tillage conditions increases weed infestation and infection of soybean with fungal diseases. In these treatments, increased numbers of most of the dominant species were also found. A significantly higher percentage of monocotyledonous species and a much lower percentage of dicotyledonous ones in total weed dry weight were shown in the CR treatment relative to CM and in the NT system compared to CT. The biodiversity of the weed community was similar in monoculture and crop rotation, and slightly greater in the NT system in comparison with CT conditions. In both tillage systems, Amaranthus retroflexus was the weed species that most infested the soybean crop. In soybean grown after itself, Amaranthus retroflexus was the weed that occurred in the greatest numbers, while, in crop rotation, this was Echinochloa crus-galli. In all years of the study, soybean was infected with Septoria glycines to the highest degree, which was followed by Cercospora sojina, whereas infection with Ascochyta sp. was the lowest. Weather conditions in individual years of the study were proven to affect weed infestation and infection of soybean with fungal diseases. The study results prove that cropping systems and tillage systems significantly affect weed infestation and health of the soybean crop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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20 pages, 6166 KiB  
Article
Weed Flora and Soil Seed Bank Composition as Affected by Tillage System in Three-Year Crop Rotation
by Beata Feledyn-Szewczyk, Janusz Smagacz, Cezary A. Kwiatkowski, Elżbieta Harasim and Andrzej Woźniak
Agriculture 2020, 10(5), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10050186 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 5768
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest around agricultural science and practice in conservation tillage systems that are compatible with sustainable agriculture. The aim of this study was to assess the qualitative and quantitative changes in weed flora and soil seed [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest around agricultural science and practice in conservation tillage systems that are compatible with sustainable agriculture. The aim of this study was to assess the qualitative and quantitative changes in weed flora and soil seed bank under reduced tillage and no-till (direct sowing) in comparison with traditional ploughing. In the crop rotation: pea/rape—winter wheat—winter wheat the number and dry weight of weeds increased with the simplification of tillage. The seed bank was the largest under direct sowing and about three times smaller in traditional ploughing. Under direct sowing, most weed seeds were accumulated in the top soil layer 0–5 cm, while in the ploughing system most weed seeds occurred in deeper layers: 5–10 and 10–20 cm. In the reduced and no-till systems, a greater percentage of perennial and invasive species, such as Conyza canadensis L., was observed. The results show that it is possible to maintain weed infestation in the no-till system at a level that does not significantly affect winter wheat yield and does not pose a threat of perennial and invasive weeds when effective herbicide protection is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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14 pages, 848 KiB  
Article
Phytotoxic Effect of Herbicides on Various Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] Genotypes and Plant Chlorophyll Fluorescence
by Łukasz Sobiech, Monika Grzanka, Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska and Dominika Radzikowska
Agriculture 2020, 10(5), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10050185 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3761
Abstract
Camelina is an oil plant classified as a minor crop. The small acreage is the main cause of the small amount of plant protection products that are registered for use on camelina plantations. This contributes to difficulties in the protection of this plant. [...] Read more.
Camelina is an oil plant classified as a minor crop. The small acreage is the main cause of the small amount of plant protection products that are registered for use on camelina plantations. This contributes to difficulties in the protection of this plant. In the conducted experiment, the genetic similarity of genotypes of camelina was compared. The effect of selected herbicides (propaquizafop at rate 70 g a.i. ha−1, quizalofop-p-ethyl at rate 50 g a.i. ha−1, clopyralid at rate 90 g a.i. ha−1, and picloram at rate 24 g a.i. ha−1 applied in the three-four-leaves growth stage of camelina) on six individual genotypes of the plant and plant chlorophyll fluorescence after the use of these substances was also determined. The Przybrodzka variety showed the lowest level of damage in the assessment carried out 42 days after herbicide application and the damages of plants after quizalofop-p-ethyl and propaquizafop was completely gone. The variety Przybrodzka had the lowest genetic similarity to all analyzed genotypes. In other cases, genetic similarity of analyzed genotypes could not be linked to herbicide-related damage. Picloram contributed to the greatest damage to test plants and had the greatest impact on the operation of photosystem II (PSII). However, the level of plant chlorophyll fluorescence parameter values indicates small PSII damage for all substances and the possibility of subsequent plant regeneration. The results of the presented research indicate that it is worth referring to several plant varieties in phytotoxicity studies of herbicides towards arable crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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14 pages, 1259 KiB  
Article
Weed Infestation and Health of Organically Grown Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rausch.) Depending on Selected Foliar Sprays and Row Spacing
by Cezary A. Kwiatkowski, Małgorzata Haliniarz and Elżbieta Harasim
Agriculture 2020, 10(5), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10050168 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2982
Abstract
Chamomile is a herbal plant of very high economic importance worldwide. Its organically grown raw material is particularly valuable. Under organic farming conditions, weeds and fungal diseases are an important problem in a chamomile plantation. Seeking agronomic solutions designed to eliminate the occurrence [...] Read more.
