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Biol. Life Sci. Forum, 2024, ECM 2023

The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology

Online | 1–15 December 2023

Volume Editor: Nico Jehmlich, UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany

Number of Papers: 31
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume compiles the complete presentations from the 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology (ECM 2023), which took place from December 1st to December 15th, 2023. The allure of [...] Read more.
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529 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Impact of Acinetobacter baumannii Infections in COVID-19 Patients Admitted in Hospital Intensive Care Units
by Corneliu Ovidiu Vrancianu, Roxana-Elena Cristian, Elena-Georgiana Dobre, Catalina Zenoaga-Barbarosie, Ecaterina-Teodora Chirea, Ioana Crunteanu and Mihai-Viorel Dionisie
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16479 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Since the end of 2019, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally, affecting people worldwide. Patients with severe COVID-19 require intensive care unit (ICU) admission for acute respiratory failure; over 10% need noninvasive [...] Read more.
Since the end of 2019, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally, affecting people worldwide. Patients with severe COVID-19 require intensive care unit (ICU) admission for acute respiratory failure; over 10% need noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity and ventilation management determine a negative outcome and a 90-day mortality of 31%. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of superinfections in ICUs has progressively increased, especially carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB). Infections caused by A. baumannii represent a significant concern for COVID-19 patients. The data about superinfections complicating COVID-19 are scant. A significant proportion of these patients are treated with empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which increases the risk of developing infections caused by CRAB. Finally, drugs targeting cytokines, such as IL-1 and IL-6, might also increase the risk of superinfections in patients with COVID-19. Appropriate prescription and optimized use of antimicrobials according to the principles of antimicrobial stewardship, quality diagnosis, and aggressive infection control measures may help prevent CRAB infections during this pandemic. Recommended guidelines for antimicrobial stewardship in COVID-19 patient treatment are discussed regarding the minimization of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic use. In this mini-review, we will present the impact of CRAB infections on the outcome of patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission. Subsequently, we will discuss the joint efforts needed to prevent and control the A. baumannii confection in the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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1182 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Photoinactivation of Staphylococcus carnosus on Surfaces by Irradiation with Blue and Violet Light
by Florian Sommerfeld, Patricia Osswald, Pia Weller and Martin Hessling
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16474 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 262
Abstract
To control the spread of bacteria and viruses on surfaces in medical environments and everyday life, suitable disinfection methods are required. Visible radiation in the violet or blue spectral range is known to exhibit an antimicrobial impact on microorganisms. However, so far most [...] Read more.
To control the spread of bacteria and viruses on surfaces in medical environments and everyday life, suitable disinfection methods are required. Visible radiation in the violet or blue spectral range is known to exhibit an antimicrobial impact on microorganisms. However, so far most published studies were performed on liquids. In contrast, the sensitivity of microorganisms to visible radiation on surfaces was only investigated in a few studies. In order to transfer possible conclusions from irradiation in media to irradiation on surfaces and to apply visible light as a possible valid alternative for common disinfection methods, the log reduction doses for surfaces and liquids were compared in this study. The non-pathogenic Staphylococcus carnosus was selected as a surrogate for the ESKAPE pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, as the experiments were performed in an S1 laboratory. The irradiations were performed with wavelengths of 403 nm (violet) and 453 nm (blue). The observed log reduction doses in liquids (literature with the same strain and setup) and on surfaces (this investigation) were 101.8 J/cm2 and 14.0 J/cm2 at 403 nm and 374.3 J/cm2 and 112.8 J/cm2 at 453 nm, respectively. The results suggest that the photosensitivity of S. carnosus on surfaces is much higher than in that liquid with a ratio of 7.3 (violet) to 3.3 (blue). On the one hand, this demonstrates that irradiation on surfaces is more efficient than that in liquids, especially in the violet spectral range. On the other hand, depending on the strength of the irradiation source, disinfection with visible irradiation is a useful alternative to conventional disinfection methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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940 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Photoinactivation of E. coli on Bagged Valerianella locusta and on Cichorium intybus var. foliosum with 222 and 254 nm
