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Waste, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 20 articles

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18 pages, 4534 KiB  
Article
Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor Performance on Saline Produced Water (Upstream Oil & Gas) at Very Low Hydraulic Retention Time
by Matthieu Jacob, Bertrand Segues, Marie-Claire Lot, El hadji Ibrahima Ndiaye, Cecilia Sambusiti, Patrick Baldoni-Andrey and Frédéric Perie
Waste 2023, 1(1), 295-312; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010020 - 10 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1759
Abstract
This paper presents the results obtained on an oil and gas field terminal in Gabon during a continuous 8-month long operation involving the move of a pre-industrial bed biofilm bioreactor pilot for treating highly saline produced water (100 g/L). After several months of [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results obtained on an oil and gas field terminal in Gabon during a continuous 8-month long operation involving the move of a pre-industrial bed biofilm bioreactor pilot for treating highly saline produced water (100 g/L). After several months of efficient acclimation of the biofilm carriers, more than 90% of the biological oxygen demand, 50% of total organic carbon and 35% of the chemical oxygen demand were removed during 1 h of residence time at a maximum organic loading rate of 12 kgCOD.m−3.day−1, making it a highly promising solution for offshore produced water treatment. These values reached more than 95%, 80% and 60% of BOD, TOC and COD removal, respectively, for 12 h residence time. In addition to the significant removal efficiency of the pilot, it is also important to highlight the robustness of the process. The presence of an acclimated biofilm properly attached to the carriers strongly reduced biomass washing during anomalous phases in comparison to a conventional activated sludge configuration. This technology favorably follows the three key pillars for implementing offshore technologies: high removal performance, robustness and low footprint. Full article
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2 pages, 158 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Waste in 2022
by Waste Editorial Office
Waste 2023, 1(1), 293-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010019 - 29 Jan 2023
Viewed by 882
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
12 pages, 3963 KiB  
Article
ASPEN PLUS Predictive Simulation of Printed Circuit Boards Pyrolysis and Steam Gasification for Organic Fraction Valorization
by Pietro Romano, Emanuele Melchiorre and Francesco Vegliò
Waste 2023, 1(1), 281-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010018 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
Printed circuit boards are considered a secondary source of raw materials, such as precious or base metals. One of the most promising solutions for recovering these metals is certainly hydrometallurgy. However, the leaching of different metals from PCBs is hindered by the presence [...] Read more.
Printed circuit boards are considered a secondary source of raw materials, such as precious or base metals. One of the most promising solutions for recovering these metals is certainly hydrometallurgy. However, the leaching of different metals from PCBs is hindered by the presence of an organic fraction that lowers the extraction yields. One solution to this problem is a pyrolysis pre-treatment which removes the organic fraction and enhances it through conversion into syngas. A steady-state simulation model was developed using ASPEN PLUS to describe the thermodynamic behavior of PCB pyrolysis. The pyrolysis reactor was modeled as a combination of the Yields reactor and the Gibbs reactor. The model has been validated using various data present in the literature. The composition of the different products was estimated through the minimization of Gibbs’s free energy. A sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the influence of different parameters on the conversion yield and the syngas quality produced. Thanks to the study, it was possible to describe and analyze the pyrolysis of PCBs without requiring numerous experimental tests. The results show how steam gasification appears to be the most efficient technology for the pre-treatment of PCBs within a hydrometallurgical process. Full article
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17 pages, 2832 KiB  
Review
Review on Aquatic Weeds as Potential Source for Compost Production to Meet Sustainable Plant Nutrient Management Needs
by D. M. N. S. Dissanayaka, S. S. Udumann, D. K. R. P. L. Dissanayake, T. D. Nuwarapaksha and Anjana J. Atapattu
Waste 2023, 1(1), 264-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010017 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5155
Abstract
As a result of the increase in agricultural production and environmental pollution, waste management and disposal are becoming vital. Proper treatments, such as converting abundant bio-mass wastes into beneficial materials, might mitigate the negative effects and convert waste into reusable resources. Aquatic weeds [...] Read more.
