Review of Barriers to Effective Implementation of Waste and Energy Management Policies in Ghana: Implications for the Promotion of Waste-to-Energy Technologies
2. The Policy Review Framework and Approach
3. Ghana’s Renewable Energy and Waste Management Policy Context
- Ghana Environmental and Sanitation Policy .
- National Environmental Sanitation Strategy and Action Plan .
- National Environmental Policy .
- Ghana National Energy Policy .
- Sustainable Energy for All (Se4All) Action Agenda .
- Renewable Energy Master Plan .
- Ghana Health and Action Plan .
- Ghana National Climate Change Policy .
4. Overview of Waste and Energy Policies in Ghana
- Enhancing strategies for improved national sanitation issues.
- Increasing the proportion of renewable energy mix particularly solar, wind, mini-hydro and ensuring efficient energy use.
- Encouraging the use of waste produced from municipalities and communities into usable energy.
- Improving health and quality of life, including social and economic development.
4.1. The ‘Effect’ of Waste and Energy Policies in Ghana
4.2. ‘Implementation’ of Waste and Energy Policies in Ghana
4.2.1. Legislation and Regulatory Frameworks
- MLGRD Environmental Assessment Regulations, LI1652, June 1999.
- MLGRD Management of Environmental Sanitation Services Guidelines, March 2002.
- MLGRD Manual on Prosecution, May 2002, MLGRD Trainers Note for Training on Landfills, June 2002.
- MLGRD/EPA Best Practice Environmental Guidelines Series No.1.
- Community Water and Sanitation Regulation, 2011 (LI 2007).
- EPA/MLGRD Best Practice Environmental Guidelines Series No.3, Manual for the Preparation of District Waste Management Plans in Ghana, July 2002.
- EPA/MLGRD Manual on Environmental Health Inspections, October 2002.
- MLGRD Environmental Sanitation Services Monitoring Guidelines, January 2003.
- Feed-in-Tariff Scheme under which electricity generated from renewable energy sources is offered at a guaranteed price;
- Renewable Energy Purchase obligations under which power distribution utilities and bulk electricity consumers must purchase some percentage of their electricity from electricity generated from renewable energy sources;
- Licensing regime for Commercial Renewable Energy Service Providers, among others, to ensure transparency of operations in the renewable energy industry;
- The establishment of the Renewable Energy Fund to provide incentives for the promotion, development and utilization of renewable energy resources;
- Establishment of a Renewable Energy Authority.
4.2.2. Actors and Institutional Framework
- Supply of raw material (waste) to feed the waste-to-energy plant.
- Bringing on board innovative ideas, solutions and waste-to-energy technologies.
- Knowledge sharing and transfer.
- Regulation of waste-to-energy-related activities.
- Implementation of waste-to-energy policies.
- Purchase of the energy generated from the waste-to-energy plant.
- Advocacy and awareness creation to promote social acceptance.
- Mobilization and making efficient use of public, private and household finance to drive improvement in waste and energy sectors management.
4.2.3. Barriers to Effective Implementation of Waste and Energy Policies in Ghana
4.2.4. Level of Acceptability of Waste and Energy Policies in Ghana
- Challenges affecting the implementation of waste and energy projects and policy gaps.
- Waste-to-energy as a renewable energy source.
- Enablers for sustainable waste-to-energy projects and scale-up.
Challenges Affecting the Implementation of Waste and Energy Projects and Policy Gaps
Waste-to-Energy as a Renewable Energy Source
Scaling Up of Sustainable Waste-to-Energy Projects
5. Promotion of Waste as a Renewable Energy Source in Ghana—Insights from the Policy Review Findings
6. Conclusions and Policy Implication
- Awareness creation and education on sanitation and impacts of poor waste management should be improved.
- Institutionalization of the concept of source segregation of waste should form an integral part of the waste management system in Ghana.
- Government and regulatory authorities need to improve logistical planning and advance provision of better infrastructures and technology for waste management.
- By-laws enforcement with regulatory punitive measures has to be implemented to ensure better waste disposal and management.
