Biological Control for Plant Disease

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Protection, Diseases, Pests and Weeds".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 June 2023) | Viewed by 13056

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Plant Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan
Interests: biological control; fermentation; plant pathogenic bacteria; plant immunity; plant pathology

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912301, Taiwan
Interests: molecular diagnosis; phytopathology; biological control; disease management; plasma sterilization technology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of means for plant disease control is an important topic for researchers in the agricultural sciences. The use of fungicides is also an extremely important method to reduce the occurrence of plant diseases. However, under the concerns on environmental friendliness and food safety, the grower is gradually turning to developing integrated strategies to manage plant diseases. Under this demand, biological control has become one of the most important development directions. The biological control of plant diseases is mainly based on the use of microorganisms with different functions on plants to reduce the occurrence of diseases, and even a variety of biological control agents have been commercialized and implemented in the field.

This Special Issue focuses on reducing the occurrence of plant diseases in functional microorganisms by the application of biocontrol agents to crops in the greenhouse/field. This Special Issue on Biological Control for Plant Diseases will include interdisciplinary studies, including microbiology, plant pathology, and fermentation. Research articles will cover a broad range of disease control by using biological control agents on crops. All types of articles, such as original research and reviews are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Yi-Hsien Lin
Dr. Ying-Hong Lin
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • agricultural management
  • antagonistic activity
  • beneficial microorganisms
  • biocontrol agents
  • fermentation
  • induced resistance
  • plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 3498 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Efficacy of the Fermentation Formula of Bacillus velezensis Strain Tcb43 in Controlling Cucumber Powdery Mildew
by Chien-Chih Kuo, Yi-Chiao Huang and Wen-Ling Deng
Agriculture 2023, 13(8), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13081558 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Powdery mildew is a prevalent disease that affects cucumber crops, leading to yield reductions and declines in quality. Bacillus sp. strain Tcb43 culture medium was shown to be capable of inhibiting fungal spore germination in previous reports. In this study, the identification of [...] Read more.
Powdery mildew is a prevalent disease that affects cucumber crops, leading to yield reductions and declines in quality. Bacillus sp. strain Tcb43 culture medium was shown to be capable of inhibiting fungal spore germination in previous reports. In this study, the identification of the Tcb43 strain was updated to Bacillus velezensis by using whole-genome sequencing. The strain exhibited tolerance to a wide range of temperatures (12–40 °C), salinities (7–10%), and pH levels (ranging from 5 to 11). Additionally, Tcb43 demonstrated insensitivity to most tested fungicides. A new fermentation formula, Tcb43FBSO, was developed by adding 0.25% soybean oil to the fermented formula (Tcb43FB). This new formula exhibited a shelf life of up to 12 months with the decrease in bacterial count from 5.35 × 108 to 1.97 × 108 cfu/mL. Greenhouse assays showed that the treatment of potted cucumber plants with a 100-fold dilution (100×) of Tcb43FBSO for four weeks resulted in a significant reduction (64.64%) of cucumber powdery mildew compared to the mock group. In large-scale greenhouse trials, the treatment of cucumber plants with 200× of Tcb43FBSO for 5 weeks effectively suppressed powdery mildew disease, with a control rate that reached 76.6% compared to the mock group. These findings highlight the potential of Tcb43 as a biocontrol agent for managing cucumber powdery mildew and suggest its promising application in agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control for Plant Disease)
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14 pages, 1788 KiB  
Article
Developing Fermentation Liquid of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PMB04 to Control Bacterial Leaf Spot of Sweet Pepper
by Fei Wang, Szu-Han Chao, Chen-Hsuan Tsai, Sabrina Diana Blanco, Yung-Yu Yang and Yi-Hsien Lin
Agriculture 2023, 13(7), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13071456 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
Sweet pepper is an important vegetable in the world. Bacterial leaf spot, caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas perforans, is a limiting factor that significantly reduces the quality and yield of sweet peppers. The use of chemical fungicides is currently the main disease-control [...] Read more.