As a result of the increase in agricultural production and environmental pollution, waste management and disposal are becoming vital. Proper treatments, such as converting abundant bio-mass wastes into beneficial materials, might mitigate the negative effects and convert waste into reusable resources. Aquatic weeds are a significant concern in the majority of water bodies. Their quick growth, rapid ecological adaptations, and lack of natural enemies make these plants invasive, problematic, and challenging to manage over time. Although there are many methods to manage aquatic weeds, composting has been identified as one of the easily adapted and eco-friendly methods for transferring nutrients to the cropping cycle. Their short life cycle, higher biomass yield, higher nutrient compositions, and allelopathic and phytoremediation properties confirm their suitability as raw materials for composting. Most aquatic ecosystems can be maintained in optimum conditions while facilitating maximum benefits for life by identifying and developing proper composting techniques. Studying the ecology and morphological features of aquatic weeds is essential for this purpose. This is an overview of identifying the potential of aquatic weeds as a source of composting, targeting sustainable plant nutrient management while managing weeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agri-Food Wastes and Biomass Valorization)
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15 pages, 1129 KiB  
Article
Spent Nuclear Fuel—Waste or Resource? The Potential of Strategic Materials Recovery during Recycle for Sustainability and Advanced Waste Management
by Alistair F. Holdsworth, Harry Eccles, Clint A. Sharrad and Kathryn George
Waste 2023, 1(1), 249-263; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010016 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4246
Abstract
Nuclear fuel is both the densest form of energy in its virgin state and, once used, one of the most hazardous materials known to humankind. Though commonly viewed as a waste—with over 300,000 tons stored worldwide and an additional 7–11,000 tons accumulating annually—spent [...] Read more.
Nuclear fuel is both the densest form of energy in its virgin state and, once used, one of the most hazardous materials known to humankind. Though commonly viewed as a waste—with over 300,000 tons stored worldwide and an additional 7–11,000 tons accumulating annually—spent nuclear fuel (SNF) represents a significant potential source of scarce, valuable strategic materials. Beyond the major (U and Pu) and minor (Np, Am, and Cm) actinides, which can be used to generate further energy, resources including the rare earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Tb), platinum group metals, (Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag), noble gases (He, Kr, and Xe), and a range of isotopes useful for medical and energy generation purposes are also produced during fission. One reason for the accumulation of so much SNF is the low uptake of SNF recycle (or reprocessing), primarily due to the high capital and operational costs alongside concerns regarding proliferation and wastes generated. This study will highlight the predominantly overlooked potential for the recovery of strategic materials from SNF, which may offset costs and facilitate advanced waste management techniques for minimised waste volumes, thus increasing the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle on the path towards Net Zero. Potential challenges in the implementation of this concept will also be identified. Full article
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21 pages, 1278 KiB  
Review
A Concise Review of Catalytic Synthesis of Methanol from Synthesis Gas
by Guanfu Liu, Helena Hagelin-Weaver and Bruce Welt
Waste 2023, 1(1), 228-248; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010015 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 8975
Abstract
Regenerative Robust Gasification promises to convert unsorted organic waste, including all plastic waste, into the fungible, primary feedstock chemical methanol. As the backbone of the C1 chemical industry, methanol has broad application in circular economy chemical synthesis. This paper summarizes traditional and newer [...] Read more.
Regenerative Robust Gasification promises to convert unsorted organic waste, including all plastic waste, into the fungible, primary feedstock chemical methanol. As the backbone of the C1 chemical industry, methanol has broad application in circular economy chemical synthesis. This paper summarizes traditional and newer approaches for producing methanol from synthesis gas. Approaches, methods, reaction mechanisms, catalyst systems, catalyst synthesis methods, reactor types, and many other aspects are summarized. Full article
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33 pages, 2303 KiB  
Article
A Detailed Database of the Chemical Properties and Methane Potential of Biomasses Covering a Large Range of Common Agricultural Biogas Plant Feedstocks
by Audrey Lallement, Christine Peyrelasse, Camille Lagnet, Abdellatif Barakat, Blandine Schraauwers, Samuel Maunas and Florian Monlau
Waste 2023, 1(1), 195-227; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010014 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
Agricultural biogas plants are increasingly being used in Europe as an alternative source of energy. To optimize the sizing and operation of existing or future biogas plants, a better knowledge of different feedstocks is needed. Our aim is to characterize 132 common agricultural [...] Read more.
