Political and Economic Development in Rural Areas of Developing Countries

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Economics, Policies and Rural Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2023) | Viewed by 10094

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Politics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Interests: political economy; governance; human capital; social mobility; economic history
Department of Economics, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
Interests: political economy; human capital; public sector; service delivery; agricultural productivity; property rights; clientelism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rural areas in developing countries are potentially politically marginalized, i.e., receive subpar service delivery, for two reasons. First, clientelism implies political representatives offer targeted benefits to gain political support, averting broad public good provision. Second, barriers to collective action due to lack of information or coordination precludes rural groups from demanding improved service delivery. Enhancing agricultural productivity is fundamentally dependent on improving the delivery of infrastructure and services to rural areas. Despite this documented marginalization of rural areas from the provision of key services, there is emerging evidence that political are paying attention to rural areas. 

This Special Issue focuses on service delivery in rural areas, and recent trends in the incentives of government service providers in delivering rural services. It welcomes highly interdisciplinary quality studies from disparate research fields including agriculture, political economy, governance, environmental policy, and development and labor economics. Original research articles and reviews are accepted.

Prof. Dr. Leonard Wantchekon
Dr. Sabrin Beg
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • governance
  • rural development
  • decentralization
  • state capacity
  • land and property rights
  • clientelism and patronage

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 709 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Consumption Structure of Livestock Products among Rural Chinese Residents: Household Characteristics and Regional Heterogeneity
by Furong Chen, Tongyang Wei and Ning Zhu
Agriculture 2023, 13(9), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13091839 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Livestock products provide essential micro-nutrients and animal protein to rural residents. Upgrading the consumption pattern of livestock products is not only crucial for improving rural residents’ health and quality of life but also for achieving food security and a healthy China under the [...] Read more.
Livestock products provide essential micro-nutrients and animal protein to rural residents. Upgrading the consumption pattern of livestock products is not only crucial for improving rural residents’ health and quality of life but also for achieving food security and a healthy China under the “Great Food View” development concept. To identify the characteristics and determinants of residents’ livestock products consumption structure in rural China, we used the Logit model to empirically analyze the key factors affecting rural residents’ consumption structure of livestock products from the perspective of household characteristics and regional heterogeneity using a survey data of 4529 rural residents across 10 provinces. The findings reveal that, firstly, rural residents consume a variety of livestock product categories, predominantly meat, meat-egg, meat-milk, and meat-egg-milk. Secondly, the family characteristics of the number of people eating at home, education level, access to food nutrition and health information, ethnicity, and age structure significantly affect the consumption structure of livestock products among rural residents. Thirdly, self-raising of livestock and poultry can support rural residents’ consumption of livestock products. Fourthly, there are notable variations in the consumption structure of livestock products between different regions. Based on this, we suggest strategies to optimize and support the consumption structure of livestock products for rural residents, such as promoting consumption upgrading, advocating market segmentation for livestock products, and improving regional self-sufficiency. Full article
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28 pages, 939 KiB  
Article
How Do Support Pressure and Urban Housing Purchase Affect the Homecoming Decisions of Rural Migrant Workers? Evidence from Rural China
by Lei Niu, Lulu Yuan, Zhongmin Ding and Yifu Zhao
Agriculture 2023, 13(8), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13081473 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Talent revitalization is the basis of rural revitalization, and the return of migrant workers to their hometowns is a critical way to improve rural human capital. Based on the perspective of individual–family interaction and collaboration, we constructed a theoretical model for maximizing the [...] Read more.
