Civil and Military Airworthiness: Recent Developments and Challenges (Volume III)

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310). This special issue belongs to the section "Aeronautics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 11473

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor), School of Engineering, University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland
Interests: metal plasticity; low cycle fatigue; constitutive modelling; metal additive manufacturing; airworthiness
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The “Civil and Military Airworthiness: Recent Developments and Challenges” Special Issue will cover a broad range of contemporary issues and research conducted in the fields of initial and continuing airworthiness, both in civil and military aviation. This Special Issue offers the opportunity to academics, researchers, and industry practitioners working in the broader airworthiness area to publish their original research and review articles.

Particular emphasis will be placed on state-of-the-art review works and theoretical, experimental, computational research, and applied engineering work conducted on the following:

Initial Airworthiness

  • Aircraft and aeronautical components testing and certification;
  • Qualification and certification of new technologies, i.e., supersonic transport aircraft, electric, and hybrid propulsion aircraft, etc.
  • Certification of systems specific to military aircraft;
  • Qualification and certification of additively manufactured metallic and non-metallic safe/non-safety critical aircraft parts;
  • Advanced testing and computational techniques for composite aircraft testing and certification;
  • Reliability engineering methodologies and practice in aircraft design and engineering changes;
  • Safety and risk assessment methodologies and practice in aircraft development;
  • Human factors’ considerations in aircraft design.

Continuing Airworthiness

  • Safety and risk assessment in aircraft flight and technical operations;
  • Reliability analysis of aircraft systems and components;
  • Continuing airworthiness management practice in civil and military aviation;
  • Development and optimization of aircraft maintenance programs;
  • Development and optimization of military aircraft structural integrity (ASI) management programs;
  • Effective and efficient inspection and sustainment techniques for composite aircraft;
  • Human factors in aircraft maintenance and operations;
  • Safety management effectiveness in flight and technical operations;
  • Quality management and optimization in aircraft maintenance organizations;
  • Aircraft technical and non-technical cost analysis and estimation techniques.

This is the 3rd volume of Special Issue “Civil and Military Airworthiness: Recent Developments and Challenges”, which offers the opportunity for academics and research and industry practitioners to contribute their work on this highly important aeronautical engineering and aviation practice field.