Agricultural biogas plants are increasingly being used in Europe as an alternative source of energy. To optimize the sizing and operation of existing or future biogas plants, a better knowledge of different feedstocks is needed. Our aim is to characterize 132 common agricultural feedstocks in terms of their chemical composition (proteins, fibers, elemental analysis, etc.) and biochemical methane potential shared in five families: agro-industrial products, silage and energy crops, lignocellulosic biomass, manure, and slurries. Among the families investigated, manures and slurries exhibited the highest ash and protein contents (10.3–13.7% DM). High variabilities in C/N were observed among the various families (19.5% DM for slurries and 131.7% DM for lignocellulosic biomass). Methane potentials have been reported to range from 63 Nm3 CH4/t VS (green waste) to 551 Nm3 CH4/t VS (duck slurry), with a mean value of 284 Nm3 CH4/t VS. In terms of biodegradability, lower values of 52% and 57% were reported for lignocelluloses biomasses and manures, respectively, due to their high fiber content, especially lignin. By contrast, animal slurries, silage, and energy crops exhibited a higher biodegradability of 70%. This database will be useful for project owners during the pre-study phases and during the operation of future agricultural biogas plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agri-Food Wastes and Biomass Valorization)
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19 pages, 2310 KiB  
Article
An Experimentally Validated Selection Protocol for Biochar as a Sustainable Component in Green Roofs
by Tom Haeldermans, Jeamichel Puente Torres, Willem Vercruysse, Robert Carleer, Pieter Samyn, Dries Vandamme, Jan Yperman, Ann Cuypers, Kenny Vanreppelen and Sonja Schreurs
Waste 2023, 1(1), 176-194; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010013 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
Green roofs contribute to more sustainable cities, but current commercial substrates suffer from important limitations. If carefully selected, biochar could serve as a viable option for a more sustainable green roof substrate. We propose a protocol to select an optimal biochar for green [...] Read more.
Green roofs contribute to more sustainable cities, but current commercial substrates suffer from important limitations. If carefully selected, biochar could serve as a viable option for a more sustainable green roof substrate. We propose a protocol to select an optimal biochar for green roof substrate amendment. Coffee husks, medium-density fiberboard, palm date fronds, and a mixture of waste wood, tree bark, and olive stone kernels are selected as residues for biochar production to develop a selection protocol. The residues are pyrolyzed at 350, 450, 500, and 550 °C in a lab-scale reactor. A pyrolysis temperature of 450 °C is selected for upscaling and is based on biochar yield, pH, salinity, and elemental composition. From evaluating the biochar characteristics after upscaling, it can be concluded that the biochar’s carbonization degree is mainly controlled by pyrolysis temperature, while yield, pH, and salinity are more dependent on the biomass properties. Ultimately, our procedure evaluates the presence of important contaminants, the biochar’s water holding capacity, salinity, pH, and carbonization degree. To validate the developed protocol, plant coverage experiments on green roofs are performed, which are quantified using a novel digital image processing method, demonstrating its efficient use to facilitate future biochar selection in substrates. Full article
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10 pages, 1773 KiB  
Article
Washing Methods for Remove Sodium Chloride from Oyster Shell Waste: A Comparative Study
by Jung Eun Park, Sang Eun Lee and Seokhwi Kim
Waste 2023, 1(1), 166-175; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010012 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2538
Abstract
The oyster shell is a valuable calcium resource; however, its application is limited by its high NaCl content. Therefore, to establish the use of oyster shells as a viable resource, conditional experiments were conducted to select optimum parameters for NaCl removal. For this [...] Read more.
The oyster shell is a valuable calcium resource; however, its application is limited by its high NaCl content. Therefore, to establish the use of oyster shells as a viable resource, conditional experiments were conducted to select optimum parameters for NaCl removal. For this purpose, we compared leaching methods with batch and sequential procedures, determined the volume of water used for washing, and evaluated the mixing speed. The batch system removed NaCl when washed for >24 h over a shell to water ratio of 1:5. Results from the batch experiments confirmed that washing twice can completely remove NaCl from the shells on a like-for-like basis. Additionally, the efficiency of washing was sequentially evaluated in terms of the number of washing cycles. Compared to batch experiments, continuous washing could remove NaCl in approximately 10 min at a shell to water ratio of 1:4. We found that regardless of the washing methods, the volume of water used for washing is key for enhancing NaCl removal. Consequently, increasing the volume of water used for washing coupled with a proper sorting of fine particles can help enhance the purity of calcium, which will enable the use of oyster shell as an alternate Ca-resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agri-Food Wastes and Biomass Valorization)
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26 pages, 2840 KiB  
Review
Waste Gasification Technologies: A Brief Overview
by Santa Margarida Santos, Ana Carolina Assis, Leandro Gomes, Catarina Nobre and Paulo Brito
Waste 2023, 1(1), 140-165; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010011 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 12006
Abstract
This paper aims to briefly overview gasification technologies of biomass and heterogeneous wastes as a means for syngas production. For this purpose, an overview of the existing technologies, their main advantages, limitations, and costs, as well as commercial plants and projects (lower TRL) [...] Read more.