Sweet pepper is an important vegetable in the world. Bacterial leaf spot, caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas perforans, is a limiting factor that significantly reduces the quality and yield of sweet peppers. The use of chemical fungicides is currently the main disease-control method for bacterial leaf spot disease. It is important to develop an eco-friendly biocontrol method by using antagonistic microorganisms. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PMB04 has strong antagonistic effects against pathogens and can inhibit the occurrence of diseases. B. amyloliquefaciens PMB04 has the potential for the development of a disease-control product. Primarily, PMB04 contained a strong inhibitory effect against all isolated X. perforans strains. In the inoculation assay, the severity of bacterial leaf spot disease on sweet peppers was reduced by PMB04 bacterial suspensions. To increase the convenience of field applications in future prospects, the development of the PMB04 fermentation liquid was carried out using different ratios of brown sugar and yeast extract in a 30 L fermentation tank. The results exhibited that the fermentation liquid of the 3-1 and 2-1 formulas obtained the highest bacterial population in a 30 L fermentation tank. The fermentation liquid of the 0.5-0.5 formula was the most stable formula for two different conditions in terms of a consistent bacterial population and sporulation. In addition, the 200-fold dilution of the 3-1 and 0.5-0.5 fermentation liquids revealed the best control efficacy on bacterial leaf spot disease of sweet peppers. Additionally, the results of the 0.5-0.5 fermentation liquid (PMB4FL) with different dilution concentrations also demonstrated that the 200- and 500-fold dilutions had the best control efficacy. To understand the effect of commonly used copper-containing fungicides on sweet peppers on the application of microbial agent PMB4FL, the effects of copper hydroxide and tribasic copper sulfate on the growth of X. perforans strains and B. amyloliquefaciens PMB04 were assayed. The results exhibited that the above two fungicides did not have any inhibitory effect on the growth of PMB04 but had a strong inhibitory effect on the X. perforans strain. In the follow-up control experiment, the treatment of copper hydroxide had no synergistic effect with PMB4FL to control bacterial leaf spot disease. We concluded that the use of the PMB4FL fermentation liquid alone on the leaves could effectively control the occurrence of bacterial leaf spots in sweet pepper crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control for Plant Disease)
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14 pages, 2404 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Bio-Friendly Formulations from Siderophore-Producing Fluorescent Pseudomonas as Biocontrol Agents for the Management of Soil-Borne Fungi, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani
by Gaber Attia Abo-Zaid, Ahmed Salah Abdullah, Nadia Abdel-Mohsen Soliman, Ebaa Ebrahim El-Sharouny, Abdulaziz A. Al-Askar, Yiming Su, Ahmed Abdelkhalek and Soraya Abdel-Fattah Sabry
Agriculture 2023, 13(7), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13071418 - 18 Jul 2023
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Abstract
Secretion of siderophores by Pseudomonas aeruginosa F2 and P. fluorescens JY3 was evaluated on chrome azurol S (CAS) agar plates and their inhibitory effect was inspected against Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Production of siderophores as biocontrol agents from F2 and [...] Read more.
Secretion of siderophores by Pseudomonas aeruginosa F2 and P. fluorescens JY3 was evaluated on chrome azurol S (CAS) agar plates and their inhibitory effect was inspected against Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Production of siderophores as biocontrol agents from F2 and JY3 was accomplished in two optimized media. Afterward, cell-free supernatants of the bacterial cultures containing siderophores were used for the preparation of two bio-friendly formulations for the management of F. oxysporum and R. solani under greenhouse conditions. The investigated bacterial isolates, F2 and JY3, showed antagonistic activity in vitro against F. oxysporum and R. solani and produced siderophores in optimized media with high efficiency. Colonies of both bacterial isolates were grown exponentially with a constant specific growth rate of 0.07 h−1 and 0.27 h−1, correspondingly. Siderophores estimated in 10 µL reached their highest value of 16.95% at 47 h and 19.5% at 48 h for isolate F2 and JY3, respectively. Formulations of siderophore-generating F2 and JY3 reduced damping-off caused by F. oxysporum by 40% and 80%, while the reduction percentage of damping-off caused by R. solani reached 87.5% and 62.5%, correspondingly. Moreover, both formulations encouraged the growing of wheat plants where the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were increased compared to the treatment with each fungus. In conclusion, bio-friendly formulations resulting from this investigation can play an active role in managing soil-borne diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control for Plant Disease)
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14 pages, 4896 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis Czk1 Metabolites by LC–MS/MS and Their Antifungal Potential against Pyrrhoderma noxium Causing Brow Rot Disease
by Yanqiong Liang, Weihuai Wu, Rui Li, Ying Lu, Guihua Wang, Shibei Tan, Helong Chen, Jingen Xi, Xing Huang, Chunping He and Kexian Yi
Agriculture 2023, 13(7), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13071396 - 14 Jul 2023
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Abstract
Brown rot disease caused by Pyrrhoderma noxium is a widespread disease that severely affects the roots of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). The economic losses, along with environmental and health problems arising from the use of disease control chemicals, have raised [...] Read more.