by Quirin Schinko, Jessica Niznik, Alex Randy Runke, Martin Hessling and Anna-Maria Gierke
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16466 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 285
Abstract
(1) Background: In recent years, serious disease outbreaks have occurred caused by pathogens like Escherichia coli, Listeria and Salmonella. The EHEC epidemic in 2011, in Germany, caused by enterohemorrhagic E. coli, resulted in the death of about 50 people. This [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In recent years, serious disease outbreaks have occurred caused by pathogens like Escherichia coli, Listeria and Salmonella. The EHEC epidemic in 2011, in Germany, caused by enterohemorrhagic E. coli, resulted in the death of about 50 people. This illustrates the potential impact of contaminated food and the associated importance of decontaminating food that can be consumed raw. One possible approach is disinfection using UV radiation, which is a fast and environmentally friendly technique. (2) Methods: The objective of this study is to investigate the germicidal effect of ultraviolet radiation on E. coli × pGLO on bagged lettuce and on chicory seedlings. Irradiation is performed both by a conventional mercury vapor lamp with its 254 nm UV-C emission and, for comparison, with the 222 nm Far-UV-C radiation of a KrCl excimer lamp as in contrast to 254 nm radiation, Far-UV-C-radiation is known to inactivate pathogens without harming humans. (3) Results: For 222 nm radiation, a mean log reduction dose of 7.6 mJ/cm2 was found for E. coli on Cichorium intybus var. foliosum seedlings. Similar experimental results were obtained for the packaged lettuce with a 222 nm D90 dose of 12.7 mJ/cm2. A mean E. coli log reduction dose of 5.5 mJ/cm2 was observed for Valerianella locusta when irradiated at 254 nm. When this wavelength was applied to E. coli on the chicory seedlings, a mean log reduction dose of 3.6 mJ/cm2 was determined. The irradiation of the seedlings was more effective than that of the packaged lettuce. Both plants did not show visible damage after irradiation. (4) Conclusions: UV-C radiation seems to be suitable for germ reduction on plants, with 254 nm radiation exhibiting a larger antimicrobial impact than 222 nm radiation for both plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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1477 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Innovative Microorganisms in Environmental Cleanup: Effective Microorganism-Based Bioprocesses
by Hakan Çelebi, Tolga Bahadır, İsmail Şimşek and Şevket Tulun
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16457 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 430
Abstract
All over the world, environmental engineers, environmental biologists, biochemists, and other scientists are concerned about environmental pollution. In particular, different treatment technologies and applications in terms of water and soil health have been investigated for years. Studies show that the bioprocess (biosorption, bioremediation, [...] Read more.
All over the world, environmental engineers, environmental biologists, biochemists, and other scientists are concerned about environmental pollution. In particular, different treatment technologies and applications in terms of water and soil health have been investigated for years. Studies show that the bioprocess (biosorption, bioremediation, bioaccumulation, etc.) approach is more advantageous (economical, easy design, and environmentally friendly, etc.) than many treatment methods. Thanks to these advantages, bioprocesses have been preferred for the removal of different pollutants in the receiving environment. Effective microorganisms (EMOs) are defined as mixed cultures of advantageous and naturally occurring microorganisms that can be used as vaccine material. An EMO is a natural fermentation product that is not chemically or genetically modified in the form of a concentrated solution. An EMO consists of 10 species, including photosynthetic (Rhodopseudomonas palustrus and Rhodobacter spaeroides, etc.) and lactic acid (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Streptoccus lactis, etc.) bacterial groups, yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, etc.), actinomycetes, and fermenting fungi The main components of an EMO are lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and photosynthetic bacteria. In a liquid solution, they are in harmony. This article aims to review the literature on “Effective Microorganisms (EMOs)” from different scientific databases and discuss the effectiveness of using EMOs for bioprocess. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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276 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Presence and Distribution of Human-Related Microsporidian Spores across Different Topsoil Areas across Alcalá de Henares (Spain)
by Antonio Peña-Fernández, Manuel Higueras, María del Carmen Lobo-Bedmar, Fernando Izquierdo and Umar Anjum
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16461 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Humans can potentially be exposed to Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. from topsoils when playing or spending time in recreational areas. Two hundred and seventy-seven topsoil samples were collected across Alcalá de Henares (Spain) in July 2017: one hundred and fifty-five urban, sixty [...] Read more.