This paper aims to briefly overview gasification technologies of biomass and heterogeneous wastes as a means for syngas production. For this purpose, an overview of the existing technologies, their main advantages, limitations, and costs, as well as commercial plants and projects (lower TRL) operating with these technologies and syngas applications is presented. The type of technology and operating parameters should be selected considering the quality of the syngas as it will dictate its end use. Syngas quality is determined by the combination of feedstock properties, type of technology and process operating conditions, and the scale of operation. For smaller projects with a capacity of up to 10 MWth, fixed-bed technologies have been a recurring choice, while fluidized bed reactors can have an installed capacity above 100 MWth and are, therefore, more suitable for medium- and large-scale projects. Fluidized bed gasification technology supports feedstock flexibility, has scale-up potential, and presents relatively low cost, making it a suitable solution and a frequent choice for heterogeneous waste gasification in medium- or large-scale projects. Commercializing waste gasification technology is already a reality. However, more efforts need to be made so that pilot and demonstration projects can overcome the technological and economic problems and move towards commercialization. Full article
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13 pages, 2852 KiB  
Article
Carbon Footprint of Mechanical Recycling of Post-Industrial Plastic Waste: Study of ABS, PA66GF30, PC and POM Regrinds
by Jan Tinz, Tim de Ancos and Holger Rohn
Waste 2023, 1(1), 127-139; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010010 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5088
Abstract
In view of the increasing amount of plastic waste due to a yearly rise in production volume, mechanical recycling of post-industrial waste offers a way to use the scarce resources on earth more efficiently in addition to reducing the global warming potential in [...] Read more.
In view of the increasing amount of plastic waste due to a yearly rise in production volume, mechanical recycling of post-industrial waste offers a way to use the scarce resources on earth more efficiently in addition to reducing the global warming potential in the production of raw materials. Therefore, this study addresses the calculation of the product carbon footprint for sorted industrial waste according to the specifications of ISO 14067. The plastics acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (ABS), polyamide 6.6 with 30% glass fiber (PA66GF30), polycarbonate (PC) and polyoxymethylene (POM) were balanced in Umberto LCA+ using the Ecoinvent v3.8 and GaBi SP40 2020 databases and primary data collection from the recycling company Occhipinti. A cut-off approach was applied as an allocation method for evaluating the industrial waste so that the plastic for grinding was imported without burdens from the previous product system. The results show that for all plastics under study, one of the main drivers of the carbon footprint is plastic dust from the grinding process. This insight was used in sensitivity analyses to optimize the modelled processes for a more sustainable production. Improvement potentials were identified by using solar power and disposing of the plastic dust separately according to the type of plastic. Full article
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12 pages, 3309 KiB  
Article
Recycled Bottle Glass Wastes as Precursors for Porous Alumina Glass Ceramics Synthesis
by Cosmin Vancea and Giannin Mosoarca
Waste 2023, 1(1), 115-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010009 - 03 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1631
Abstract
This research presents a new solution to use bottle glass wastes together with aluminum hydroxide for porous alumina glass ceramics synthesis. The firing of the samples was conducted at three temperatures: 800, 1000 and 1200 °C. The effect of the bottle waste glass [...] Read more.