Brown rot disease caused by Pyrrhoderma noxium is a widespread disease that severely affects the roots of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). The economic losses, along with environmental and health problems arising from the use of disease control chemicals, have raised the interest of scholars to explore the use of biological control agents for the effective control of fungal pathogen P. noxium. Here, the inhibition effect of the culture filtrate of B. subtilis Czk1 on P. noxium was demonstrated. The findings indicate that the antifungal activity of this strain is mediated wholly or partly by compounds produced in the culture filtrate. The combined use of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and antifungal activity assays rapidly identified compounds produced by B. subtilis Czk1. Metabolic profiles were assessed and used to identify major metabolites based on the scores of variable importance in the projection and the plot scores of principal component analysis. A total of 296 differential metabolites were screened, including 208 in positive ion mode and 88 in negative ion mode. Two key metabolites, diacetyl and trans-2-octenoic acid, were screened from 29 metabolites by antifungal activity assays. The median effective concentration (EC50) of trans-2-octenoic acid and diacetyl were 0.9075 mg/mL and 4.8213 mg/mL, respectively. The antifungal metabolites can disrupt the internal structure of the pathogenic fungal mycelium, thereby impeding its growth. This study is expected to contribute to the existing knowledge of Czk1-produced metabolites and their future antifungal applications. This study is also expected to provide a new biopreservative perspective on unexplored antifungal metabolites produced by Czk1 as a biocontrol agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control for Plant Disease)
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15 pages, 3055 KiB  
Article
Seed Treatment with Calcium Carbonate Containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PMB05 Powder Is an Efficient Way to Control Black Rot Disease of Cabbage
by Chia-Yu Hsiao, Sabrina Diana Blanco, An-Li Peng, Ju-Yin Fu, Bo-Wei Chen, Min-Chia Luo, Xing-Yu Xie and Yi-Hsien Lin
Agriculture 2023, 13(5), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13050926 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
Black rot disease is a serious bacterial disease that harms vegetable crops of the Brassica genus (especially cabbage plants) worldwide. The causal agent, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), is a seed-borne pathogen that primarily infects seedlings. Previous studies suggest that the bacterial strain, [...] Read more.
Black rot disease is a serious bacterial disease that harms vegetable crops of the Brassica genus (especially cabbage plants) worldwide. The causal agent, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), is a seed-borne pathogen that primarily infects seedlings. Previous studies suggest that the bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PMB05, can intensify the plant immune responses of cabbage against black rot disease and reduce disease occurrence. In plant immunity, several reactions occur during a pathogen attack, but the elevation of calcium ion concentration in plant cells is essential in the induction of plant defense responses. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether disease control of black rot disease in cabbage plants can be improved by integrating calcium carbonate in the formulation for preparing B. amyloliquefaciens PMB05. Firstly, we found the addition of calcium carbonate in the formulation revealed to have significantly increased the cell and endospore populations of B. amyloliquefaciens PMB05 in the fermentation liquids. To increase the convenience of disease control in the field, these fermentation liquids were converted to powder form for subsequent analysis. Results revealed that the grown seedlings from seeds, mixed with PMB05 powders, significantly intensified plant immune responses and improved black rot disease control. We further compared distinct seed treatments using one PMB05 powder to evaluate its feasibility in field application. The results demonstrated that the disease control efficacy and yield of cabbage were significantly improved in the seed treatment with the powder (SD-160C2) to 56.46% and 5.91%, respectively, at 10 weeks post transplanting. Interestingly, the seed treatment combined with a calcium-containing commercial fertilizer spraying treatment did not increase the control efficacy of black rot disease, but it significantly increased the weight of cabbages after harvest. We concluded that the seed treatment with calcium carbonate-containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PMB05 powder is an efficient way to control black rot disease in cabbage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control for Plant Disease)
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16 pages, 2477 KiB  
Article
From Endophyte Community Analysis to Field Application: Control of Apple Canker (Neonectria ditissima) with Epicoccum nigrum B14-1
by Matevz Papp-Rupar, Leone Olivieri, Robert Saville, Thomas Passey, Jennifer Kingsnorth, Georgina Fagg, Hamish McLean and Xiangming Xu
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040809 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Apple canker, caused by Neonectria ditissima (Tul. and C. Tul.) Samuels and Rossman, is a major disease of apples (Malus domestica) worldwide. N. ditissima infects through natural and artificial wounds. Infected wood develops canker lesions which girdle branches and main stems [...] Read more.