- Governance structures should be reinforced with better directions for leveraging on both local and foreign funding and investment opportunities for waste-to-energy management.
- To minimize, control or eliminate uncontrolled disposal of waste as well as promote waste segregation, development of a waste management law with policy guidelines for its effective implementation is recommended.
- Develop a strategic financing strategy for mobilizing funds from different sources of funds (such as user fees, public finance, and private sector investment via PPPs), considering options to set up specific funds (e.g., plastic waste recycling fund or national sanitation fund) are sustainable mechanisms for SWM as highlighted in the Solid Waste Management Strategy.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Effect||Effectiveness||Effect of policy at addressing targeted objective|
|Equity||Differential effects of the policy on various groups such as groups defined by age, gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, religion, residence in certain zones, disabilities etc.|
|Implementation||Feasibility||Availability of resources (human, institutional, technological etc.) including costs and gains related to the implementation of policies by government and various actors. Thus, is the policy operationally feasible?|
|Conformity with other relevant legislation including levels of government and mandate of sectors involved|
|Existence of pilot programs|
|Acceptability||How stakeholders view the policies under study, influenced by their knowledge, beliefs, values, interests etc. In other words, is the policy socially accepted and politically viable to use?|
|Policy Document||Impact of Policy Objective on Waste and/or Energy (Effectiveness)||Differential Effect (Equity)|
|National Environmental Sanitation Policy, 2010||Captures levels of service for different population groups, industries, commercial areas at rural, urban and peri-urban|
|National Environmental Sanitation Strategy and Action Plan (NESSAP)||Effective coordination of and collaboration among sector stakeholders for country-wide adoption of policies, plans and programs for improved sanitation|
|National Solid Waste Management (SWM) Strategy for Ghana, 2020||Co-development of comprehensive SWM behavior change|
|Ghana National Energy Policy, 2010||Not explicitly captured|
|Sustainable Energy for All (Se4All) Action (2012)||Achieving universal energy access|
|Energy sector strategy and development plan (2010)||Not explicitly captured|
|Renewable Energy Master Plan, 2019–2030||Provide renewable energy-based decentralized electrification options in 1000 off-grid communities|
|Ghana Health and Pollution Action Plan (2019)||Not explicitly captured|
|Ghana National Climate Change Policy, 2013||To create a more coherent and equal society for women and children, who constitute the majority of the poor, depend more on natural resources and, hence, are more affected|
|Coordinated Programme of Economic and Social Development Policies, 2017–2024||Not explicitly captured|
(Focuses on safeguarding the natural environment and ensuring a resilient built environment; maintaining a stable, united and safe country; and building a prosperous country)
|Creating opportunities for all Ghanaians|
|The Medium-Term National Development Policy Framework (MTNDPF), 2018–2021||Not explicitly captured|
(Focuses on transforming agriculture and industry; revamping economic and social infrastructure; and reforming public service delivery institutions)
|Strengthening social protection and inclusion|
|Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA II) 2013–2017||Support the development of small- and medium-scale hydropower projects|
|ECOWAS Renewable Energy Policy||Promote universal access to energy services|
Create a conducive business environment to encourage private sector investment in renewable energy
|Key Actors||Specific Stakeholders/Institution||Level of Influence & Interest (H = High; L = Low)||Responsibility|
|National government (Ministries)||Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development-Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate; Ministry of Sanitation and Water Resources, Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA); Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation, Ministry of Energy; Energy Commission; Public Utilities Regulatory Commission; Environmental Protection Agency; National Development Planning Commission||H||L||MLGRD-EHSD, MESTI, MSWR, NDPC are responsible for policy, establishment of institutional and legal frameworks; EC is Ghana’s technical regulator of electricity, natural gas and renewable energy industries, and the advisor to the various ministries on energy planning and policy; EPA is the public body responsible for protecting and improving the environment in Ghana—it is responsible for matters related to regulating the environment and ensuring the implementation of Government environmental policies|
