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Gout Urate Cryst. Depos. Dis., Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2023) – 7 articles

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9 pages, 976 KiB  
Review
Does Monosodium Urate Crystal Vascular Deposition Exist? Review of the Evidence
by Tristan Pascart and Jean-François Budzik
Gout Urate Cryst. Depos. Dis. 2023, 1(3), 208-216; https://doi.org/10.3390/gucdd1030017 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease in gout is a central issue, but the underlying mechanisms linking the two are unclear. The existence of monosodium (MSU) crystal deposition directly inflaming vessel walls has been recurrently suggested and challenged since the 1950s and is again a matter of [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease in gout is a central issue, but the underlying mechanisms linking the two are unclear. The existence of monosodium (MSU) crystal deposition directly inflaming vessel walls has been recurrently suggested and challenged since the 1950s and is again a matter of active debate since recent studies using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) suggested a higher prevalence of plaques considered to be containing MSU crystals in patients with gout. The objective of this review is to critically cover the evidence gathered on MSU crystal deposition in the cardiovascular system. In patients affected with gout, histological evidence of MSU crystals in arteries lacks a biochemical characterization supporting the observation in polarized light microscopy, while current knowledge on vascular lesions identified in DECT as containing MSU crystals suggests that they may be only artifacts, including in cadaveric and phantom studies. In individuals without gout, MSU crystal deposition in vessel walls have not been demonstrated, despite higher urate local plaque concentrations and increased xanthine oxidase activity. Gout is associated with increased arterial calcification and atherosclerosis, both being potential confounders of suspected MSU crystal deposition for the analysis of DECT scans and histopathology, respectively. In summary, the reality of the presence of MSU crystals in vascular plaques has not been demonstrated so far, and needs further investigation as it represents a potential outcome for cardiovascular complications of gout. Full article
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16 pages, 3745 KiB  
Article
Atherogenic Activation of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Monosodium Urate Crystals
by Ru Liu-Bryan, Tracy Guo, Jennifer Lee and Robert Terkeltaub
Gout Urate Cryst. Depos. Dis. 2023, 1(3), 192-207; https://doi.org/10.3390/gucdd1030016 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Gout is strongly associated with atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular comorbidities. Furthermore, sites of extra-articular monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposits in gout can include heart valves and atherosclerotic artery plaques, but with unclear effects therein. Hence, we seminally explored cultured vascular smooth muscle cell [...] Read more.
Gout is strongly associated with atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular comorbidities. Furthermore, sites of extra-articular monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposits in gout can include heart valves and atherosclerotic artery plaques, but with unclear effects therein. Hence, we seminally explored cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) responsiveness to MSU crystals. To limit confounding effects, we cultured human aortic VSMCs under serum-free conditions to assess MSU crystal effects on VSMC differentiation and function, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via RNA sequencing, and selected atherogenic changes in cytokines and the lipidome. MSU crystals induced p38 phosphorylation, IL-6, and VSMC vacuolization with dysregulated autophagy. MSU-crystal-induced DEGs included decreased late-stage autophagosome maturation mediator GABARAPL1, decreased physiologic VSMC differentiation regulators (LMOD1 and SYNPO2), increased ATF4, CHOP, and the intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway in response to ER stress, and neointimal atherogenic nuclear receptors (NR4A1 and NR4A3). MSU crystals alone increased the levels of cholesterol biosynthetic intermediates 14-demethyl-lanosterol (14-DML), desmosterol, and zymosterol. Adding MSU crystals increased oxidized LDL’s capacity to increase intracellular 27-OH cholesterol, and MSU crystals and oxidized LDL synergistically induced a marked release of arachidonate. In conclusion, MSU crystals deposited in arterial media and neointima have the potential to dysregulate VSMC differentiation and proteostasis, and to induce further atherogenic effects, which include enhanced VSMC loading of oxidized cholesterol intermediates and release of IL-6 and arachidonic acid (AA). Full article
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25 pages, 8127 KiB  
Conference Report
Gout, Hyperuricemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network (G-CAN) Conference 2022: Early-Career Investigators’ Abstracts
by Gout, Hyperuricemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network
Gout Urate Cryst. Depos. Dis. 2023, 1(3), 167-191; https://doi.org/10.3390/gucdd1030015 - 03 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
The eighth annual international G-CAN research symposium was held in Alexandria, VA on 21st and 22nd October 2022. This hybrid meeting, live face-to-face and virtual live symposium, was attended by over 150 participants. Over 20 research abstract submissions were received from early-career investigators, [...] Read more.
The eighth annual international G-CAN research symposium was held in Alexandria, VA on 21st and 22nd October 2022. This hybrid meeting, live face-to-face and virtual live symposium, was attended by over 150 participants. Over 20 research abstract submissions were received from early-career investigators, for plenary oral and poster presentations. Here, we present the accepted, lightly-edited abstracts from the presenters consenting to have their materials published. We thank and congratulate the presenters for their work and contributions to the meeting. Full article
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15 pages, 2161 KiB  
Review
Gout and Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanisms, Risk Estimations, and the Impact of Therapies
by Mariano Andrés
Gout Urate Cryst. Depos. Dis. 2023, 1(3), 152-166; https://doi.org/10.3390/gucdd1030014 - 01 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Gout is intimately associated with cardiovascular disease—especially in cases of an atherosclerosis origin, but also with others such as heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or aortic valve stenosis. Besides the common presence of vascular comorbidities in gout sufferers, the disease is—in itself—an independent cardiovascular [...] Read more.