Talent revitalization is the basis of rural revitalization, and the return of migrant workers to their hometowns is a critical way to improve rural human capital. Based on the perspective of individual–family interaction and collaboration, we constructed a theoretical model for maximizing the net benefits of rural migrant workers. Then, we use it to explore the impact of family support pressure and urban housing purchase on individuals’ homecoming decisions. Firstly, we find the odds ratio of migrant workers with support pressure to return home is 14.013 times higher than those without, and the odds ratio of migrant workers with urban housing is 42.94% lower than those without. Secondly, in the process of supporting, the family, as a link between individuals and rural society, can enhance the connection for migrant workers, thus promoting their return behavior. The mediating effect of hometown connection is 1.342, accounting for 50.83% of the total effect. However, buying a house in the city reduces individuals’ homecoming behaviors by encouraging “trailing spouse”. Thirdly, individuals’ homecoming intention is not consistent with their behavior. The moderating effect of a future house purchase plan changes the influence of support pressure on individuals’ intention to return home to some extent. Finally, we should further strengthen rural infrastructure construction and elderly care service supply to reasonably guide capable and willing talents to return to the township. This study provides some implications for the revitalization of rural talent. Full article
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24 pages, 16227 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Evolution of Land Use Efficiency in Southwest Mountain Area of China: A Case Study of Yunnan Province
by Shu Wang and Fenglian Liu
Agriculture 2023, 13(7), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13071343 - 02 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
The study of land use efficiency (LUE) evaluation and coupled coordination (CC) relationships under the perspective of urbanization can reasonably allocate land resources and contribute to the solution for agriculture, rural areas, and farmers. The LUE evaluation index system is constructed in three [...] Read more.
The study of land use efficiency (LUE) evaluation and coupled coordination (CC) relationships under the perspective of urbanization can reasonably allocate land resources and contribute to the solution for agriculture, rural areas, and farmers. The LUE evaluation index system is constructed in three aspects: economy, society, and ecology. Then the LUE and CC degrees of Yunnan Province from 2010 to 2020 are measured, and the characteristics of LUE and the relationship of CC in each administrative region at each level are analyzed in space. Besides, the overall LUE and CC relationship in Yunnan Province is described. The study concludes that (1) The urbanization process in Yunnan Province is accelerating, unused land is decreasing, and construction land is increasing. (2) During the study period, the LUE of Kunming was much higher than that of other regions. The economic efficiency of the inner circle cities centered on Kunming is higher, while the economic efficiency of the outer circle cities is lower; social efficiency is increasing year by year except for Nujiang and Diqing, showing a higher pattern in the east than in the west; ecological efficiency is not increasing year by year except for Kunming, Qujing, and Lijiang, showing a higher pattern in the east than in the west; comprehensive efficiency is on the rise, with Kunming and Qujing leading the way with the overall pattern of “east > central > west”. The high-value area is relatively stable, and the low-value area has a clear tendency to shift eastward. (3) The coupling level of economic, social, and ecological efficiency of land use in administrative regions of Yunnan Province is low, but the coupling relationship is gradually optimized, showing the “contiguous effect” and realizing the state of extreme disorder to severe disorder in a large area. (4) The overall CC of three subsystems in Yunnan Province shows a fluctuating upward trend; the comprehensive efficiency index has an upward trend except for a slight decrease in 2017–2018; from 2010 to 2019, ecological and social efficiency is better than economic efficiency. Full article
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23 pages, 7724 KiB  
Article
Has Rural Public Services Weakened Population Migration in the Sichuan–Chongqing Region? Spatiotemporal Association Patterns and Their Influencing Factors
by Qianli Zhou, Shaoyao Zhang, Wei Deng and Junfeng Wang
Agriculture 2023, 13(7), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13071300 - 26 Jun 2023
Viewed by 885
Abstract
The association between rural public services (RPSs) and population migration (PM) has become a key aspect of rapid urbanization in developing countries and an important breakthrough for improving rural–urban relations. An in-depth analysis of the heterogeneity of the weakening effect of RPSs on [...] Read more.
