Defining Leadership in Undergraduate Medical Education, Networks, and Instructors: A Scoping Review
2.1. Research Model
2.3. Data Collection Tools
2.4. Data Collection Process
2.5. Data Analysis
3.1. Mapping: Actors’ Networks and Their Supporters
3.2. Teaching Leadership: UME, IPE, and TPE
3.3. Defining Leadership and Learners’ Levels
- To map actors and supporters that have expertise in teaching leadership in UME nationally and internationally. Mapping actors can provide a roadmap to advance leadership education in their country by sharing information and resources, and capacitating trainers and learners.
- To define or conceptualize leadership in their context. This review provided more than 20 definitions that can guide actors and supporters. We invite them to include values in their definition.
- To target the learners that will have leadership competencies. It can be in UME, medical education, IPE and TPE. Ideally, breaking silos is desirable, and teaching leadership is about having competency to work with others.
- To establish instructors’ expertise and academic background to teach leadership and consider capacitating instructors with leadership and educational competencies.
- Actors, journals, and peer reviewers should enhance the use of GREET to provide relevant information to others about education in this field.
4.1. Areas of Future Research
- The best methods and practices to create or adapt leadership definitions, to target the students, and to select and train the trainers in a specific context.
- Identification of best practices sharing, including leadership definitions, and competency models to support leadership education and training in UME.
- Teaching leadership in UME and PhD candidates simultaneously by using CBE has not been retrieved in this review.
4.2. Limitations of This Study
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|#||Tittle||First author||Year||Location||Support||Co-authors||Learners’ level||Instructor selection 1||Instructor training 2||Leadership |
|1||An Undergraduate Medical Education Framework for Refugee and Migrant Health: Curriculum Development and Conceptual Approaches||Douglas Gruner||2022||Y||Y||Y||Y||NA||NA||Y|
|2||Leadership curricula and assessment in Australian and New Zealand medical schools||Simone Jacquelyn Ross||2021||Y||Y||Y||Y||NA||NA||NA|
|3||The Pandemic Leadership Model: A Study of Medical Student Values During COVID-19||Alec Bernard||2021||Y||Y||Y||Y||NA||NA||N|
|4||Contextual Analysis of Stakeholder Opinion on Management and Leadership Competencies for Undergraduate Medical Education: Informing Course Design.||Nisreen Rajeh||2020||Y||Y||Y||Y||NA||NA||Y|
|5||A student-led curriculum framework for homeless and vulnerably housed populations||Syeda Shanza Hashmi.||2020||Y||Y||Y||Y||NA||NA||N|
|6||A first-year leadership programme for medical students||Heather Wagenschutz||2019||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|7||Medical Student Consulting: Providing Students Leadership and Business Opportunities While Positively Impacting the Community||David S. Portney||2019||Y||Y||Y||Y||N||Y||N|
|8||Medical Student Leader Performance in an Applied Medical Field Practicum.||Erin S. Barry||2019||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|9||Preparing Medical Students to Be Physician Leaders: A Leadership Training Program for Students Designed and Led by Students||Kristen Richard||2019||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||N||Y|
|10||Identification and evaluation of the core elements of character education for medical students in Korea.||Yera Hur||2019||Y||Y||Y||NA||NA||NA||Y|
|11||Leadership and Academic Medicine: Preparing Medical Students and Residents to Be Effective Leaders for the 21st Century.||Joel Dickerman||2018||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|12||On the road to becoming a responsible leader: A simulation-based training approach for final year medical students||Marion Schmidt-Huber||2017||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||N||Y|
|13||Health Systems Science Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education: Identifying and Defining a Potential Curricular Framework||Jed D. Gonzalo||2017||Y||Y||Y||Y||NA||NA||Y|
|14||The Health Professions Education Pathway: Preparing Students, Residents, and Fellows to Become Future Educators||H. Carrie Chen||2017||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|15||Leadership and management in UK medical school curricula||Richard Jefferies||2016||Y||N||Y||Y||NA||NA||NA|
|16||Aspects of development of leader creative thinking of medical student at the undergraduate level of medical education||Aniuta Sydorchuk||2016||Y||N||Y||Y||NA||NA||N|
|17||Defining the structure of undergraduate medical leadership and management teaching and assessment in the UK.||Thomas D Stringfellow||2014||Y||Y||Y||Y||NA||NA||NA|
|18||A medical student leadership course led to teamwork, advocacy, and mindfulness.||Carole M. Warde||2014||Y||Y||Y||Y||N||N||Y|
|19||Promoting medical students’ reflection on competencies to advance a global health equities curriculum.||Patricia B Mullan||2014||Y||Y||Y||Y||NA||NA||NA|
|20||Leadership and management in the undergraduate medical curriculum: a qualitative study of students’ attitudes and opinions at one UK medical school||Thelma Quince||2014||Y||Y||Y||Y||NA||NA||NA|
|21||In search for a public health leadership competency framework to support leadership curriculum-a consensus study||Katarzyna Czabanowska||2013||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y|
|22||Preparing students to be academicians: a national student-led summer program in teaching, leadership, scholarship, and academic medical career-building||Michelle M. Coleman||2012||Y||Y||Y||Y||Y||N||N|
|23||Leadership curriculum in undergraduate medical education: a study of student and faculty perspectives||Prathibha Varkey||2009||Y||N||Y||Y||NA||NA||NA|
|First author||UME||Residency |
|Physical Therapy |
|Social Work |
-IPE or TPE-
-IPE or TPE-
-IPE or TPE-
