Advanced Technologies on the Control Method of Electromagnetic Actuator

A special issue of Actuators (ISSN 2076-0825). This special issue belongs to the section "Control Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 10163

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Automation Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
Interests: active vibration control; intelligent control; computer vision theory and application; measurement technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Instrumentation Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), Beijing 100191, China
Interests: magnetic suspension motor; servo control; motor driver technology; position detection; signal processing; intelligent control
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The electromagnetic actuator had been widely used in many fields, such as high-speed rotating machines, valves, and precision machinery. Advanced technologies in the control method of the electromagnetic actuator have become increasingly important to the industrial application. This Special Issue could be focused on the novel structure, manufacture technology, and advanced control methods of the electromagnetic actuator. We invite the submission of the latest high-quality contributions covering the advanced developments on the design, analysis, and control of electromagnetic actuators, including (but not limited to) the following technical areas:

- magnetic bearing;

- electromagnetic actuator;

- electromagnetic analysis;

- electromagnetic compatibility;

- advanced control theory;

- signal processing.

Dr. Biao Xiang
Prof. Dr. Cong Peng
Dr. Haitao Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Actuators is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • magnetic bearing
  • electromagnetic actuator
  • electromagnetic analysis
  • electromagnetic compatibility
  • advanced control theory
  • signal processing