This research presents a new solution to use bottle glass wastes together with aluminum hydroxide for porous alumina glass ceramics synthesis. The firing of the samples was conducted at three temperatures: 800, 1000 and 1200 °C. The effect of the bottle waste glass addition on the firing shrinkage, apparent density porosity, chemical stability and compression strength of the sintered samples was investigated. The dimensional stability of the samples, varying between 4.75–11.87% is positively affected by waste glass/alumina substitution ratio. Higher amounts of glass waste lead to higher apparent densities, up to 1.80 g/cm3 and lower apparent porosities, around 33.74%, depending on the heat treatment temperature. All the studied glass ceramics have very good chemical stability that increase with the glass waste/alumina ratio. The compression strength of the obtained samples, ranging between 4.72–24.20 N/mm2 is negatively affected by increasing the glass waste amount due to its brittle behavior. The obtained results suggest the viability of the proposed recycling alternative for bottle glass waste together with aluminum hydroxide as porous alumina glass ceramics. Full article
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10 pages, 2006 KiB  
Article
Development of a Cloud Point Extraction Technique Based on Lecithin for the Recovery of Carotenoids from Liquid Tomato Wastewater
by Ioannis Giovanoudis, Vassilis Athanasiadis, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Olga Gortzi, George D. Nanos and Stavros I. Lalas
Waste 2023, 1(1), 105-114; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010008 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
The traditional extraction methods used to recover natural antioxidants from food industry wastes involve significant amounts of hazardous solvents. A viable alternative is the use of non-toxic surfactants to remove organic compounds from wastes at temperatures above the cloud point. Cloud point extraction [...] Read more.
The traditional extraction methods used to recover natural antioxidants from food industry wastes involve significant amounts of hazardous solvents. A viable alternative is the use of non-toxic surfactants to remove organic compounds from wastes at temperatures above the cloud point. Cloud point extraction has only recently begun to be used to recover high-value added compounds from food industry wastes. In the current work, a method for the isolation of high-value added components from liquid tomato wastewater using a cloud point extraction method was developed and optimized. Food-grade lecithin was examined for its potential to be used as a surfactant in the developed procedure. Moreover, parameters affecting the extraction (ionic strength, sample pH, temperature of extraction, and surfactant concentration) were examined and optimized. According to the results, the maximum recovery of carotenoids from the sample could be achieved with the developed procedure, by simply adjusting the pH to 3.5, adding 35.6% (w/v) sodium chloride, and setting the temperature at 45 °C. Moreover, the amount of lecithin used was examined. In order to extract the total amount of carotenoids from a sample, it was found that either three extractions with 1% lecithin are needed, or two extractions with 2% lecithin. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the extract was examined and it was found to scavenge 36.3% of DPPH free radicals. This percentage was 10% lower compared to the initial sample, which suggests that the extracted compounds retain their activity. Overall, the developed procedure can be used to recover carotenoids in a cost-efficient and easy way. Full article
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10 pages, 1581 KiB  
Article
Protecting Wastewater Workers by Categorizing Risks of Pathogen Exposures by Splash and Fecal-Oral Transmission during Routine Tasks
by Rasha Maal-Bared
Waste 2023, 1(1), 95-104; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010007 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) present an opportunity to systematically assess risk to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) workers and mitigate work-related infectious diseases. However, while QMRAs often explore the impacts of aeration or treatment mechanism, or the use of controls to mitigate risk [...] Read more.
Quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) present an opportunity to systematically assess risk to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) workers and mitigate work-related infectious diseases. However, while QMRAs often explore the impacts of aeration or treatment mechanism, or the use of controls to mitigate risk (e.g., ventilation, personal protective equipment (PPE)), fewer studies address other variables, such as differing tasks across plants, time spent conducting these tasks or size of plant. QMRA approaches also vary substantially in their findings and recommendations. The objective of this paper is to provide a risk-based wastewater worker task characterization for urban, municipal and industrial WWTPs along with mitigation measures. Routine tasks fell into five categories in ascending order of exposure and risk, Type A being the lowest and Type E being the highest. Percentage of full-time equivalent time spent on each task category was estimated, along with amount of wastewater exposure (mL) and inhalation duration (h). Estimates differed between urban and municipal plants but were similar in industrial and municipal systems. Finally, a checklist was developed to identify potential mitigation measures and prioritize H&S solutions for eight inspected WWTPs. The present work provides practical information for job safety assessments, H&S policies and QMRA method refinement. Full article
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14 pages, 3900 KiB  
Article
Modification of Recovered Silicon from End-of-Life Photovoltaic Panels for Catalytic Reduction of Cr(VI)
by Charalampos Pavlopoulos, Konstantina Papadopoulou, Minas Theocharis, Petros Tsakiridis, Pavlina Kousi, Artin Hatzikioseyian, Emmanouella Remoundaki and Gerasimos Lyberatos
Waste 2023, 1(1), 81-94; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010006 - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1909
Abstract
As installed photovoltaic panels (PVPs) approach their End of Life (EoL), the need for a sustainable recovery plan becomes imperative. This work aims to reuse silicon from EoL PVPs as a potential catalyst/photocatalyst for wastewater treatment. PVPs were pretreated thermally. The resulting mixture [...] Read more.