Humans can potentially be exposed to Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. from topsoils when playing or spending time in recreational areas. Two hundred and seventy-seven topsoil samples were collected across Alcalá de Henares (Spain) in July 2017: one hundred and fifty-five urban, sixty industrial and twelve from a public garden. Simultaneous detection was performed using a SYBR Green real-time PCR following the appropriate extraction of DNA with Fast-Prep for Soil®. The organic matter content (OM), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and soil texture (percentages of sand, clay and silt) were also determined. E. bieneusi was detected in nine (five urban, four industrial); meanwhile, Encephalitozoon spp. was detected in 22 topsoil samples (sixteen urban, six industrial; ten E. intestinalis, nine E. intestinalis/E. hellem and three E. cuniculi). The presence of E. bieneusi was associated with urban soils that presented lower EC (0.50 vs. 0.71 dS/m; p-value = 0.0110), as this factor may provide a richer environment for the survival of spores. The presence of microsporidian spores was higher in those topsoils with a higher OM content for E. bieneusi (6.96% vs. 4.98%; p-value = 0.0342) and E. intestinalis/E. hellem in one of the four quadrants into which the urban area was divided (5.54% vs. 3.12%; p-value = 0.0007). E. intestinalis is present in industrial topsoils with significantly lower contents of sand (14.5% vs. 21.74; p-value = 0.00003) but higher contents of silt (78.5% vs. 64.9%; p-value = 0.0229), which might be attributed to the differences in the capacity of topsoils to retain moisture, depending on their texture. Moreover, the provision of enough oxygen might play a role in the higher presence of E. intestinalis/E. hellem in urban topsoils with lower contents of clay (11% vs. 19%; p-value = 0.0200). A better understanding of these potential associations is critical in selecting appropriate decontamination techniques and strategies to prevent and minimise human exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
1147 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation of the Antimicrobial Impact of Cold Atmospheric Plasma on Wet and Dry Microorganisms
by Anna-Maria Gierke, Christian Lingenfelder and Martin Hessling
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16475 - 30 Nov 2023
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effect of cold atmospheric plasma on microbially contaminated liquid films and dried surfaces. Additionally, the contribution of plasma-generated UV radiation to total inactivation was assessed. Experiments were performed using the nearfield module of the relyon piezobrush [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effect of cold atmospheric plasma on microbially contaminated liquid films and dried surfaces. Additionally, the contribution of plasma-generated UV radiation to total inactivation was assessed. Experiments were performed using the nearfield module of the relyon piezobrush PZ3 plasma pen on Staphylococcus carnosus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus vestibularis and Candida auris. It was observed that in liquid, there seemed to be no obvious general sensitivity differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, all bacteria in liquids were clearly more susceptible to plasma than the yeast. In contrast, there was no significant difference between C. auris and S. carnosus on dried surfaces. The plasma emissions exhibited strong UVA and UVB radiation and only weak emissions in the UVC range. The antimicrobial impacts of the UVA and UVB emissions were negligible. However, an estimation based on two simplifications revealed that the UVC radiation probably contributed considerably to the inactivation properties of the plasma. This might be a special feature of near-field plasma application on thin liquid samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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2894 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Visible Violet Light for Hand Disinfection
by Martin Hessling, Ben Sicks, Anna-Maria Gierke, Robin Haag and Bernhard Lau
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16455 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 255
Abstract
(1) Background: Hand hygiene with chemical disinfectants is an important measure to reduce the spread of infections, but frequent use can cause skin irritation. In recent years, it has become widely accepted that visible light can also have an antimicrobial effect, and visible [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Hand hygiene with chemical disinfectants is an important measure to reduce the spread of infections, but frequent use can cause skin irritation. In recent years, it has become widely accepted that visible light can also have an antimicrobial effect, and visible light has even been applied to the disinfection of wounds. The present study aims to evaluate whether hand disinfection with visible light is a realistic alternative to chemical disinfectants. (2) Methods: Human hands were irradiated with a dose of 10 or 33 J/cm2 of visible violet light (405 nm) for 3 or 10 min, respectively. The reducing effect of the visible violet light was determined by comparing the contact agar plate results of irradiated and non-irradiated hands. Comparative experiments with a conventional hand disinfecting gel were also performed. Applicable standards were consulted to evaluate skin exposure to the irradiation. (3) Results: Irradiation of the hands with 10 and 33 J/cm2 resulted in an average reduction of microorganisms on the skin of 0.43 and 0.76 log-levels, respectively. These disinfection results with visible violet light are far behind those of the disinfectant gel, which achieved a reduction of 2.17 log-levels. Additionally, due to legal limits, a 3-min irradiation can only be performed five times per day and a 10-min procedure only once. (4) Conclusion: Since the irradiation doses applied up to now have not provided a substantial antimicrobial effect, and since an increase in the dose in a short time period is not arbitrarily possible without heating the hand unpleasantly, visible light of 405 nm seems rather unsuitable for repeated hand disinfection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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1016 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Identification and Characterization of Potential Chalky Soil Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPR) Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Chamaecytisus ruthenicus (Russian Broom)
by Zekarias A. Asfha, Yulia Kocharovskaya, Nataliya E. Suzina, Tatiana N. Abashina, Valentina N. Polivtseva, Yanina Delegan and Inna P. Solyanikova
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16472 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Plant growth-promoting rhizospheric bacteria (PGPR) are well known for their significant roles in agriculture and the environment. In our previous study, 23 chalky soil bacterial isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere of Chamaecytisus ruthenicus. In total, seven out of them were reported [...] Read more.