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 5785 KiB  
Article
A Novel Physics-Informed Hybrid Modeling Method for Dynamic Vibration Response Simulation of Rotor–Bearing System
by Mengting Zhu, Cong Peng, Bingyun Yang and Yu Wang
Actuators 2023, 12(12), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12120460 - 11 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
For rotor–bearing systems, their dynamic vibration models must be built to simulate the vibration responses that affect the safe and reliable operation of rotating machinery under different operating conditions. Single physics-based modeling methods can be used to produce sufficient but inaccurate vibration samples [...] Read more.
For rotor–bearing systems, their dynamic vibration models must be built to simulate the vibration responses that affect the safe and reliable operation of rotating machinery under different operating conditions. Single physics-based modeling methods can be used to produce sufficient but inaccurate vibration samples at the cost of computational complexity. Moreover, single data-driven modeling methods may be more accurate, employing larger numbers of measured samples and reducing computational complexity, but these methods are affected by the insufficient and imbalanced samples in engineering applications. This paper proposes a physics-informed hybrid modeling method for simulating the dynamic responses of rotor–bearing systems to vibration under different rotor speeds and bearing health statuses. Firstly, a three-dimensional model of a rolling bearing and its supporting force are introduced, and a physics-based dynamic vibration model that couples flexible rotors and rigid bearings is constructed using multibody dynamics simulation. Secondly, combining the simulation vibration data obtained using the physics-based model with measured vibration data, algorithms are designed to learn vibration generation and data mapping networks in series connection to form a physics-informed hybrid model, which can quickly and accurately output the vibration responses of a rotor–bearing system. Finally, a case study on the single-span rotor platform is provided. By comparing the signal output by the proposed physics-informed hybrid modeling method with the measured signal in the time and frequency domains, the effectiveness of proposed method under both constant- and variable-speed operating conditions are illustrated. Full article
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16 pages, 3267 KiB  
Article
Rate-Dependent Hysteresis Model of a Giant Magnetostrictive Actuator Based on an Improved Cuckoo Algorithm
by Yang Liu, Jianjun Meng and Jingnian Cao
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110400 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
A rate-dependent asymmetric Prandtl–Ishilinskii (RAPI) model was proposed to tackle the serious rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity of the giant magnetostrictive actuator(GMA) output. First, a polynomial function was introduced based on the PI model, and hysteresis factors were introduced to the Play operator, which accurately [...] Read more.
A rate-dependent asymmetric Prandtl–Ishilinskii (RAPI) model was proposed to tackle the serious rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity of the giant magnetostrictive actuator(GMA) output. First, a polynomial function was introduced based on the PI model, and hysteresis factors were introduced to the Play operator, which accurately described the asymmetrical characteristic of the actuator output. On this basis, rate-dependent parameters were added to establish a rate-dependent RAPI model. Second, an improved cuckoo search (ICS) algorithm was proposed to solve the difficulty in the parameter identification of the RAPI model. For the ICS algorithm, the algorithm stability and optimization accuracy were improved using the adaptive step (AS) strategy and bird’s nest disturbance strategy. Then, the effectiveness of the ICS algorithm was tested by comparing it with other parameter identification algorithms. Finally, the rate-dependent RAPI model was verified by combining the output data of the giant magnetostrictive actuator under different frequencies. The results show that the rate-dependent RAPI model exhibits a higher accuracy than the PI model, thus verifying the effectiveness of the rate-dependent RAPI model. Full article
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23 pages, 1168 KiB  
Article
A Non-Arrhenius Model for Mechanism Consistency Checking in Accelerated Degradation Tests
by Jiaxin You, Rao Fu, Huimin Liang and Yigang Lin
Actuators 2023, 12(8), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12080319 - 08 Aug 2023
Viewed by 949
Abstract
Degradation models are central to the lifetime prediction of electromagnetic relays. Coefficients of degradation models under accelerated degradation test (ADTs) can be obtained experimentally, and it is customary to map these coefficients back to those describing the actual degradation by the so-called Arrhenius [...] Read more.
Degradation models are central to the lifetime prediction of electromagnetic relays. Coefficients of degradation models under accelerated degradation test (ADTs) can be obtained experimentally, and it is customary to map these coefficients back to those describing the actual degradation by the so-called Arrhenius model. However, for some components, such as springs in electromagnetic relays, the Arrhenius model is only appropriate over a certain ADT temperature range, which implies inaccurate mapping outside that range. On this point, an error function model (EFM) is proposed to overcome the shortcomings of the Arrhenius model. EFM is derived from the average vibration energy of the crystal, which is further related to temperature alongside some constants. The empirical part of the paper compares the proposed EFM to the Arrhenius model for the ADT of 28-V–2-A electromagnetic relays. The results show that EFM is superior in describing the temperature characteristics of coefficients in the degradation model. Through mechanism consistency checking, EFM is also shown to be a better option than the Arrhenius model. Moving beyond the case of electromagnetic relays, EFM is thought to have better applicability in the degradation models of capacitors and rubbers. Full article
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22 pages, 9050 KiB  
Article
Neural Network Sliding Model Control of Radial Translation for Magnetically Suspended Rotor (MSR) in Control Moment Gyro
by Jiqiang Tang, Min Zhang, Xu Cui, Jinji Sun and Xinxiu Zhou
Actuators 2023, 12(6), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12060217 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
For a magnetically suspended control moment gyro (MSCMG), the high-speed rotor is actively suspended by magnetic bearings of 5-DOF, but the nonlinearity of the magnetic suspension force is one of the main reasons for the poor accuracy of radial translation control of the [...] Read more.
For a magnetically suspended control moment gyro (MSCMG), the high-speed rotor is actively suspended by magnetic bearings of 5-DOF, but the nonlinearity of the magnetic suspension force is one of the main reasons for the poor accuracy of radial translation control of the magnetically suspended rotor (MSR). To solve this problem, here, the characteristics of the magnetic suspension force are analyzed, and the nonlinear dynamic model of MSR is established. A sliding mode control (SMC) based on a neural network is presented, and the radial basis function (RBF) neural network is adopted to approximate the nonlinear displacement stiffness and the current displacement stiffness to weaken the chattering in SMC to improve the control accuracy of the MSR. The stability of the neural network SMC for the MSR is analyzed based on Lyapunov functions, and the rules of updating network weights are presented based on adaptive algorithms. Compared with these existing classic control methods, the simulation and experimental tests performed on a single-gimbal MSCMG with an angular momentum of 200 N.m.s indicated that this neural network SMC for MSR’s radial translation can not only make its suspension more stable but can also make its position precision higher. Full article