Dr. Kyriakos I. Kourousis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Aerospace is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 1118 KiB  
Article
Trend Analysis of Civil Aviation Incidents Based on Causal Inference and Statistical Inference
by Peng He and Ruishan Sun
Aerospace 2023, 10(9), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10090822 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1183
Abstract
The efficient management of aviation safety requires the precise analysis of trends in incidents. While classical statistical models often rely on the autocorrelation of indicator sequences for trend fitting, significant room remains for performance improvement. To enhance the accuracy and interpretability of trend [...] Read more.
The efficient management of aviation safety requires the precise analysis of trends in incidents. While classical statistical models often rely on the autocorrelation of indicator sequences for trend fitting, significant room remains for performance improvement. To enhance the accuracy and interpretability of trend analyses for aviation incidents, we propose the Causal-ARIMA model, which is grounded in causal inference theory, and we employ four distinct modeling strategies to fit the trend of incidents in China’s civil aviation sector between 1994 and 2020. The objective is to validate the performance of the Causal-ARIMA model and identify optimal trend analysis strategies. The four modeling strategies account for causation factors, stationarity, and causality with operational volume, incorporating models like AR, ARMA, ARIMA, and Causal-ARIMA. Our findings reveal that ensemble techniques incorporating the Causal-ARIMA model (Strategy 2 and 3) outperform classical trend analysis methods (Strategy 1) in terms of model fit. Specifically, the causality-based binary fitting technique (Strategy 3) achieves the most uniformly dispersed fitting performance. When the premises for using the Causal-ARIMA model are relaxed, applying it to variables without Granger causal relationships results in uneven model performance (Strategy 4). According to our study, the Causal-ARIMA model can serve as a potent tool for the analysis of trends in the domain of aviation safety. Modeling strategies based on the Causal-ARIMA model provide valuable insights for aviation safety management. Full article
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25 pages, 8422 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment Method for UAV’s Sense and Avoid System Based on Multi-Parameter Quantification and Monte Carlo Simulation
by Bona P. Fitrikananda, Yazdi Ibrahim Jenie, Rianto Adhy Sasongko and Hari Muhammad
Aerospace 2023, 10(9), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10090781 - 1 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
The rise in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usage has opened exciting possibilities but has also introduced risks, particularly in aviation, with instances of UAVs flying dangerously close to commercial airplanes. The potential for accidents underscores the urgent need for effective measures to mitigate [...] Read more.
The rise in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usage has opened exciting possibilities but has also introduced risks, particularly in aviation, with instances of UAVs flying dangerously close to commercial airplanes. The potential for accidents underscores the urgent need for effective measures to mitigate mid-air collision risks. This research aims to assess the effectiveness of the Sense and Avoid (SAA) system during operation by providing a rating system to quantify its parameters and operational risk, ultimately enabling authorities, developers, and operators to make informed decisions to reach a certain level of safety. Seven parameters are quantified in this research: the SAA’s detection range, field of view, sensor accuracy, measurement rate, system integration, and the intruder’s range and closing speed. While prior studies have addressed these parameter quantifications separately, this research’s main contribution is the comprehensive method that integrates them all within a simple five-level risk rating system. This quantification is complemented by a risk assessment simulator capable of testing a UAV’s risk rating within a large sample of arbitrary flight traffic in a Monte Carlo simulation setup, which ultimately derives its maximum risk rating. The simulation results demonstrated safety improvements using the SAA system, shown by the combined maximum risk rating value. Among the contributing factors, the detection range and sensor accuracy of the SAA system stand out as the primary drivers of this improvement. This conclusion is consistent even in more regulated air traffic imposed with five or three mandatory routes. Interestingly, increasing the number of intruders to 50 does not alter the results, as the intruders’ probability of being detected remains almost the same. On the other hand, improving SAA radar capability has a more significant effect on risk rating than enforcing regulations or limiting intruders. Full article
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26 pages, 9936 KiB  
Article
A Quantitative Study of Aircraft Maintenance Accidents in Commercial Air Transport
by Graham Wild
Aerospace 2023, 10(8), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10080689 - 31 Jul 2023
Viewed by 3137
Abstract
Aircraft maintenance is defined by the ICAO as the tasks that need to be carried out on an aircraft to ensure its continuing airworthiness. Accidents that result from aircraft maintenance activities are a direct measurable outcome that can be used to broadly assess [...] Read more.
Aircraft maintenance is defined by the ICAO as the tasks that need to be carried out on an aircraft to ensure its continuing airworthiness. Accidents that result from aircraft maintenance activities are a direct measurable outcome that can be used to broadly assess the effectiveness of maintenance activities. This research seeks to understand the characteristics of aircraft-maintenance-related accidents and how these have changed over time. An exploratory design was utilized, which commenced with a content analysis of 358 accidents from the Aviation Safety Network, followed by a quantitative ex post facto study. The results showed that aircraft-maintenance-related accidents were 1.7 times less fatal compared to all aviation accidents in the database. Fatalities were reduced significantly from the 1990s following major accidents with many fatalities; this was countered by several industry-wide initiatives. However, the number of accidents have continued to grow by one each year. Relative to all accidents, it was found that maintenance contributes to (2.0 ± 0.4)% of all accidents, which increased to (3.8 ± 0.7)% from 1998 to 2019, up from (1.3 ± 0.2)% from 1941 to 1997. However, the rate of maintenance accidents per kilometer flown has decreased exponentially halving every 27.7 years. The results showed that the most common age of an aircraft involved in a maintenance accident was 5 to 15 years, corresponding to the first heavy maintenance period of an aircraft (6 to 12 years). Further results for age showed no correlation to the fatalness of accidents; however, older aircraft were more likely to be written off. Full article