Plant growth-promoting rhizospheric bacteria (PGPR) are well known for their significant roles in agriculture and the environment. In our previous study, 23 chalky soil bacterial isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere of Chamaecytisus ruthenicus. In total, seven out of them were reported for their potential effect on plant growth. However, the identification and further characterization of those chalky soil bacteria have not been completed yet. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to identify and characterize chalky soil rhizospheric bacteria (seven previously investigated and one additional bacteria). A total of eight bacterial isolates were cultured in LB and other growth media to investigate their morphological behavior, antibiotic sensitivity or resistance status, and their effect on plant growth. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to identify those potent bacterial isolates. The results of the present study demonstrate that all bacterial isolates obtained stable morphology in the three types of growth media. However, four bacterial isolates (Z11, Z12, Z15 and Z44) showed color change. The antibiotic test result also revealed that all the tested bacterial isolates except Z11 and Z24 were resistant to both ampicillin (10 μg) and oxacillin (1 μg), whereas all bacterial isolates were sensitive to polymyxin (300 units), amoxicillin (20 μg), vancomycin (30 μg), ceftazidime (30 μg), erythromycin (15 μg), ciprofloxacin (5 μg), bacitracin (10 units) and streptomycin (30 μg). The result of the growth stimulation effect revealed that few bacterial isolates had a stimulation effect on the germination rate of oats and lentils, on the shoot length of maize and oats, on the root length of wheats, maize and lentils, on the fresh weight of wheats and oats or on the dry weight of oat seeds. Furthermore, the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis result revealed that the bacterial isolates belonged to Streptomycetes spp. and Jantinobacterium sp. To conclude, the potential chalky soil rhizospheric bacteria have a substantial impact on agriculture and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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1172 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Influence of Pine Volatiles on the Growth of an Ophiostomatoid Fungi Associated with Pine Wilt Disease in Pinus pinaster 
by Jorge M. S. Faria and Maria L. Inácio
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16454 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 216
Abstract
Phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi play an important role in pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), since they begin proliferating once the pine hosts decay and can serve as a food source for the PWN. In a recent study, the ophiostomatoid [...] Read more.
Phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi play an important role in pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), since they begin proliferating once the pine hosts decay and can serve as a food source for the PWN. In a recent study, the ophiostomatoid fungi that are associated with naturally infected Pinus pinaster were profiled and cultured. To understand the influence of volatiles that are commonly emitted by pines on fungal growth, the present work aimed at analyzing the influence of α-pinene, β-pinene and trans-β-caryophyllene on a Leptographium isolate. The volatiles promoted fungal growth in the first 24 h, but lost their effect after 48 or 72 h, probably due to compound volatilization. After 5 days, the fungal growth was comparable to that of control cultures, except for α-pinene, which appeared to slightly inhibit fungal growth. Profiling the influence of volatile organic compounds on the PWD complex can contribute to a better understanding of the chemical communication that is occurring between its different intervenients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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1469 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of the Effects of Food Safety Training on the Microbiological Load Present in Equipment, Surfaces, Utensils, and Food Manipulator’s Hands in Restaurants
by Miguel Castro, Kamila Soares, Carlos Ribeiro and Alexandra Esteves
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16413 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Restaurants are a place were a lot of people go to have a delicious meal and have a good time however it is in the hands of the restaurant staff to provide a good environment and ensure the tasty meals are microbiologically safe. [...] Read more.