The association between rural public services (RPSs) and population migration (PM) has become a key aspect of rapid urbanization in developing countries and an important breakthrough for improving rural–urban relations. An in-depth analysis of the heterogeneity of the weakening effect of RPSs on PM at different transformation phases and the internal mechanism of the evolution of association patterns driven by RPSs and PM helps to ensure better co-ordinated urban and rural development. This paper establishes an interactive analysis framework for measuring the spatiotemporal association and regional differences between RPSs and PM in the Sichuan–Chongqing region (SCR), and reveals the influence mechanism by employing multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR). The results indicate that the association rapidly increased with clear spatial heterogeneity across topographic units and the weakening effect of RPSs on PM begin to diverge during the urban–rural transition. The natural, economic, social, and urban–rural disparity factors in terms of the association exhibit significant spatial variability. In mountainous areas, where topography dominates, RPSs fail to effectively weaken rural migration. However, in the plain areas, urbanization is the main driver of urban–rural transition, and the adaptive upgrading and transformation of RPSs has made their weakening effect stronger, thus alleviating rural exodus and increasing population concentration. All these findings show that differentiated optimization strategies adhering to the association trends should be proposed for a deeper integration of rural revitalization and new urbanization in the SCR. Full article
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17 pages, 1586 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Social Capital at the Community and Individual Levels on Farmers’ Participation in the Rural Public Goods Provision
by Furong Chen, Yuyuan Yi and Yifu Zhao
Agriculture 2023, 13(6), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13061247 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
This study examines the role of social capital, at both individual and community levels, in promoting farmers’ participation in providing rural public goods in China. Based on the survey data of 622 farmers from 82 villages across Hebei, Shaanxi, Jiangsu, and Fujian provinces, [...] Read more.
This study examines the role of social capital, at both individual and community levels, in promoting farmers’ participation in providing rural public goods in China. Based on the survey data of 622 farmers from 82 villages across Hebei, Shaanxi, Jiangsu, and Fujian provinces, we used a generalized hierarchical linear model (GHLM) to empirically estimate the effects of social capital on farmers’ participation in rural public goods supply. The findings indicate that: (1) community-level factors account for 42.3% of the variance in farmers’ participation behavior. The transparency of the public goods construction fund significantly encourages farmers to participate, while the rural collective economy income and the village’s geographical location—the distance to the township government—have a significant and negative effect on farmers’ participation. (2) On the individual level, social norms, social networks, and social engagement have a positive effect on farmers’ participation. The effect of individual social norms is particularly high compared to that of the other two factors. (3) When social capital at the community level is high, the positive effect of individual social networks on farmers’ participation is even more significant. Therefore, to encourage farmers to participate in the rural public goods provision, local government should not only pay attention to improving the publicity of public affairs but also cultivate social capital at both the individual and community levels. Full article
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17 pages, 2012 KiB  
Article
Analysis on the Influencing Factors of Rural Infrastructure in China
by Fang Zhou, Xinran Guo, Chengye Liu, Qiaoyun Ma and Sandang Guo
Agriculture 2023, 13(5), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13050986 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Nowadays, the development of the world shows that building a new countryside is the only way for all countries to move towards industrialization and urbanization. Whether from the perspective of world development or from the perspective of China’s century-old villages, the development of [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the development of the world shows that building a new countryside is the only way for all countries to move towards industrialization and urbanization. Whether from the perspective of world development or from the perspective of China’s century-old villages, the development of rural agriculture is very important. Rural infrastructure construction is the key measure to promote all aspects of rural development. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current situation of China’s rural infrastructure construction, study the factors affecting the development of rural infrastructure construction and find out the key reasons, so as to put forward suggestions on rural infrastructure construction and promote rural development. Therefore, this article uses the relevant data of China Rural Statistical Yearbook 2020 to analyze the influencing factors of China’s rural infrastructure. The article divides rural infrastructure into three levels: agricultural production infrastructure, peasant living infrastructure and rural social undertakings infrastructure, and eight indicators are selected for each level. The article analyzes the new indicators system constructed from 24 original indicators using factor analysis. According to the analysis results, the article comprehensively analyzes rural infrastructure construction situation of 31 provincial administrative regions from three levels and comprehensive indicators. Finally, the articled reaches the following conclusions: the overall development of rural infrastructure construction in Jiangsu, Shandong and Henan provinces is the best, while the rural infrastructure construction in Hainan and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai and other provinces is the worst compared with other provinces. Full article
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24 pages, 2406 KiB  
Article
Spatial–Temporal Characteristics and Driving Mechanisms of Rural Industrial Integration in China
by Rui Wang, Jianwen Shi, Dequan Hao and Wenxin Liu
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040747 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
The scientific evaluation of the development of rural industrial integration is of great significance to understanding the changes occurring in the industrial structure of China’s agricultural sector. Combined with the practical problems related to the development of China’s rural industrial integration on the [...] Read more.