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23 pages, 8204 KiB  
Article
A Multivariable Method for Calculating Failure Probability of Aeroengine Rotor Disk
by Guo Li, Junbo Liu, Liu Yang, Huimin Zhou and Shuiting Ding
Aerospace 2023, 10(3), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10030296 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
The probabilistic damage tolerance analysis of aeroengine rotor disks is essential for determining if the disk is safe. To calculate the probability of failure, the numerical integration method is efficient if the integral formula of the probability density function is known. However, obtaining [...] Read more.
The probabilistic damage tolerance analysis of aeroengine rotor disks is essential for determining if the disk is safe. To calculate the probability of failure, the numerical integration method is efficient if the integral formula of the probability density function is known. However, obtaining an accurate integral formula for aeroengine disks is generally complicated due to their complex failure mechanism. This article proposes a multivariable numerical integral method for calculating the probability of failure. Three random variables (initial defect length a, life scatter factor S, and stress scatter factor B) are considered. A compressor disk model is evaluated. The convergence, efficiency, and accuracy of the proposed method are compared with the Monte Carlo simulation and importance sampling method. The results show that the integral-based method is 100 times more efficient under the same convergence and accuracy conditions. Full article
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15 pages, 1509 KiB  
Article
Risk Management of Safety for Flight Training in Air Forces
by Wen-Kai K. Hsu, Ming-Hung Shu, Yu-Che Liu and To-Cheng Wang
Aerospace 2022, 9(10), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace9100558 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
Risk management has been an essential issue in the evolution of air-force flight safety. In this paper, the investigated risk management of air-force flight training in the Gangshan airbase, Republic of China (ROC) is the main field of study. The main goal of [...] Read more.
Risk management has been an essential issue in the evolution of air-force flight safety. In this paper, the investigated risk management of air-force flight training in the Gangshan airbase, Republic of China (ROC) is the main field of study. The main goal of this paper is to conduct a series of risk identification and assessments of the flight training. Firstly, the 16 risk factors (RFs) of flight training were identified according to the related studies of flight safety and risk and three experts’ interviews. Then, we created a fuzzy-analytic hierarchy process questionnaire and interviewed 20 flight instructors to obtain the weight of likelihood and consequence of the 16 RFs. Furthermore, a sequential assessment of the risk matrix was constructed to classify the 16 RFs into four groups, namely, extreme risk, high risk, medium risk, and low risk. As the results of the revised risk matrix, we provided four suggestions for the improvement of flight-training policy. These suggestions not only can facilitate the Gangshan airbase to smoothly transfer and reduce the deadly risk of flight training, but also provide exemplary risk management for other similar airbases. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 2572 KiB  
Review
An Analytical Study of the Elements of Airworthiness Certification Technology Based on the Development of the Conversion of Diesel Engines for Vehicles to Aviation
by Junwoo Lim, Seangwock Lee, Jaeyeop Chung, Youngwan Kim and Giyoung Park
Aerospace 2023, 10(9), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10090738 - 22 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Aircraft reciprocating engines have been in operation over the past 100 years, which is a testament to their high levels of reliability and stability. Compared to turbine engines, reciprocating engines are at a disadvantage when it comes to high-speed flight. Nevertheless, they are [...] Read more.
Aircraft reciprocating engines have been in operation over the past 100 years, which is a testament to their high levels of reliability and stability. Compared to turbine engines, reciprocating engines are at a disadvantage when it comes to high-speed flight. Nevertheless, they are widely used mainly for small aircraft thanks to their high specific power or power-to-weight ratio. Considering that propulsion systems account for approximately 40% of the aircraft price, lightness and high performance are key attributes of aircraft to achieve longer endurance. With the advantages offered by diesel engines, such as fuel economy, less maintenance, and a long lifespan, many attempts have been made to mount automotive diesel engines on urban air mobility and light aircraft. Recognizing advanced automotive diesel technology, where the power-to-weight ratio of the diesel engine is approximately 1 PS/kg, we analyzed a case where an automobile engine was converted for use in an aircraft. We focused on the Mercedes-Benz OM640 and the Austro AE300 and disassembled the two engines for comparative analysis. We then classified the engine components modified for aircraft use by (1) defining the major engine parts as fixed and alteration ones; (2) identifying the airworthiness-related alteration parts; and (3) categorizing the conversion purposes into classes A, B, and C. Components under class A were further categorized into subgroups in accordance with the airworthiness certification specifications outlined by the European Union Aviation Safety Agency. This helped determine the corresponding airworthiness standards for each subgroup. An inspection of the oil supply system revealed the need to apply safety wiring for some components to prevent possible oil leakages, which can be caused by the pressure difference with increasing altitude. Moreover, given that sensor manufacturers are required to present guidelines for sensor redundancy through numerous designs and tests and secure single-fault tolerance, we established criteria for selecting and applying sensors and separating sensors that must be made redundant from ones that are not subject to sensor redundancy. Full article
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