Restaurants are a place were a lot of people go to have a delicious meal and have a good time however it is in the hands of the restaurant staff to provide a good environment and ensure the tasty meals are microbiologically safe. Food training comes a long way in this regard to help give that quality to the consumer but there are a lot of restaurants which workers do not have proper training for handling food or keeping the establishment’s food safe. This study revealed that in general there was more microbiological analysis non-compliant with food safety limits before the food safety training. After the training there was a reduction in the number of values exceeding the safety limits with reductions in microbiological load of above 80%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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250 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Clostridium pasteurianum Bioprocessing: Pioneering Circular Bioeconomy Advancements through Sustainable Resource Utilization
by Radu Tamaian
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16490 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 343
Abstract
The transition towards a circular bioeconomy represents a paradigm shift in sustainable resource management, aiming to synergize biological processes, waste valorization, and renewable product synthesis. A key contender in this transformative landscape is the versatile anaerobic bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum. With its unique [...] Read more.
The transition towards a circular bioeconomy represents a paradigm shift in sustainable resource management, aiming to synergize biological processes, waste valorization, and renewable product synthesis. A key contender in this transformative landscape is the versatile anaerobic bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum. With its unique metabolic capabilities, C. pasteurianum holds substantial promise as a cornerstone of bioprocessing strategies within the circular bioeconomy framework. As we navigate the path towards a sustainable and regenerative future, continued research and innovation are imperative to unlock the full potential of C. pasteurianum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
1961 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Isolation and Identification of Culturable Gut Microbiota in the Larval Stage of Lesser Mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus)
by Gisele Ivonne Antonuccio and Diego Herman Sauka
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16465 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 271
Abstract
The highly prevalent pest Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) causes significant structural damage in poultry farms. Despite previous investigations on its carriage of pathogenic microorganisms, our understanding of its microbiome remains limited. This study aimed to analyze the diversity of culturable gut microbiota in [...] Read more.
The highly prevalent pest Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) causes significant structural damage in poultry farms. Despite previous investigations on its carriage of pathogenic microorganisms, our understanding of its microbiome remains limited. This study aimed to analyze the diversity of culturable gut microbiota in A. diaperinus obtained from laboratory breeding. Fifteen seventh instar larvae underwent a 24-h starvation period, followed by surface disinfection. Dissected midguts were homogenized and plated on nutrient agar (NA), brain heart infusion agar (BHI), and Bacillus cereus agar (BC). The cultured isolates were subjected to gram staining, phylogenetic analysis, biochemical property evaluation, and metabolic activity assessment. Bacterial counts were higher in BHI (2.51 × 105 CFU/gut) than in NA (2.25 × 105 CFU/gut), possibly due to nutrient richness. NA exhibited a dominant colony morphology of gram-negative bacilli, while BHI displayed additional distinct colonies of gram-positive cocci. Surprisingly, yeast-like colonies were observed on BC plates. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, eight bacterial isolates were identified as Enterobacter sp., and two as Staphylococcus sp. Using RNA gene ITS region sequences, two yeast isolates were identified as Debaryomyces sp. and Hyphopichia sp. A preliminary species-level identification of bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus gallinarum, and Staphylococcus succinus) was achieved using API systems and complementary biochemical tests. Discrepancies between phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic data suggest the potential existence of new species or subspecies. Further comprehensive studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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1201 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Phycoerythrin from Porphyridium purpureum: Highly Efficient Extraction, Purification, and Microencapsulation for Food Applications
by Arisbe Silva-Núñez, Javier Donoso-Quezada and José González-Valdez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16481 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 258
Abstract
This study presents a characterization of phycoerythrin (PE) derived from Porphyridium purpureum, a marine microalga. P. purpureum was grown and phycoerythrin was extracted and concentrated to 0.3 mg/mL and a purity index of 6.05. Subsequently, PE was evaluated for its antiproliferative activity [...] Read more.
