Crop Seed Dormancy, Germination and Vigour Analysis and Seed Proteomics

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Seed Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2023) | Viewed by 12882

Special Issue Editors

Institute of Agronomy, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter Károly u.1, 2100 Gödöllő, Pest, Hungary
Interests: crop production; grain crops; quality; physiology
Institute of Agronomy, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter Károly u.1, 2100 Gödöllő, Pest, Hungary
Interests: soil management; adaptable soil tillage; nutrient management; crop production; impacts of climate change
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute of Agronomy, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter Károly u.1, 2100 Gödöllő, Pest, Hungary
Interests: crop production; management techniques; field trials; variety-specific experiments

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

"Civilisation depends for continuance on the seed saved each year for planting the next." This evergreen statement of J.F. Cox focuses on the importance of seed propagation, and on the value of crop seed. The Special Issue is intended to cover a broad spectrum within seed production. Unlike conventional seed propagation studies, this volume would highlight problem areas of seed production. The first of them is seed dormancy that is rather diverse according to crop species as well as management techniques. The other field of the present volume is dedicated to viability including all genetic and agronomic factors of germination and vigour. A novel field of seed science is represented by proteomics and other biochemical characteristics that may influence the success of seed production and propagation. Finally abiotic and biotic factors of seed storage and postharvest manipulations are to be discussed.

Prof. Dr. Márton Jolánkai
Dr. Zoltán Kende
Dr. Ákos Tarnawa
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • seed production
  • seed propagation
  • dormancy
  • viability
  • vigour
  • proteomics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 430 KiB  
Editorial
Agronomic Impacts on the Performance of Field Crop Seed (Introduction)
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040777 - 27 Mar 2023
Viewed by 850
Abstract
“Civilisation depends for continuance on the seed saved each year for planting the next” [...] Full article
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

