Facts and Figures on Aspects of Waste Management in Middle East and North Africa Region
2. Gross Domestic Product
3. Energy Consumption
4. Higher Energy Consumption Than the Global Average and Dependency on Fossil Fuel
5. Renewable Energy Roadmap
6. Status of Renewable Energy in Jordan
7. Current Waste Management Situation
7.3. Disposal of Waste
8. Land Requirements for Landfill
9. Financing and Economic Aspects
- A fixed annual lump-sum fee (JOD 20 per household) that is paid in monthly instalments plus JOD 0.005 per KWh (for every KWh above 200 KWh consumption per month), levied with the monthly electricity bill and applicable to households in the Amman municipality;
- A fixed annual lump-sum fee (JOD 24, 15, or 8 per household depending on municipality class) that is paid in monthly instalments, levied with the monthly electricity bill, and is applicable to households in all municipalities except Amman;
- For any professional licensee of commercial, institutional, and industrial activities in municipalities including Amman, 20% of the professional license fee is levied annually.
- Poor enforcement and implementation of laws and regulations.
- Lack of financial resources needed for solid waste management as the available resources are not sufficient to cover the cost of the process.
- Recycling initiatives fail due to poor performance at the local government level;
- Lack of expertise and human skills;
- Lack of adequate equipment, tools, or facilities for successful recycling operations, in addition to poor maintenance;
- Low public awareness of solid waste management issues—this leads to weaknesses in carrying out recycling operations, as well as creating negative practices in dealing with municipal solid waste and weak public participation in solid waste management .
- Lack of institutional and administrative systems and weak coordination between different institutions;
- Lack of supervisory processes for solid waste management;
- Lack of coordination between the government and the private sector and a lack of separation between the different stages of the system (collection, disposal, and transfer) .
10. Institutional Framework
10.1. In Jordan
10.2. In Egypt
10.3. In Tunisia
11. Suggested Strategies for Dealing with MSW in the MENA Region and Future Research Work
- Sorting analysis of the MSW, at least for the main cities.
- Sorting is related to determining the major fractions of the MSW, while sampling must be implemented for each fraction. This means a detailed analysis in terms of water content, volatile content, and ash content for each fraction, rather than focusing on the lump sample, to precisely evaluate the LCV and obtain a precise percentage of water content in the MSW. Furthermore, elementary analysis is required for the combustible fraction.
- Sorting analysis must be performed for six months from January through to July. During this period, numerous parameters will affect the composition of the MSW, particularly the moisture content, where the behavior of the inhabitants tends to change. In addition, the effect of weather conditions will increase the evaporation rate during the summer months.
- New regulations and laws to support recycling and energy recovery from waste need to be implemented and discussed.
- Increasing the role of the private sector and motivating it to invest in recycling projects in terms of the PPA concept (public private associating), and involving the informal sector. The recycling rate must be increased to reach 30% of total generation.
- The concept of dry and wet containers needs to be activated and implemented, at least for the main cities. This will be the first step towards source separation. This concept expands the treatment possibilities in terms of composting and biogas production as the organic fraction will be pre-separated and prepared.
- The concept of energy recovery from waste needs to be well defined in institutional frameworks, which should be prepared to invest in this. Energy recovery should receive 20% of the generated waste. The European Union is always seeking ways to increase the recycling rate by issuing new laws and regulations. Despite this, around 25–30% of the total MSW generated in Europe is sent for incineration.
- Financing needs to be pre-prepared to build up comprehensive economic revenues for the waste system.
- Unifying the responsibility for decision making and putting in place all stakeholders to activate and discuss the applicable solution.
- Inadequate rules and regulations to stop the dumping of waste and decreasing the landfilling process gradually by increasing and supporting other streams of waste treatments.
- Lack of a reliable database and trusted tracing systems for waste collection and transportation. A solid background and periodically updated data, especially regarding the amount of waste generation and composition, are essential for developing an integrated waste management system.
- Lack of regional cooperation across all countries of the region and a failure to exchange data.
- Unclear tariff scheme for waste services introduced by the municipalities for the citizenship. In the best case, cost recovery through tax or included in power bills covers 30–40% of the expenses of the government.
- Infrastructure unprepared to enable certain types of development or additives in the waste sector, such as separation at the source, and poor strategic plans to encourage the private sector to invest in the waste system.
- Some countries in the region (Algeria and Tunisia) have very efficient regulations regarding the industrial sector and their responsibility toward waste generation, known as extended producer responsibility (EPR). However, this needs to be applicable in reality and further developed, which requires an updated database for the industrial sector and extended cooperation and coordination among the responsible institutions.
- At present, waste is considered garbage that needs to be disposed of. Awareness is low among society about the importance of the waste sector as a viable component of the circular economy and environmental protection. Recently, waste management has begun to be included as a comprehensive engineering program in universities. Awareness of this sector needs to be increased among the poor strata of society to ensure the integrated development of the entire sector.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Country||Population||Average MSW Generation |
|Total Amount of Waste Generation (Ton/Year) × 106|
|United Arab Emirates||9,701,315||1.7||5.31|
|Waste Fractions (%)|
|United Arab Emirates||20||25||4||4||4||35||0||8|
|Country||Open Dump (%)||Controlled Landfill (%)||Sanitary Landfill (%)||Recycling (%)||Composting (%)||Anaerobic Digestion (%)||Incineration (%)|
|Bahrain||92||8||In plan phase, to accommodate 390 Kilo ton/year|
|Iraq||100||no available data||no available data||no available data||no available data|
|Kuwait||100||In plan phase, to accommodate 1195 Kilo ton/year|
|Oman||100||In plan phase, to accommodate 390 Kilo ton/year by 2023|
|Saudi Arabia||85||15||Ambitious target of 3 GW for WtE facilities in 2030|
|Emirates||62||9||20||9||In plan phase, there are 4 projects in 4 cities with 2525 Kilo ton/year|
|Yemen||68||24||no available data||8||no available data|
|Country||Total Amount of Waste/Year||25% Is |
Sent to Waste
|40% Dry Matter||Energy Produced by Incineration |
According to the Equation Below (Mwe)
|MWh (7200 is the Operational Hours/Year of the Plant)||Number of Persons Receiving Their Energy from Waste Incineration|
|United Arab Emirates||6,019,665||1,504,916||601,966||40.09||288,614||26,237|
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Thabit, Q.; Nassour, A.; Nelles, M. Facts and Figures on Aspects of Waste Management in Middle East and North Africa Region. Waste 2023, 1, 52-80. https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010005
Thabit Q, Nassour A, Nelles M. Facts and Figures on Aspects of Waste Management in Middle East and North Africa Region. Waste. 2023; 1(1):52-80. https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010005Chicago/Turabian Style
Thabit, Qahtan, Abdallah Nassour, and Michael Nelles. 2023. "Facts and Figures on Aspects of Waste Management in Middle East and North Africa Region" Waste 1, no. 1: 52-80. https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010005