This study presents a characterization of phycoerythrin (PE) derived from Porphyridium purpureum, a marine microalga. P. purpureum was grown and phycoerythrin was extracted and concentrated to 0.3 mg/mL and a purity index of 6.05. Subsequently, PE was evaluated for its antiproliferative activity against the HEPG2 cell line, a representative model for hepatic cancer. In addition, the study introduces an electrospray-assisted technique to encapsulate the pigment. The results reveal that the pigment exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activity, and an encapsulation efficiency of 99% was achieved. The study serves as a foundation for further exploration and development of P. purpureum-derived phycoerythrin as a versatile and valuable bioactive compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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203 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Enhanced Biohydrogen Production from Food Waste via Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation: A Sustainable Approach
by Radu Tamaian
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16451 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Biohydrogen production from renewable resources holds promise for sustainable energy generation. This study explores the potential of utilizing food waste, a prevalent global environmental issue, as a substrate for efficient biohydrogen production. Two predominant biological methods, dark fermentation and photosynthesis, were evaluated for [...] Read more.
Biohydrogen production from renewable resources holds promise for sustainable energy generation. This study explores the potential of utilizing food waste, a prevalent global environmental issue, as a substrate for efficient biohydrogen production. Two predominant biological methods, dark fermentation and photosynthesis, were evaluated for their feasibility in harnessing carbohydrates from food waste. Dark-photo sequential fermentation emerged as a more practical option. The proposed separate hydrolysis and fermentation approach offers a practical strategy to optimize nutrient conversion and increase biohydrogen yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
1172 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assay Development for Phagocytosis Activity Evaluation
by Elena Lysakova, Alexander Shumeev, Victor Laktyushkin, Sergey Chuvpilo and Stanislav Rybtsov
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16444 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 189
Abstract
The efficiency of phagocytic activity is a significant organism indicator which decreases with the aging of the immune system. Medications are able to influence phagocytosis, having a blocking or activating effect, and therefore are important modulators of immune function. We are developing an [...] Read more.
The efficiency of phagocytic activity is a significant organism indicator which decreases with the aging of the immune system. Medications are able to influence phagocytosis, having a blocking or activating effect, and therefore are important modulators of immune function. We are developing an ex vivo assay indispensable for medication screening in human and Macaca fascicularis whole blood. For assay verification, several published control drugs were successfully used. This assay assists with finding medications for enhancing the immune response in elderly people and providing a deeper comprehension of the fundamental process of immune system aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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266 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Human Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebas in Faeces from Cows and Pigs from Bombali and Tonkolili Districts, Sierra Leone
by Antonio Peña-Fernández, Raoul E. Guetiya Wadoum and Umar Anjum
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16443 - 30 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 252
Abstract
Human pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA), specifically Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri, are rarely studied in animals’ gastrointestinal (GI) tracts or their faeces as they do not have an obligate parasitic life cycle; however, FLA from different taxa have been recently [...] Read more.
Human pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA), specifically Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri, are rarely studied in animals’ gastrointestinal (GI) tracts or their faeces as they do not have an obligate parasitic life cycle; however, FLA from different taxa have been recently recovered and identified in pigs’ GI tracts and their faeces. The presence of these FLA species was studied in faeces from cows and pigs monitored across Bombali and Tonkolili Districts, Sierra Leone (West Africa). Fresh faecal samples were aseptically collected, either from recent deposition or during defecation, from 12 pigs and eight cows in Spring 2019. Fourteen samples were collected from five locations across Makeni city (Bombali District): an animal market (five cows, one pig), general and pig slaughterhouses (five pigs), Lorrey Park (two cows) and Comforti (one cow). Additionally, six pigs were monitored in Royanka, within the Tonkolili District. Samples were processed by a triplex real-time TaqMan PCR assay after extracting DNA from pre-concentrated faecal samples using a FastDNA® Spin Kit. Although all the faecal samples screened were negative, our results should be considered as inconclusive owing to the limited number of animals and specific FLA species monitored. Moreover, we detected Acanthamoeba spp. in water reservoirs (wells and ponds) used for drinking by those animals from which samples were collected/screened. We also detected B. mandrillaris in the river in Royanka, which would confirm the presence of this emerging FLA in Tonkolili District, with this being the first time it has been reported in the literature. Further monitoring studies would be required to understand the presence/circulation of these opportunistic FLA species in farm animals across these Sierra Leonean districts to control the presence of foodborne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
626 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Potential Probiotic Bacillus Strains Isolated from Contaminated Soil in North Macedonia: Salmonella Growth Inhibition
by Sofija Kostandinovska, Dzoko Kungulovski and Natalija Atanasova-Pancevska
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16411 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 212
Abstract
Salmonellosis, which occurs most frequently (85%) as a result of consuming contaminated food, is brought on by salmonellae, which are bacteria that can infect both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of three Bacillus spp. [...] Read more.