Apple canker, caused by Neonectria ditissima (Tul. and C. Tul.) Samuels and Rossman, is a major disease of apples (Malus domestica) worldwide. N. ditissima infects through natural and artificial wounds. Infected wood develops canker lesions which girdle branches and main stems causing reduced yield and tree death. N. ditissima is difficult to control; removal of inoculum (cankers) is expensive and therefore seldom practiced, whilst effective chemical products are being banned and no biocontrol products have been found to be effective against N. ditissima. This study used cues from a previous apple endophyte community analysis to isolate and test fungal endophytes belonging to the genus Epicoccum as potential endophytic biocontrol agents. Epicoccum nigrum B14-1, isolated from healthy apple trees, antagonised N. ditissima in vitro and reduced the incidence of N. ditissima infections of leaf scars by 46.6% and pruning wounds by 5.3% in field conditions at leaf fall. Autumn application of B14-1 conidia increased E. nigrum abundance in apple tissues at 10–20 days post-inoculation by ca. 1.5×, but this returned to control levels after one year. E. nigrum B14-1 did not cause detrimental effects on apple foliage, buds, fruit, or growth and could therefore present a new biocontrol agent to manage N. ditissima in commercial apple production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control for Plant Disease)
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15 pages, 2256 KiB  
Article
Selection, Formulation, and Field Evaluation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PMB01 for Its Application to Manage Tomato Bacterial Wilt Disease
by Hau-Ping Chou, Yi-Chiao Huang, Yi-Hsien Lin and Wen-Ling Deng
Agriculture 2022, 12(10), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12101714 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3052
Abstract
Bacterial wilt caused by the soil-borne pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most devastating diseases in solanaceous plants. No agrochemicals are available to manage bacterial wilt effectively. A Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain designated PMB01 was recovered from the cabbage rhizosphere and was found [...] Read more.
Bacterial wilt caused by the soil-borne pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most devastating diseases in solanaceous plants. No agrochemicals are available to manage bacterial wilt effectively. A Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain designated PMB01 was recovered from the cabbage rhizosphere and was found to be capable of inhibiting the growth of R. solanacearum. The PMB01 strain was highly resistant to extreme pH, heat, high salt salinity, and various fungicides. In contrast, PMB01 was sensitive to copper-based compounds, streptomycin, and tetracycline. The efficacy of the PMB01 strain in suppressing R. solanacearum and bacterial wilt in tomatoes was significantly improved when the culture medium was supplemented with 1% (w/v) soybean meal. PMB01 was in a 500-liter tank for the pilot production, and the resultant broth could effectively reduce the severity of tomato bacterial wilt in greenhouse trials. The PMB01 fermentation broth was mixed with 10% corn starch and 30% maltodextrin to make a wettable powder (WP). PMB01 could survive in the wettable powder for more than two years without losing its antagonistic activity. In ten field trials, tomato plants treated with 50, 100, or 200-fold dilutions of PMB01 WP reduced bacterial wilt severity by more than 67% compared to the mock (water control) treatment. This work revealed that the effectiveness of the rhizobacterium PMB01 to antagonize R. solanacearum was greatly improved when the culture medium was supplemented with 1% (w/v) soybean meal, indicating that PMB01 is an ideal bio-agent candidate. A durable format suitable for storage was also developed. Similar concepts may be applied to other bio-agent candidates to improve their effectiveness in disease management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control for Plant Disease)
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