As installed photovoltaic panels (PVPs) approach their End of Life (EoL), the need for a sustainable recovery plan becomes imperative. This work aims to reuse silicon from EoL PVPs as a potential catalyst/photocatalyst for wastewater treatment. PVPs were pretreated thermally. The resulting mixture was separated into different fractions using a trommel screen. Recovered silicon flakes were cleaned with HΝO3 and HF in order to obtain pure Si, which was then etched through a single stage Ag-assisted Chemical Etching process and decorated with Ag/Cu. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) in the presence of 5 mM citric acid was carried out in a 600 mL batch reactor irradiated by a Xenon 150 W arc lamp as well as under dark conditions. It was found that, in the presence of 1.2 g/L of Si catalyst, Cr(VI) at an initial concentration of 15 mg/L can be reduced below the detection limit (>99%), even under dark conditions, in 30–180 min, depending on the pH of the solution and the citric acid concentration. Citric acid was proved to assist the reaction in three ways: lowering the pH, increasing the solubility of the precipitate, preventing inhibition, and as sacrificial agent in photocatalysis. Irradiation, however, was shown to possibly inhibit the process if the citric acid concentration is low. Full article
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29 pages, 3395 KiB  
Review
Facts and Figures on Aspects of Waste Management in Middle East and North Africa Region
by Qahtan Thabit, Abdallah Nassour and Michael Nelles
Waste 2023, 1(1), 52-80; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010005 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 8321
Abstract
The waste management field in Middle Eastern and North African countries suffers from multiple drawbacks and chronic problems that require strategic solutions and collaboration among various institutions. Due to a lack of data, a financial deficit, limited economic resources for the municipalities, and [...] Read more.
The waste management field in Middle Eastern and North African countries suffers from multiple drawbacks and chronic problems that require strategic solutions and collaboration among various institutions. Due to a lack of data, a financial deficit, limited economic resources for the municipalities, and singular treatment processes, until recently, waste has been dealt with as garbage that needs to be disposed of, while, in a large number of developed countries, waste now represents a substantial economic resource and an important source of materials that can be reinserted into the industrial sector. This paper presents a review of several aspects and sectors that are directly related to waste generation and the current situation regarding the waste management system in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in terms of composition, generated amount/capita, existing treatment routes, and institutional frameworks. Furthermore, gross domestic production and population growth are specified as critical factors governing the waste sector in the region. Such data and information will increase the possibility of drawing a roadmap to convert the current waste treatment stream into a material flow concept and circular economy. The energy sector (energy consumption) is also considered to illustrate the potential role of waste if incineration technology (energy recovery from waste) is realized as a radical solution for the waste system in the region. Following a review of the literature, the main challenges in the waste management sector that need to be solved are summarized. The novelty of this work is two-fold. First, it elucidates the connection between gross domestic product (GDP), waste composition, and waste generation. According to the literature, countries with a high GDP produce a greater amount of waste (around 1.5–2.7 kg/capita/day) with a lower organic share of waste composition of around 40%, as they have an increased lifestyle rate. Second, a review of energy consumption per capita illuminates the essential role of waste as a source of energy. Full article
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12 pages, 1448 KiB  
Article
Efficient Al Recovery from Aluminum Dross with Simultaneous AlN Separation by a Mechanical Method
by Yujie Xue, Mingqi Zhang, Jizhi Zhou and Yufeng Zhang
Waste 2023, 1(1), 40-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010004 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1773
Abstract
Aluminum dross (AD) is a hazardous waste that contains valuable metallic Al and reactive aluminum nitride (AlN). The intergrowth of Al and AlN presents a challenge to Al recovery and AlN removal. In the current work, a mechanical milling method was developed to [...] Read more.