Chamomile is a herbal plant of very high economic importance worldwide. Its organically grown raw material is particularly valuable. Under organic farming conditions, weeds and fungal diseases are an important problem in a chamomile plantation. Seeking agronomic solutions designed to eliminate the occurrence of these pathogens in chamomile crops is constantly valid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of some foliar sprays (enhancing the condition of the crop plant and its competition against pathogens) and different row spacing of two chamomile cultivars on weed infestation and health of a chamomile plantation. The study results presented in this paper were collected from field experiments carried out in the organic system in the village of Dys (the central Lublin region, Poland) over the period 2014–2016. Experiments were conducted on podzolic soil (class III) as a split-block design in 3 replicates in plots with an area of 525 m2 (6.25 m2 a single plot). This study included two chamomile cultivars (“Złoty Łan”, “Mastar”). The second experimental factor was single or double foliar application of three bioproducts (Herbagreen Basic, Bio-algeen, Effective Microorganisms—EM Farming). The other experimental factor was a different row spacing of chamomile (40 cm and 30 cm). The obtained study results show that 10–16 annual weed species and 1–3 perennial species occurred in both chamomile cultivars. Foliar application of the bioproducts contributed to a reduction in the total number of weeds in the crop, but at the same time to greater weed species diversity. In the control treatments (without the bioproducts), the dominance of several weed species (Viola arvensis, Galeopsis tetrahit, Spergula arvensis, Juncus bufonius, Scleranthus annuus) and lower biodiversity of the weed flora were observed. The largest reduction (by about 20%) in the number of annual weeds was found under the influence of the bioproducts Herbagreen Basic and Bio-algeen applied once. Bio-algeen and Effective Microorganisms (EM), in turn, had a significant effect on decreasing the weed weight. A narrower (30 cm) row spacing of chamomile had a significant impact on reducing the weight of weeds in chamomile crops compared to the wider spacing, which was 40 cm. It should be concluded that infection of the chamomile plantation with fungal diseases was overall at a low level. Significantly higher infection with fungal diseases was found in the case of the cultivar “Mastar”, regardless of the experimental factors. A statistically proven decrease in infection of chamomile plants with fungal diseases was determined under lower crop density conditions (a row spacing of 40 cm). Chamomile plants were found to exhibit better health under the influence of double application of the biofertilizers Herbagreen Basic and Bio-algeen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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Review

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41 pages, 383 KiB  
Review
Legume Cover Crops as One of the Elements of Strategic Weed Management and Soil Quality Improvement. A Review
by Anna Kocira, Mariola Staniak, Marzena Tomaszewska, Rafał Kornas, Jacek Cymerman, Katarzyna Panasiewicz and Halina Lipińska
Agriculture 2020, 10(9), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10090394 - 05 Sep 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 8251
Abstract
The benefits of conservation practices increased the interest of farmers in the cultivation of cover crops (CCs). This review aims to present and analyze the state of the art on the cultivation of legume CCs, including their importance in protecting crops against weeds, [...] Read more.
The benefits of conservation practices increased the interest of farmers in the cultivation of cover crops (CCs). This review aims to present and analyze the state of the art on the cultivation of legume CCs, including their importance in protecting crops against weeds, as well as their effects on organic matter and nitrogen content in the soil, physical and biological properties of the soil, and its erosion. The multi-purpose character of legume CCs is visible in their positive effect on reducing weed infestation, but also on the soil: reducing its compaction and erosion, improving its structural and hydraulic properties, increasing the content of organic matter and activity of soil microorganisms, or increasing its nitrogen content due to symbiotic N2 fixing. This review demonstrates that a wider use of legume CCs in organic farming is needed. The benefits of legume CCs for successive crops in these cultivation conditions, both in terms of inhibiting weed populations and improving fertility and soil properties, also need to be identified. Further research is also needed to determine the potential impact of legume CCs on the improvement of the quality of degraded soils, or those with less favorable physicochemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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