The scientific evaluation of the development of rural industrial integration is of great significance to understanding the changes occurring in the industrial structure of China’s agricultural sector. Combined with the practical problems related to the development of China’s rural industrial integration on the basis of four dimensions, i.e., agricultural industrial chain extension, agricultural multifunctionality, agricultural service industry integration development and the economic effect of rural industrial integration, the level of China’s rural industrial integration development is calculated for the period from 2008 to 2020 by means of the entropy method, and its spatial–temporal evolution characteristics and the regional heterogeneity of its driving factors are discussed on the basis of kernel density estimation, hotspot analysis and a fixed effect panel data model. The results showed the following: (1) From 2008 to 2020, the level of rural industrial integration development in 31 provinces in China improved to varying degrees. The growth rate of agricultural service industry integration was the highest, while the economic effect of rural industrial integration was second; the growth rate of the agricultural industrial chain extension was the lowest, and agricultural multifunctionality exhibited a fluctuating upward trend, peaking in 2017. In terms of spatial distribution, the representative provinces and cities with high and low levels of each dimension were different. (2) Rural industrial integration development in China was characterized by a regional imbalance, with polarization in the central and western regions. In terms of spatial distribution, an “east–middle–west” ladder pattern was obvious. The hotspots were mainly concentrated in the southeast region, and they showed a gradually expanding trend, while the coldspots were mainly concentrated in the northwest region, and they showed a trend of gradually decreasing size. (3) In terms of driving factors, the urbanization level, rural human capital, rural transportation facilities, rural ecological environment, intensity of financial support for agriculture and rural digitalization had significantly positive effects, while the degree of industrial upgrade had a significantly negative effect. Each driving factor had different effects on the rural industrial integration development in the eastern, central and western regions. Full article
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14 pages, 1087 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Entrepreneurial Ability of Small-Scale Farmers through the Rasch–Andrich Model
by Carlos Alberto Cortés-Rodríguez, Gladys Martínez-Gómez, José Luis Romo-Lozano and Ezequiel Arvizu-Barrón
Agriculture 2023, 13(3), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13030721 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Entrepreneurial skills are fundamental to the success of agricultural production units. Since small-scale farmers have developed production skills but not market-oriented skills, it is necessary to assess their entrepreneurial skills to provide a reference for sustainable community development plans. The objective was to [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurial skills are fundamental to the success of agricultural production units. Since small-scale farmers have developed production skills but not market-oriented skills, it is necessary to assess their entrepreneurial skills to provide a reference for sustainable community development plans. The objective was to evaluate the entrepreneurial ability of small-scale farmers in San Pablo Huixtepec, Oaxaca, using the Rasch–Andrich rating scale, a psychometric model that makes it possible to obtain measurements with a certain degree of precision. A survey was conducted among 45 small-scale farmers to collect the characteristics of their production unit, the characteristics of the small-scale farmers, and to determine their entrepreneurial skills (17 items). The data were processed using Winsteps software. Item 14 “I easily market what I produce” was eliminated because it did not contribute to the unidimensionality of the variable. The data fit the model and the Rasch–Andrich thresholds and, together with the category probability curves, demonstrated the good performance of the rating scale. The entrepreneurial ability ranged from −1.54 to 10.11 logits. Since most of producers (66.6%) were below average (1.09 logits), it is considered pertinent to support them to improve their ability. Full article
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