|1||As Leaders, physicians engage with others to contribute to a vision of a high-quality health care system and take responsibility for the delivery of excellent patient care through their activities as clinicians, administrators, scholars, or teachers.||-Leader||UME|
|2||Leaders have a vision||-Leader||Medical education|
|3||The whole concept of personal leadership, all the traits of personal leadership, starting from having the insight, having the trait of how a person can contribute to an institutional vision, a country vision, and the traits of time management.||-Leadership||Medical education|
|4||A leader should inspire people to move on, to do the job well, to have a good practice, to become the best they can be as a group working together toward a common goal||-Leader||Medical education|
|5||develop humble, reflective leaders who identify problems, work collaboratively with teams to create solutions, and create a vision for positive change||-Leader.||Interprofessional education|
|6||Leadership is defined as influence on individuals and groups by enhancing behaviors (actions), cognitions (perceptions, thoughts, and beliefs), and motivations (why people act and think as they do) to achieve goals that benefit the individuals and groups. |
Leaders set the vision and inspire followers
|7||Leadership, therefore, refers to social psychological processes, interpersonal and group dynamics, and influence on all aspects of psychology (behaviors, cognitions, and motivations) of others. |
Leaders are the drivers of these processes who adjust to goals, individuals, and context
|8||Leadership is… inspiring others to work together to achieve a common vision||-Leadership||UME|
|9||Attitudes and ability to reflect on, examine, and endure in difficult situations, to view health care in its social context, and to reach agreement with other members of an organization||-Patience |
|10||Origin of words lead, leader, leadership is “laid”, alluding “path” or “road”||-Lead |
|11||verb læden = “to travel”. A leader is an individual who shows other travelers the path ahead||-Leader||Medical education|
|12||Leadership has been described as the behavior of an individual when directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal||-Leadership||Medical education|
|13||The new healthcare leader is not fearful or resistant in the face of change, but rather embraces change as a means to innovate. |
The leader is able to apply leadership skills to all aspects of health care, from education to delivery of care
|14||leadership produces change and movement||-Leadership||Medical education|
|15 1||In this context, the concept of leadership comprises exerting conscious, goal-oriented social influence on people (subordinates, colleagues and teams) for the purpose of performing shared tasks in pursuit of common goals, and focuses on leading||-Leadership||UME|
|16||Lateral leadership (exerting influence without formal power) and disciplinary leadership functions as well||-Lateral Leadership||UME|
|17||Ethical leadership emphasizes the responsibility of leaders for human dignity and, at the same time, strives for excellent performance.||-Ethical Leadership||UME|
|18||All issues related to the ability to inspire motivation in others to create goals toward a desirable vision. In the context of undergraduate medical education, leadership pertains to team-based care, quality improvement projects, etc||-Leadership |
|19||All issues related to ethical behavior and professionalism, including conduct, congruent with generally accepted moral principles and values and with professional guidelines based on those principles and values. This definition includes general leadership ethics, such as honesty and responsibility, as well as ethics and professionalism specific to the HSS domains||-Professionalism |
|20||Educational Leadership as a domain that encompasses academic positions that encompass formal administrative responsibilities for educational programs (e.g., residency training directors, directors of medical student education in specific departments, etc.).]||-Educational Leadership||Medical Education|
|21||Leadership being a responsibility for all staff at every level through effective teamwork and the continuous development of personal MLM attributes and behaviours||-Shared Leadership||UME|
|22||A student’s capacity for leadership and resilience stems from the intrapersonal relationship one has with oneself; interpersonal relationships; and relationships within organizations that build partnership, respect, and change capacity.||-Leadership |
|23||We base the programme on the idea of influencing others to work together towards achieving a common goal, which is improved health and well-being of the population through transformation and change. The leadership training is competency-based supported by a framework and self-assessment including the following areas: system thinking, emotional intelligence, collaboration and teamwork, organisational learning and development, leading change, ethical and professional practice||Leadership||Trans-professional|
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Rodríguez-Feria, P.; Czabanowska, K.; Babich, S.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, D.; Carreño Hernández, F.L.; Hernández Flórez, L.J. Defining Leadership in Undergraduate Medical Education, Networks, and Instructors: A Scoping Review. Int. Med. Educ. 2023, 2, 49-70. https://doi.org/10.3390/ime2010006
Rodríguez-Feria P, Czabanowska K, Babich S, Rodríguez-Sánchez D, Carreño Hernández FL, Hernández Flórez LJ. Defining Leadership in Undergraduate Medical Education, Networks, and Instructors: A Scoping Review. International Medical Education. 2023; 2(1):49-70. https://doi.org/10.3390/ime2010006Chicago/Turabian Style
Rodríguez-Feria, Pablo, Katarzyna Czabanowska, Suzanne Babich, Daniela Rodríguez-Sánchez, Fredy Leonardo Carreño Hernández, and Luis Jorge Hernández Flórez. 2023. "Defining Leadership in Undergraduate Medical Education, Networks, and Instructors: A Scoping Review" International Medical Education 2, no. 1: 49-70. https://doi.org/10.3390/ime2010006