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Zoonotic Dis., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 7 articles

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17 pages, 1412 KiB  
Review
Extrahepatic Replication Sites of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)
by Kush Kumar Yadav and Scott P. Kenney
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 68-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010007 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2760
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging viral disease known to cause acute viral hepatitis globally. Various genotypes of HEV have been identified that produce genotype specific lesions depending on the HEV targeted population. Pregnant or immunosuppressed individuals develop significantly more severe hepatitis [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging viral disease known to cause acute viral hepatitis globally. Various genotypes of HEV have been identified that produce genotype specific lesions depending on the HEV targeted population. Pregnant or immunosuppressed individuals develop significantly more severe hepatitis E in comparison to the general population. In the last 40 years, we discovered that the tropism of HEV is not restricted to the liver, and virus replication was demonstrated in multiple organs. Out of the 10 body systems described in humans, HEV produces lesions causing a broad range of extrahepatic clinical manifestations in each of them. Affected body systems include nervous and musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, integumentary, renal, respiratory, immune, and reproductive systems producing systemic lesions. All extrahepatic signs are caused by either direct HEV replication in these tissues, or indirectly by various immune mediated mechanisms. Extrahepatic replication features of HEV allowed it to cross the placental barrier, blood–brain barrier (BBB), and blood–testis barrier (BTB) that do not typically grant entry to viruses in general. Thus, in this review, we summarized the extrahepatic replication sites of HEV, listed the body systems where HEV invaded, and described multiple animal models including immunocompetent and immunosuppressed that were used to study the extrahepatic replication sites of HEV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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16 pages, 2771 KiB  
Review
Livestock Reservoir Hosts: An Obscured Threat to Control of Human Schistosomiasis in Nigeria
by Hammed Oladeji Mogaji, Olaitan Olamide Omitola, Adedotun Ayodeji Bayegun, Uwem Friday Ekpo and Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 52-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010006 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3868
Abstract
Schistosomiasis is one of the leading neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Recorded case numbers of this chronic and debilitating helminth disease indicate Nigeria to be the most endemic country within this region. National control efforts have focused intensively on restricting human contact [...] Read more.
Schistosomiasis is one of the leading neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Recorded case numbers of this chronic and debilitating helminth disease indicate Nigeria to be the most endemic country within this region. National control efforts have focused intensively on restricting human contact with freshwater sources of intermediate host snails. However, limited attention has been paid to the role of livestock as reservoir hosts and the prevalence of transmission of schistosomes to humans via farmed animals. The West African nations of Mali, Senegal, and the neighbouring Niger, Benin, and Cameroon have all reported the hybridization of the closely related species of Schistosoma haematobium, which infects humans, and S. bovis, which infects cattle. As these countries share the Niger and Benue rivers, with their tributaries, there is a distinct possibility of aquatic snails infected with hybrid schistosomes migrating to become established in the Nigerian river system. Here, we report on the current state of research in Nigeria that aims to elucidate key aspects of zoonotic schistosomiasis epidemiology. Factors promoting the hybridization of Schistosoma species are highlighted, and how available control measures can be optimized to address the emergence of schistosome hybrids is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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14 pages, 4579 KiB  
Systematic Review
Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Occupational Settings: A Meta-Analysis of Italian Studies
by Matteo Riccò, Antonio Baldassarre, Silvia Corrado and Federico Marchesi
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 38-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010005 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) can cause a serious human disease known as Q Fever (QF). Our study summarized seroprevalence data from occupational settings in Italy, a country characterized by low notification rates of QF (17 cases between 2015 and 2021). Through [...] Read more.
Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) can cause a serious human disease known as Q Fever (QF). Our study summarized seroprevalence data from occupational settings in Italy, a country characterized by low notification rates of QF (17 cases between 2015 and 2021). Through systematic research on 3 databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MedRxiv), all studies including seroprevalence rates of C. burnetii in Italy were retrieved, and their results summarized and compared. We identified a total of 7 articles for a total of 1178 workers, mostly from agricultural settings. A pooled seroprevalence of 44.0% (95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] 27.6 to 61.8) was calculated. Subgroup estimates ranged from 2.8% (95%CI 0.9–6.3) in forestry rangers to 49.2% (95%CI 26.8–72.0) in livestock farmers, and peaked at 73.7% (95%CI 56.9–86.6) and 75.9% (95%CI 13.4–98.5) in abattoir workers and veterinary professionals, respectively. Seroprevalence rates for C. burnetii largely exceeded the official notification rates, suggesting its substantial underreporting in Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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18 pages, 748 KiB  
Review
Ecology and Epidemiology of Lyme Disease in Western North America
by Carl Dizon, Tim J. Lysyk, Isabelle Couloigner and Susan C. Cork
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 20-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010004 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3180
Abstract
Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Canada. The causative agent of Lyme disease in North America is the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. In western North America, the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi is the western black-legged [...] Read more.
Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Canada. The causative agent of Lyme disease in North America is the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. In western North America, the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi is the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. Surveillance and modelling efforts indicate that I. pacificus is primarily found in coastal California, Oregon, Washington and the southern coastal regions of British Columbia However, infection rates with B. burgdorferi among I. pacificus ticks remain low, ranging from 0.6% to 9.9%. Lyme disease case numbers in western North America are also relatively low compared to eastern North America. Enzootic maintenance of B. burgdorferi by hosts in natural environments and climatic factors may influence Lyme disease risk. The borreliacidal western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, may contribute to the low infection rates observed in I. pacificus ticks, while the migratory nature of avian hosts can allow for long-distance tick dispersal. Moderately warm and moist environments and protection from sunlight define the suitable habitats of I. pacificus ticks. In this review, we discuss the ecology and epidemiology of Lyme disease in relation to I. pacificus, as well as the need for more studies in western North America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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2 pages, 234 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Zoonotic Diseases in 2022
by Zoonotic Diseases Editorial Office
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 18-19; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010003 - 20 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1039
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
12 pages, 1021 KiB  
Article
Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) as Potential Reservoirs and Sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii in Northern Canada
by Émilie Bouchard, Rajnish Sharma, Adrián Hernández-Ortiz, Thomas S. Jung, N. Jane Harms, Caitlin N. Willier, Rudy Boonstra, Yasmine N. Majchrzak, Michael J. L. Peers, Géraldine-G. Gouin, Batol Al-Adhami, Audrey Simon, Patrick Leighton and Emily J. Jenkins
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 6-17; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010002 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3056
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite globally infecting a wide range of species, including humans. Felids are the only known hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts into ecosystems. In boreal regions, Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are sought by hunters primarily [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite globally infecting a wide range of species, including humans. Felids are the only known hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts into ecosystems. In boreal regions, Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are sought by hunters primarily for their fur, and they are occasionally eaten. We examined carcasses salvaged from trappers from boreal regions of eastern (n = 97) and western (n = 357) Canada. We detected T. gondii antibodies in fluid from thawed heart tissue using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, DNA in brain and heart via magnetic capture and real-time PCR assay, and presence of DNA in feces using a real-time PCR with melt curve analysis. We detected antibodies against T. gondii and DNA in tissues in 24% and 19% of lynx, respectively. One lynx was positive for DNA of T. gondii in feces, which could indicate intestinal infection and potential for shedding oocysts. Our results indicate that lynx may be a useful sentinel species for monitoring environmental circulation of T. gondii in northern boreal regions and may pose a risk for transmission to other wildlife and to people handling or consuming lynx. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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5 pages, 283 KiB  
Case Report
Recurrent Penicillin-Resistant Tonsillitis Due to Lactococcus garvieae, a New Zoonosis from Aquaculture
by Miguel Mayo-Yáñez and Lucía González-Torres
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 1-5; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010001 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2019
Abstract
Zoonotic diseases are a group of infectious diseases that are transmitted naturally from animals to humans. L. garvieae is a Gram-positive bacterium which is present in the aquaculture of freshwater and marine fish. Some isolated cases of infection have been described, considering it [...] Read more.
Zoonotic diseases are a group of infectious diseases that are transmitted naturally from animals to humans. L. garvieae is a Gram-positive bacterium which is present in the aquaculture of freshwater and marine fish. Some isolated cases of infection have been described, considering it an opportunistic agent in immunosuppressed patients. The most recent appearance of severe infections in immunocompetent patients or colonizing cardiac prostheses has set off the alarms. This manuscript presents the first two patients with recurrent tonsillitis due to L. garvieae. A 15-year-old male and an 8-year-old male had recurrent tonsillitis with more than three episodes per year. A culture of tonsillar exudate in both cases showed growth of L. garvieae with an antibiogram showing multi-resistance to antibiotics. Given the parents’ wish not to carry out surgery, an autovaccine regimen with lysed bacteria was proposed with good evolution and remission of tonsillitis episodes in both cases. The oral autovaccine produces an immunomodulatory effect and could be a therapeutic weapon in the prevention of this zoonosis. Further studies are needed to determine the importance of foodborne transmission in human L. garvieae infections and to find suitable treatments for this wide range of infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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