Gout is intimately associated with cardiovascular disease—especially in cases of an atherosclerosis origin, but also with others such as heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or aortic valve stenosis. Besides the common presence of vascular comorbidities in gout sufferers, the disease is—in itself—an independent cardiovascular risk factor, with disease events and mortality attributable to having this condition. This review aims to update the current knowledge regarding several grey areas of the gout–cardiovascular disease spectrum—particularly in terms of risk variations across sex or ancestries, potential monosodium urate crystal deposition in the artery tree as a pathogenic pathway, the efforts undertaken to assess risk estimations in the gout population, and recent controversies surrounding the effects of gout therapies on cardiovascular disease. Full article
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15 pages, 730 KiB  
Review
Epigenetic and Metabolic Regulation of Macrophages during Gout
by Isidoro Cobo, Jessica Murillo-Saich, Mohnish Alishala and Monica Guma
Gout Urate Cryst. Depos. Dis. 2023, 1(3), 137-151; https://doi.org/10.3390/gucdd1030013 - 12 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1294
Abstract
The analysis of metabolite mediators has allowed a broader understanding of disease mechanisms. Experimental evidence indicates that metabolic rewiring is a key feature of inflammatory cells to restore tissue homeostasis upon damage. Over the last two decades, next-generation sequencing techniques have offered the [...] Read more.
The analysis of metabolite mediators has allowed a broader understanding of disease mechanisms. Experimental evidence indicates that metabolic rewiring is a key feature of inflammatory cells to restore tissue homeostasis upon damage. Over the last two decades, next-generation sequencing techniques have offered the possibility of looking at the genome-wide effect of the exposure of inflammatory cells to external stimuli. During gout flares, monosodium urate crystals activate a distinct metabolic profile and inflammatory transcriptional program in inflammatory cells. The extracellular signals are transduced through distinct signalling pathways, which are regulated by non-coding RNA and DNA sequences, and modification of histones. During response to inflammatory stimuli, changes in the abundance of metabolic mediators can regulate the activation of histones and of chromatin remodellers. The interplay between metabolic changes by MSUc, the regulation of epigenetic changes and the activation of transcription factor networks in inflammatory cells remains unknown. A better understanding of the interplay between metabolites and how it alters inflammatory response may provide novel insights into disease mechanisms during gout. In this review, we aim to provide a deeper understanding of the current view of how metabolic deregulation could alter the epigenetic landscape of inflammatory cells during gout. Full article
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15 pages, 2304 KiB  
Review
Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4)/Lubricin and the Extracellular Matrix in Gout
by Khaled A. Elsaid, Gregory D. Jay, Ru Liu-Bryan and Robert Terkeltaub
Gout Urate Cryst. Depos. Dis. 2023, 1(3), 122-136; https://doi.org/10.3390/gucdd1030012 - 11 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1486
Abstract
Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and superficial zone chondrocytes, released into synovial fluid, and adsorbed on cartilage and synovial surfaces. PRG4′s roles include cartilage boundary lubrication, synovial homeostasis, immunomodulation, and suppression of inflammation. Gouty arthritis is mediated [...] Read more.
Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and superficial zone chondrocytes, released into synovial fluid, and adsorbed on cartilage and synovial surfaces. PRG4′s roles include cartilage boundary lubrication, synovial homeostasis, immunomodulation, and suppression of inflammation. Gouty arthritis is mediated by monosodium urate (MSU) crystal phagocytosis by synovial macrophages, with NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release. The phagocytic receptor CD44 mediates MSU crystal uptake by macrophages. By binding CD44, PRG4 limits MSU crystal uptake and downstream inflammation. PRG4/CD44 signaling is transduced by protein phosphatase 2A, which inhibits NF-κB, decreases xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), urate production, and ROS-mediated IL-1β secretion. PRG4 also suppresses MSU crystal deposition in vitro. In contrast to PRG4, collagen type II (CII) alters MSU crystal morphology and promotes the macrophage uptake of MSU crystals. PRG4 deficiency, mediated by imbalance in PRG4-degrading phagocyte proteases and their inhibitors, was recently implicated in erosive gout, independent of hyperuricemia. Thus, dysregulated extracellular matrix homeostasis, including deficient PRG4 and increased CII release, may promote incident gout and progression to erosive tophaceous joint disease. PRG4 supplementation may offer a new therapeutic option for gout. Full article
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7 pages, 871 KiB  
Review
Urate Biology and Biochemistry: A Year in Review 2022
by Rachel D. King and Eric E. Kelley
Gout Urate Cryst. Depos. Dis. 2023, 1(3), 115-121; https://doi.org/10.3390/gucdd1030011 - 23 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
The past year generated significant change and advancement of the urate field with novel insights regarding the role of uric acid (UA) in multiple pathophysiologic processes from gout to COVID-19. While these contributions continue to move the field forward, the basic biochemistry and [...] Read more.
The past year generated significant change and advancement of the urate field with novel insights regarding the role of uric acid (UA) in multiple pathophysiologic processes from gout to COVID-19. While these contributions continue to move the field forward, the basic biochemistry and biology of UA is often overlooked, being lost in the shadow of clinical associations and omics. However, the seminal impact of UA begins with biochemistry and the associated interplay with cell biology. In these basic reactions and resultant impacts on physiology, UA mediates its influence on clinical outcomes. As such, this review focuses on published advances in UA biochemistry and biology in 2022 and associates these advances with downstream consequences. Full article
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