|NESPoCC with representatives from relevant government agencies, NGOs and private sector groups||H||L||The NESPoCC is responsible for coordinating policy and ensuring effective communication and co-operation and effective policy coherence|
|The Ministry of Finance; Ministry of Trade and Industry||H||L||Responsible for financial sustainability of policy implementation|
|Local government||Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs), Atwima Nwabiagya Municipal in the Ashanti Region of Ghana||L||H||Solid waste collection and disposal services; enforcement of by-laws; regulating solid waste management activities and mobilizing resources for solid waste management|
|Research and Academia||CSIR, Universities (IIR/STEPRI), WASCAL, KNUST, KsTU, UNER Teachers in Primary, JHS SHS||L||H||Research in waste management technologies, environmental health and sanitation education|
|Formal private sector players||Zoomlion Ghana Limited||H||H||Provision of services such as collection, transfer, treatment, recycling and/or disposal of wastes. Services are provided either directly to individuals, community associations and business establishments, or operate under various partnership agreements with the metropolitan or municipal authorities|
|Environmental and sanitation providers association (ESPA), waste scavengers association||H||H||Liaise with citizens, industries and organizations to control environmental pollution, adopt clean production and technologies; reduce, reuse and recycle materials and natural resources; and minimize waste.|
|Informal private sector players||Individuals or small groups||L||H||Individuals or small groups involved in unregistered and unregulated waste management activities.|
|Households and Communities||L||H||Households are interested in receiving efficient waste collection services and sometimes waste disposal issues may not be a priority.|
|Community-based and Non Governmental Organizations||E.g. Coalition of NGOs in water and sanitation (CONIWAS)|
|H||H||Assist communities in community mobilization. Assist the District Assemblies, Town Councils, Unit Committees and communities in the planning, funding and development of community sanitation infrastructure for the safe disposal of wastes and the prevention of soil, water and air pollution.|
|Finance and insurance institutions||Formal commercial banks and Micro-financing institutions||L||L||Financial sustainability|
|Other Associations||Media||H||L||Awareness creation on source separation, waste-to-energy advocacy, and dissemination of waste-to-energy information.|
|Policy Document||Identified Gaps|
|Ghana Environmental Sanitation Policy (2010)|
|National Environmental Sanitation Strategy Action Plan (NESSAP)|
|National Solid Waste Management (SWM) Strategy for Ghana, 2020|
|Ghana National Energy Policy (2010)|
|Renewable Energy Master Plan (2019–2030)|
|Energy Sector Strategy and Development Plan (2010)|
|Sustainable Energy for All (Se4All) Action (2012)|
|Ghana Health and Pollution Action Plan (2019)|
|Ghana National Climate Change Policy (2013)|
|Coordinated Programme of Economic and Social Development Policies (2017–2024)|
|The Medium-Term National Development Policy Framework (MTNDPF)|
|ECOWAS Renewable Energy Policy|
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Williams, P.A.; Narra, S.; Antwi, E.; Quaye, W.; Hagan, E.; Asare, R.; Owusu-Arthur, J.; Ekanthalu, V.S. Review of Barriers to Effective Implementation of Waste and Energy Management Policies in Ghana: Implications for the Promotion of Waste-to-Energy Technologies. Waste 2023, 1, 313-332. https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020021
Williams PA, Narra S, Antwi E, Quaye W, Hagan E, Asare R, Owusu-Arthur J, Ekanthalu VS. Review of Barriers to Effective Implementation of Waste and Energy Management Policies in Ghana: Implications for the Promotion of Waste-to-Energy Technologies. Waste. 2023; 1(2):313-332. https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020021Chicago/Turabian Style
Williams, Portia Adade, Satyanarayana Narra, Edward Antwi, Wilhemina Quaye, Elizabeth Hagan, Roland Asare, Johnny Owusu-Arthur, and Vicky Shettigondahalli Ekanthalu. 2023. "Review of Barriers to Effective Implementation of Waste and Energy Management Policies in Ghana: Implications for the Promotion of Waste-to-Energy Technologies" Waste 1, no. 2: 313-332. https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020021