Aluminum dross (AD) is a hazardous waste that contains valuable metallic Al and reactive aluminum nitride (AlN). The intergrowth of Al and AlN presents a challenge to Al recovery and AlN removal. In the current work, a mechanical milling method was developed to separate Al and AlN. Steel bars and balls were used as grinding media. The AD particle size decreased after milling and was distributed in the ranges 0.425–2 mm, 0.15–0.425 mm, 0.08–0.15 mm, and <0.08 mm. The particle size distribution was affected by the ball milling media and grinding time. Steel ball media had a better grinding effect on particles > 2 mm. After ball milling, the Dp0.08–2 mm size fraction accounted for approximately 90%. With changes in particle size, the element content of AD varied: the fraction of metallic Al decreased, while the fraction of Si increased. Metallic Al mainly existed in particles with size > 0.425 mm, accounting for 48.5%. AlN mainly existed in Dp0.15–0.425 mm, accounting for 64.9%. The optimal milling conditions achieved a 65% Al recovery rate and a 90% AlN separation efficiency. This work provides a promising approach for highly efficient pretreatment for AD recovery and AlN elimination in industrial applications. Full article
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19 pages, 15679 KiB  
Article
Challenges Associated with Cleaning Plastic Food Packaging for Reuse
by Samsun Nahar, Mala Sian, Ryan Larder, Fiona L. Hatton and Elliot Woolley
Waste 2023, 1(1), 21-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010003 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2980
Abstract
Reuse of plastic packaging for food is a promising route to reduce the environmental burdens, but presents particular challenges due to the need to avoid cross-contamination of contents. This study investigates the challenges associated with cleaning and assessing existing recycled PET (rPET) food-to-go [...] Read more.
Reuse of plastic packaging for food is a promising route to reduce the environmental burdens, but presents particular challenges due to the need to avoid cross-contamination of contents. This study investigates the challenges associated with cleaning and assessing existing recycled PET (rPET) food-to-go (FTG) pack forms and provides recommendations to enable a shift towards reusable food packaging systems. Pack forms were fouled under controlled conditions and washed in accordance published guidelines. Three fouling media were selected to represent food residue typically found in FTG packs. Investigated parameters included fouling type and quality, wash and rinse times, and detergent dosage. Cleanliness was assessed using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) swabbing and the effect on the material properties was studied via tensile testing, IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The results demonstrate that cleaning effectiveness is dependent on the quantity of fouling, the duration of the wash cycle and the dosing of detergent indicating the potential to optimise parameters for different fouling conditions. It is also concluded that ATP testing is an inappropriate cleanliness assessment method for food packaging due to many opportunities for it to produce false negative readings, its high cost, and slow response. The rPET material properties remained largely unchanged apart from a slight increase in stiffness, however packaging suffered significant deformation. Full article
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19 pages, 1658 KiB  
Review
Spent Coffee Grounds Characterization and Reuse in Composting and Soil Amendment
by Anne Shayene Campos de Bomfim, Daniel Magalhães de Oliveira, Eric Walling, Alexandre Babin, Grégory Hersant, Céline Vaneeckhaute, Marie-Josée Dumont and Denis Rodrigue
Waste 2023, 1(1), 2-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010002 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 15565
Abstract
As an everyday beverage, coffee is consumed worldwide, generating a high amount of waste after brewing, which needs attention for its disposal. These residues are referred to as spent coffee grounds (SCGs), which have been shown to have applications as polymers/composites precursors, biofuels, [...] Read more.
As an everyday beverage, coffee is consumed worldwide, generating a high amount of waste after brewing, which needs attention for its disposal. These residues are referred to as spent coffee grounds (SCGs), which have been shown to have applications as polymers/composites precursors, biofuels, and biofertilizers. This review focuses on agricultural applications usually based on organic matter to fertilize the soil and consequently improve plant growth. To date, SCGs have been shown to exhibit outstanding performance when applied as soil amendment and composting because it is a nutrient-rich organic waste without heavy metals. Therefore, this review presents the different options to use SCGs in agriculture. First, SCG composition using different characterization techniques is presented to identify the main components. Then, a review is presented showing how SCG toxicity can be resolved when used alone in the soil, especially at high concentrations. In this case, SCG is shown to be effective not only to enhance plant growth, but also to enhance nutritional values without impacting the environment while substituting conventional fertilizers. Finally, a conclusion is presented with openings for future developments. Full article
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Editorial
Publisher’s Note: Waste—A New Open Access Journal
by Jisuk Kang
Waste 2023, 1(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1010001 - 01 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
Human activity generates waste, which is discarded after its use and has an unavoidable impact on the environment and on humans [...] Full article
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