17 pages, 6435 KiB  
Article
Deciphering Genomic Regions and Putative Candidate Genes for Grain Size and Shape Traits in Durum Wheat through GWAS
Agriculture 2023, 13(10), 1882; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13101882 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Durum wheat is an economically and nutritionally important cereal. The increase in durum wheat yield is mostly associated with improving grain traits, and the grain size- and shape-related traits are directly related to wheat yield. In addition, grain size influences the seed germination [...] Read more.
Durum wheat is an economically and nutritionally important cereal. The increase in durum wheat yield is mostly associated with improving grain traits, and the grain size- and shape-related traits are directly related to wheat yield. In addition, grain size influences the seed germination rate and seedling vigor, which play key roles in stand establishment and yield. Thus, it is important to investigate grain traits both agro-morphologically and genetically. In this study, a panel of durum wheat, consisting of 146 genotypes, was evaluated for grain traits agro-morphologically and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to dissect the genomic regions associated with these traits. As a result of the GWAS, a total of 41 marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified on different chromosomes of durum wheat. Of these MTAs, only 11 were stable across environments. A BLAST search for the flanking sequences of every stable MTA in the Svevo genome identified 18 putative candidate genes directly associated with the seed traits of different plants, particularly wheat seeds. In conclusion, the annotation results and literature information provide strong evidence that the identified stable MTAs and their candidate genes may have important functions in the formation of wheat grain traits. After the validation of these MTAs with different fine-mapping and functional characterization studies, these loci may provide valuable information for geneticists and breeders to improve wheat yield. Full article
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15 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Soilless Culture Applications for Early Development of Soybean Crop (Glycine max L. Merr)
Agriculture 2023, 13(9), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13091713 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 844
Abstract
Soilless cultivation systems in a controlled environment are increasingly being used due to several global issues such as climate change, pest and disease problems, declining soil fertility quality and limited agricultural land. Soybean is one of the potential crops that can be grown [...] Read more.
Soilless cultivation systems in a controlled environment are increasingly being used due to several global issues such as climate change, pest and disease problems, declining soil fertility quality and limited agricultural land. Soybean is one of the potential crops that can be grown using the soilless planting system in a controlled environment. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of nutrient concentrations on the early development of two soybean varieties. Four different nutrient concentrations (0%, 50%, 100% and 150%) were applied, and two soybean varieties (Martina and Johanna) were tested. This study was designed in a split-plot experimental design where the nutrient concentration was the main plot and the variety was the sub-plot. The data record was started after fertilization. The plant growth data were collected for five weeks. All the data were analyzed statistically using SPSS V.23 software. The results of the study found that the nutrient concentration affected the number of leaves and leaf area. The number of leaves was higher in the treatment using 100% and 150% nutrients. Meanwhile, the leaf area increased with increasing nutrient concentration from 0% to 150%. The nutrient concentration then interacted with the variety in influencing the plant height. The plant height of the Martina variety was higher than the Johanna variety when 0% and 100% nutrients were applied. The variety also affected the leaf area and interacted with the number of weeks in affecting the SPAD readings and number of leaves. Thus, the two tested varieties (Johanna and Martina) have distinct early growth patterns that differ from one another as affected by the nutrient concentrations and plant age (number of weeks). Full article
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16 pages, 3636 KiB  
Article
Germination and Seedling Development Responses of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seeds to Temperature and Different Levels of Water Availability
Agriculture 2023, 13(3), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13030608 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5277
Abstract
Abiotic variables are crucial for seed germination and seedling development. In the present work, we attempted to determine the optimal conditions (temperature, water, seed density, and fungal growth) for sunflower seed development (Helianthus annus L. Larissza). The germination of sunflower seeds was [...] Read more.
Abiotic variables are crucial for seed germination and seedling development. In the present work, we attempted to determine the optimal conditions (temperature, water, seed density, and fungal growth) for sunflower seed development (Helianthus annus L. Larissza). The germination of sunflower seeds was investigated under controlled conditions at eight consistent temperatures: 5 °C, 10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C. For the water test, there were 12 water levels based on one-milliliter intervals and 18 water levels based on thousand kernel weight (TKW). In addition, four seed densities (6, 8, 10, and 12) and two antifungal application techniques (sterilization and growing medium) were examined. The results showed that temperature has a significant effect on seed germination, germination timing, and seedling development. Temperatures between 15 and 35 degrees Celsius were optimal for germination, with 25 degrees Celsius being the optimal temperature for significant germination and seedling development. Beginning at 0.6 mL, or 125% of the TKW, sunflower seeds can germinate under a wide range of water availability. The optimal range for seedling development (8.2–11.4) is wider than the optimal range for dry matter accumulation, which is 5.8–8.2 mL or 1000–1625% of the TKW. The finding that a density of 10 to 12 seeds per 9 cm Petri dish demonstrates the most exceptional values is advantageous for future research and breeding projects, particularly when seeds are scarce. Seed priming is a more effective antifungal application technique than other techniques. Full article
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13 pages, 3887 KiB  
Communication
Evaluation of Abnormal Hypocotyl Growth of Mutant Capsicum annuum Plants
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020481 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Horticulture is a dynamically evolving and an ever-changing sector which needs new ideas, plant materials, and cultivating methods to produce more. Involving different mutants in breeding lines may lead to new opportunities to create new cultivating methods. pcx (procumbent plant) and tti (tortuosa [...] Read more.
Horticulture is a dynamically evolving and an ever-changing sector which needs new ideas, plant materials, and cultivating methods to produce more. Involving different mutants in breeding lines may lead to new opportunities to create new cultivating methods. pcx (procumbent plant) and tti (tortuosa internodi) Capsicum annuum mutant plants, which present abnormal stem growth, were investigated in various in vitro experiments. The pcx breeding line presents highly diverse hypocotyl growth even in the early phenophase, such as normally growing plants and the ‘laying’ habit. On the other hand, tti plants only present their elongated slender stem trait in a more mature phase. In our experiment of reorientation, we used one-sided illumination, where each of the phenotypes sensed and reacted to light, and only the pcx plants exhibited a negative gravitropic response. It was also the result that the tti plants sensed gravity, but the weak structure of the hypocotyls made them incapable of following its direction. Since the pcx plants were the only ones with an ‘antigravitropic’ growth, we used them to evaluate the time course they needed to adapt and follow the gravity vector after reorientation. The pcx plants sensing gravity adapted similarly to controls and started bending after 120 min, but those which presented as ‘anti-gravitropic’ did not respond even after 420 min. Full article
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17 pages, 2343 KiB  
Article
Effects of Nutrient Supply and Seed Size on Germination Parameters and Yield in the Next Crop Year of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020419 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
Winter wheat is one of the most important crops globally and also in Hungary. Hungary has excellent crop production potential including seed production. The aim of our experiment is to determine the effects of different amounts and proportions of nutrients and those of [...] Read more.
Winter wheat is one of the most important crops globally and also in Hungary. Hungary has excellent crop production potential including seed production. The aim of our experiment is to determine the effects of different amounts and proportions of nutrients and those of the seed size of winter wheat in laboratory seed tests on the seed parameters (germination percentage, germination power, seedling health and vigour), as well as in field tests of the seed parameters (emergence percentage and yield of next crop year). Laboratory seed tests of winter wheat variety GK Petur were conducted with seeds that underwent ten nutrient treatments and of three seed size fractions over four crop years, together with field experiments in three growing seasons. Compared to the untreated control group, N treatments significantly decreased the health of the seedlings in the next generation of winter wheat. PK treatments without N increased the germination percentage, vigour value and emergence percentage significantly, but the health of the seedlings decreased. In contrast, NPK treatments with a ratio of 2:1:1 improved all the tested parameters compared to those of the control group. The increase in seed sizes significantly increased the germination power, seedling health, vigour value, emergence percentage and the yield of the next crop year. It can be concluded that the factors of nutrient supply, crop year of the seed production and the seed size significantly influence the quality of the seed (germination percentage, germination power, seedling health, vigour and emergence percentage), thus also the yield of the next generation. Full article
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18 pages, 2508 KiB  
Article
Potential Biochemical Markers Affecting Aging and “the Compensatory Effects” of Canola (Brassica napus L.) Seeds Stored in Deep Underground
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020320 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Understanding the impact of deep underground environment on seed storage is an essential prerequisite for realizing the idea of “deep underground agriculture”. To explain the changes in seed germination performance after deep underground storage, we examined the biochemical properties of envelope-packed canola seeds [...] Read more.
Understanding the impact of deep underground environment on seed storage is an essential prerequisite for realizing the idea of “deep underground agriculture”. To explain the changes in seed germination performance after deep underground storage, we examined the biochemical properties of envelope-packed canola seeds stored for three different durations (66, 90, and 227 days) in four different depths (0, 240, 690, and 1410 m) of a gold mine. Results showed that deep underground storage duration was the leading cause of biochemical properties changes of canola seed, while storage depth exacerbated such changes. Deep underground environment significantly suppressed seed superoxide dismutase (SOD) and soluble sugar (SS), which could be the main reason for the accelerated loss of seed vigor. The appearance of the “compensatory effect” was mainly attributed to the increase in seed growth hormone and the decrease in abscisic acid (ABA) content. The most significant enhancement in growth hormone content was observed in seeds stored at a depth of 1410 m for 66 days, where indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA), and cytokinin (CTK) increased by 63.37%, 21.77%, and 79.36%, respectively. In this study, short-term deep underground storage could enhance seedling growth, but the recommended storage duration for canola seeds should not be longer than 90 days. Full article
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