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Commodities, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 5 articles

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2 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
A Note on the Asymmetry of Oil Price Shocks
by Jungho Baek
Commodities 2023, 2(1), 94-95; https://doi.org/10.3390/commodities2010005 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Studying the exchange rate effect of oil price shocks is one focus of a rapidly growing area of empirical research [...] Full article
21 pages, 669 KiB  
Article
Price Transmission: The Case of the UK Dairy Market
by Rachel Rose and Dimitrios Paparas
Commodities 2023, 2(1), 73-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/commodities2010004 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2165
Abstract
The UK milk market has faced major economic difficulties over the last 20 years, seeing the smallest milk producers exit the industry. The key objective of this study is to examine price transmission within the UK milk market to understand the market’s efficiency [...] Read more.
The UK milk market has faced major economic difficulties over the last 20 years, seeing the smallest milk producers exit the industry. The key objective of this study is to examine price transmission within the UK milk market to understand the market’s efficiency and influences. An Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test identified all the examined series were stationary at the first difference. A modified Dickey–Fuller test allows for levels and trends that differ across a single break date and Bai–Perron test identified multiple structural breaks, including January 2012, July 2015, and November 2017. The Johansen cointegration test identified one cointegrating factor. The Error Correction Model results identified that prices would regain equilibrium at 14%, roughly 7 months after a price shock. Granger Causality identified the producer to granger cause retailer prices. The Threshold Autoregressive model suggests the dataset is symmetric. Econometric research into the UK’s liquid milk market is limited. As such, this study will provide an understanding as to whether current econometric policies are working, alongside the potential to aid the improvement or development of new policies while the UK exits the EU. Additionally, this study includes structural breaks as previous studies have failed to do so, which has led to a mixture of results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uncertainty, Economic Risk and Commodities Markets)
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21 pages, 3798 KiB  
Article
Price Dynamics and Integration in India’s Staple Food Commodities—Evidence from Wholesale and Retail Rice and Wheat Markets
by Ramadas Sendhil, Kashish Arora, Sunny Kumar, Priyanka Lal, Arnab Roy, Ramalingam Jayakumara Varadan, Sivasankar Vedi and Anandan Pouchepparadjou
Commodities 2023, 2(1), 52-72; https://doi.org/10.3390/commodities2010003 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2958
Abstract
Uncertain price movement in staple food commodities puts agrarian economies at risk if not monitored and managed consistently. Hence, an attempt has been made to analyze the price behavior and integration across major wholesale and retail markets for rice and wheat in India. [...] Read more.
Uncertain price movement in staple food commodities puts agrarian economies at risk if not monitored and managed consistently. Hence, an attempt has been made to analyze the price behavior and integration across major wholesale and retail markets for rice and wheat in India. Monthly data (July 2000 to June 2022) on prices viz. wholesale and retail were sourced from the Food and Agriculture Organization and analyzed using growth rate, instability index, seasonal price index, Bai-Perron’s test for structural breaks, Johansen’s test on cointegration, Granger causality test, and impulse response function. Findings indicated strong evidence of price dynamics in the selected markets in terms of spatial and temporal variation, clear-cut seasonality linking to production, and price divergence between wholesale and retail markets. Johansen’s test indicated a strong cointegration between wholesale and retail prices after accounting for structural breaks, exhibiting unidirectional-, bidirectional- and no causality. Impulse response analysis revealed that the selected wheat and rice markets are efficient in terms of ‘price discovery’ which takes place initially in the wholesale market, and is then transmitted to the retail market. The study advocates decision-making information to the producers, traders, and consumers who are interested in taking advantage of the price movement. It is concluded that strengthening the market intelligence and reducing the distortion in markets will improve the existing overall performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uncertainty, Economic Risk and Commodities Markets)
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39 pages, 1562 KiB  
Article
‘Safe Assets’ during COVID-19: A Portfolio Management Perspective
by Julien Chevallier
Commodities 2023, 2(1), 13-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/commodities2010002 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2680
Abstract
The pandemic crisis of COVID-19 hit the financial markets like a shockwave on 16 March 2020. This paper attempts to capture which ‘safe assets’ asset managers could have fled during the first wave of the pandemic. From an investment manager’s perspective, candidate assets [...] Read more.
The pandemic crisis of COVID-19 hit the financial markets like a shockwave on 16 March 2020. This paper attempts to capture which ‘safe assets’ asset managers could have fled during the first wave of the pandemic. From an investment manager’s perspective, candidate assets are stocks, bonds, exchange rates, commodities, gold, and (gold-backed) cryptocurrencies. Empirical tests of the ‘Safe-Haven’ hypothesis are conducted, upon which the selection of assets is performed. The methodological framework hinges on the Global Minimum Variance Portfolio with Monte Carlo simulations, and the routine is performed under Python. Other optimization techniques, such as risk parity and equal weighting, are added for robustness checks. The benchmark portfolio hits a yearly profitability of 7.2% during such a stressful event (with 3.6% downside risk). The profitability can be enhanced to 8.4% (even 14.4% during sub-periods) with a careful selection of ‘Safe assets’. Besides short- to long-term U.S. bonds, we document that investors’ exposure to Chinese, Argentinian, and Mexican stocks during COVID-19 could have been complemented with Swiss and Japanese currencies, grains, physical gold mine ETFs, or gold-backed tokens for defensive purposes. Full article
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12 pages, 837 KiB  
Article
Climate Change and Grain Price Volatility: Empirical Evidence for Corn and Wheat 1971–2019
by Marie Steen, Olvar Bergland and Ole Gjølberg
Commodities 2023, 2(1), 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/commodities2010001 - 06 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2507
Abstract
It is widely recognized that climate change makes the weather more erratic. As the combination of temperature and precipitation is a major driver of grain crop productivity, more frequent extreme rainfalls and heat waves, flooding and drought tend to make grain production and [...] Read more.
It is widely recognized that climate change makes the weather more erratic. As the combination of temperature and precipitation is a major driver of grain crop productivity, more frequent extreme rainfalls and heat waves, flooding and drought tend to make grain production and hence grain prices more volatile. We analyze daily prices during the growing season for corn and wheat over the period 1971–2019 using an EGARCH model. There have been occasional spikes in price volatility throughout this period. We do not, however, find that grain prices have become more volatile since the 1970s, with an exception for a small but statistically significant upward trend in wheat price volatility. To the extent that climate change has caused more frequent weather extremes affecting crop yields, it appears that the price effects have been softened, most likely through farmers’ adaption to climate changes, introduction of more stress-tolerant hybrids, storage, regional and international trade and risk management instruments. Full article
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