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25 pages, 6342 KiB  
Article
Research on Magnetic Characteristics and Fuzzy PID Control of Electromagnetic Suspension
by Wei Wei, Songjian Yu and Baozuo Li
Actuators 2023, 12(5), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12050203 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
This paper proposes an electromagnetic suspension with an electromagnetic actuator, which can improve the riding comfort and stability of the vehicle without changing the safety of traditional MacPherson suspension. First, the electromagnetic suspension structure is introduced, and the principle of the proposed actuator [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an electromagnetic suspension with an electromagnetic actuator, which can improve the riding comfort and stability of the vehicle without changing the safety of traditional MacPherson suspension. First, the electromagnetic suspension structure is introduced, and the principle of the proposed actuator is described in detail. Second, a magnetic flux density model of a single PM ring (permanent magnetic ring) and a magnet assembly are built, and a theoretical analysis of the magnetic flux density is carried out for comparison. Then, the magnetic flux distribution of the magnetic field is simulated and analyzed using the finite element method (FEM), and is compared with theoretical and other experimental data. Finally, a vehicle dynamics model with 7 DOF is built, and vehicle simulations based on the fuzzy PID algorithm are carried out on a C-grade road surface and a deceleration strip. The theoretical results and simulation analyses of the FEM indicate that compared with the MacPherson suspension, the root mean square values of the acceleration of centroid acceleration for the electromagnetic suspension are increased by 59.08% and 33.34%, respectively, on a C-grade road surface and a deceleration strip, and other physical quantities have also been improved. The structure and characteristics of the proposed electromagnetic suspension that improve the riding comfort of the suspension and enhance the stability of the MacPherson suspension are feasible. Full article
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17 pages, 5229 KiB  
Article
Contribution to Improve Magnetic Performance and Torque Ripple Reduction of the Low-Speed DSPM Machine
by Tarek Kendjouh, Cherif Guerroudj, Jean-Frédéric Charpentier, Nicolas Bracikowski, Larbi Hadjout and Lemnouer Bekhouche
Actuators 2023, 12(5), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12050195 - 09 May 2023
Viewed by 1367
Abstract
This article deals with the performance improvement of a toothed pole variable reluctance machine excited by permanent magnets housed in the stator yoke. The objective was to reduce the electromagnetic torque ripples caused by the structure geometry and by the supply technique. The [...] Read more.
This article deals with the performance improvement of a toothed pole variable reluctance machine excited by permanent magnets housed in the stator yoke. The objective was to reduce the electromagnetic torque ripples caused by the structure geometry and by the supply technique. The machine was designed to meet the specifications of a small wind energy conversion system. The proposed solution improved the electromagnetic design of the new structure in order to minimize the variation of the reluctance. This improvement was obtained by action on the geometry of the structure (the location of the permanent magnets), by action on the stator and rotor tooth pitch, and by the application of an indirect control strategy called torque sharing function. The PSO optimization algorithm was applied in the first part for the optimization of the machine’s global parameters to maximize torque density and then, in the second part, for the research of the optimum tooth pitch parameters to minimize torque ripple. Static and dynamic performances were obtained using 2D-FEM and MATLAB/Simulink software. The results reveal that by action on the stator/rotor tooth pitch, the ripple torque was reduced by about 53%, and by approximately 76% with the used command technique. Full article
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22 pages, 10599 KiB  
Article
Control of an Outer Rotor Doubly Salient Permanent Magnet Generator for Fixed Pitch kW Range Wind Turbine Using Overspeed Flux Weakening Operations
by Aziz Remli, Cherif Guerroudj, Jean-Frédéric Charpentier, Tarek Kendjouh, Nicolas Bracikowski and Yannis L. Karnavas
Actuators 2023, 12(4), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12040168 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1494
Abstract
This paper deals with the analysis of the dynamic performance of a generator with a doubly salient exterior rotor excited by permanent magnets inserted in the stator yoke. The electrical generator works at low speed and is devoted to a wind energy conversion [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the analysis of the dynamic performance of a generator with a doubly salient exterior rotor excited by permanent magnets inserted in the stator yoke. The electrical generator works at low speed and is devoted to a wind energy conversion system. Indeed, the studied generator is a robust high-torque machine and can be directly coupled to the turbine blades. It must therefore assure the energy conversion for wind speeds lower or higher than its base speed. In fact, the control technique used in this work covers the two main operating zones: below the base speed and above it. In the first case, the maximum torque per ampere control law is developed; however, when the base speed is reached, the flux decay control law is implemented and, consequently, the system works above the nominal conditions. Fuzzy logic controllers are employed to regulate direct and quadrature machine currents and DC voltage in order to obtain satisfactory regulation performances. The ensemble of the wind turbine and electrical machine with technical control is performed in Matlab/Simulink software. The simulation results obtained show the capability of the machine to operate at variable speeds, ensuring efficient energy conversion under and over the nominal speed. Full article
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17 pages, 6489 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Vibration Absorbing Performance of 5-DoF Magnetically Suspended Momentum Wheel Based on Damping Regulation
by Biao Xiang and Hu Liu
Actuators 2023, 12(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12040152 - 02 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
The vibration performance is critical to the suspension control and the torque precision of the magnetically suspended momentum flywheel (MSMW). The translational and torsional vibration of the MSMW are investigated in this article, and the damping regulation method is proposed to improve the [...] Read more.
The vibration performance is critical to the suspension control and the torque precision of the magnetically suspended momentum flywheel (MSMW). The translational and torsional vibration of the MSMW are investigated in this article, and the damping regulation method is proposed to improve the anti-vibration performance of the MSMW. Firstly, the modellings of the MSMW, including the dynamic models and the displacement coordinate, are developed, and the comprehensive damping characteristics of the MSMW are investigated. Moreover, the transfer functions of the translational and the torsional vibrations are established using the dimensionless model, and the relationship between the dynamic response and the stiffness/damping coefficient is studied. Furthermore, the numerical simulations of the dynamic response of the translational and torsional vibration are conducted. Finally, the experiments are designed to verify the vibration characteristics of the MSMW, and the dynamic displacements are measured to analyze the anti-vibration performance of the proposed damping regulation method. The results indicate that the displacement deflection of the translational vibration is reduced by 68.8%, and the angle deflection of the torsional vibration is mitigated by 71.2% by regulating the damping coefficient. Full article
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