Salmonellosis, which occurs most frequently (85%) as a result of consuming contaminated food, is brought on by salmonellae, which are bacteria that can infect both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of three Bacillus spp. strains isolated from contaminated soil in North Macedonia and their antimicrobial activity. Additionally, their ability to survive in the presence of bile salts and at low pH and their susceptibility to antibiotics were examined. This research indicates that new Bacillus strains’ probiotic qualities are also promising and exhibit strong inhibition activity against Salmonella enterica ATCC 10708. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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642 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Production Assay and Partial Characterization of a Protease Produced by Idiomarina loihiensis, a Moderately Halophilic Bacterium Strain
by Hania Benmebarek and Karima Kharroub
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16464 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 212
Abstract
Halophiles are microorganisms that inhabit saline and hypersaline environments, requiring salinity to survive in such extreme conditions. These microorganisms are mainly researched for their biotechnological potential. This study aims to investigate the phenology of the studied strain, Idiomarina loihiensis, and to demonstrate [...] Read more.
Halophiles are microorganisms that inhabit saline and hypersaline environments, requiring salinity to survive in such extreme conditions. These microorganisms are mainly researched for their biotechnological potential. This study aims to investigate the phenology of the studied strain, Idiomarina loihiensis, and to demonstrate its extracellular proteolytic activity, as well as the production of a protease via batch fermentation in halophilic microorganisms. Macroscopic studies revealed small colonies (≤5 mm) with a convex spherical structure, regular outline, smooth surface, and color ranging from beige to opaque cream. Protease production was investigated in high-salinity conditions with a moderately halophilic bacterium using basal media with varying nitrogen sources. This study found that the highest proteolytic activity occurred in media with tryptone and casein peptone as nitrogen sources, at pH 10, a temperature of 70 °C, and 22.5% salt concentration. The results also demonstrated that the studied protease was a thermostable enzyme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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505 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus subtilis Inoculation on Durum Wheat Growth Response under Four Inoculation Methods
by Maya Kechid, Rim Tinhinen Maougal, Khaoula Belhaddad, Dounia Reghis and Abdelhamid Djekoun
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16462 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 190
Abstract
The growth response of durum wheat (Triticum durum) to inoculation by two rhisospheric rhizobacteria: Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus subtilis was evaluated using four ways of inoculation to determine the best method that gives better results. The two rhizobacteria were inoculated on [...] Read more.
The growth response of durum wheat (Triticum durum) to inoculation by two rhisospheric rhizobacteria: Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus subtilis was evaluated using four ways of inoculation to determine the best method that gives better results. The two rhizobacteria were inoculated on LB liquid medium. Durum wheat was inoculated twice. For the first inoculation, part of the germinated seeds was directly sown on the ground and inoculated by bacterial pellet (PP) or by medium containing bacterial culture (MM). As for the other part of the germinated seeds, they were first immerged for 45 min in a medium containing the bacterial culture, after that, they were sown on the ground. For the second inoculation, it was carried out 10 days after sowing, by the same method, except for the seeds being immerged in the culture medium, which were inoculated this time by bacterial pellet (IP) or by medium containing bacterial culture (IM). After 3 weeks of growth, different plant parameters such as the fresh and dry weight of leaves and roots, the number of leaves, the length of leaves and roots and the chlorophyll levels were compared between inoculated and non-inoculated plants and according to the different inoculation methods. The results demonstrated that the inoculation of durum wheat with these two strains stimulated the growth of the plant, some parameters gave similar effects between the two bacteria and other parameters gave different effects. Similarly, the type of inoculation influenced the response of the plant to the bacterium; some types gave better results compared to others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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768 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Pseudogymnoascus destructans as the Agent of White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) in Bat Populations
by Andreia Garcês and Isabel Pires
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16696 - 9 Jan 2024
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease in North America. This fungus has caused unprecedented population declines. It has also been described in Europe and Asia, where it has not caused significant mortality. The first evidence [...] Read more.
Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease in North America. This fungus has caused unprecedented population declines. It has also been described in Europe and Asia, where it has not caused significant mortality. The first evidence of WNS in North America came from a photograph of a hibernating bat taken during the winter of 2005–2006 in a cave near Albany, New York. P. destructans develops when the body temperature decreases during winter hibernation. This fungus thrives in humid and cold conditions characteristic of caves. Infected bats can develop visible white fungal growth on the nose, ears, and wings, and awaken more frequently from torpor. It leads to physiologic changes that result in weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and the death of bats. The fungi can persist in the environments of underground bat hibernation sites and are believed to spread primarily by the natural movements of infected bats. Also, there is a strong possibility that it may also be transmitted by humans inadvertently carrying the fungus from cave to cave on their clothing and gear. WNS has a big impact on bat populations with high levels of mortality, particularly endangered species. Some populations will take many years to recover. The decline of bats also has an impact on the spread of diseases, since many species of bat feed on insect carriers of several pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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215 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Exploring the Sit-and-Wait Potential of the Bacterial Pathogen Shigella flexneri: A Comparative Genomic Study
by Bin Gu, Jun-Jiao Wang, Xin-Lei Huang, Quan Yuan, Khashayar Shahin, Huan Yang, Fen Li and Liang Wang
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16484 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 199
Abstract
The sit-and-wait hypothesis predicts that bacterial durability in the external environment is positively correlated with the evolution of bacterial virulence. Many bacterial pathogens have been recognized as potential sit-and-wait pathogens due to their long-term environmental survival (high durability) and high host mortality (high [...] Read more.
The sit-and-wait hypothesis predicts that bacterial durability in the external environment is positively correlated with the evolution of bacterial virulence. Many bacterial pathogens have been recognized as potential sit-and-wait pathogens due to their long-term environmental survival (high durability) and high host mortality (high virulence), such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, etc. Shigella flexneri is a leading etiologic agent of diarrhea in China with long-term environmental survival capacity, high infection rates, and severe clinical consequences. It has multiple transmission routes like contaminated food (the food-borne route), insanitary water (the water-borne route), and direct person-to-person contacts, etc. These features make Shigella flexneri an ideal candidate for sit-and-wait bacterial pathogens. However, there is currently a lack of evidence to support the claim. In this study, we examine the potential of S. flexneri as a sit-and-wait pathogen via comparative genomic analysis, which reveals the unique features of Shigella flexneri in abiotic stress resistance, energy metabolism, and virulence factors and confirms that S. flexneri is a highly potential sit-and-wait bacterial pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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Proceeding Paper
Trends and Geographical Distribution of Diphtheria in Nigeria: A Re-Emerging Disease
by Surayya Mustapha Salim and Fatima Muhammed Hamza
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16693 - 9 Jan 2024
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Diphtheria is a highly contagious and deadly vaccine–preventable bacterial infection that affects a person’s nose, throat, and occasionally the skin. Diphtheria is fatal in 5–10% of cases; however, the case fatality rate (CFR) can be as high as 20–40% among children and unvaccinated [...] Read more.
Diphtheria is a highly contagious and deadly vaccine–preventable bacterial infection that affects a person’s nose, throat, and occasionally the skin. Diphtheria is fatal in 5–10% of cases; however, the case fatality rate (CFR) can be as high as 20–40% among children and unvaccinated adults. Currently, the number of diphtheria cases reported globally has being increasing gradually. Nigeria ranks number six in the list of countries by population with about 42.54% of its population below 14 years of age. Despite the availability of the antitoxin vaccine in the country, only 41.7% of children under 15 years of age are fully vaccinated, making the country more vulnerable to the disease. The study, therefore, aimed to examine the spread and trend of diphtheria in Nigeria since the major outbreak of the disease in December 2022. Data for the study were sourced from secondary sources. From December 2022 to January 2023, Nigeria recorded a total of 111 (42.1%) confirmed cases and 22 deaths, with a case fatality rate for confirmed/probable cases of 19.8% in four states. Out of the 111 confirmed cases, only a small percentage (10.8%) were vaccinated with the diphtheria toxin-containing vaccine. Additionally, the majority (91.9%) of the confirmed cases occurred in children aged 2–14 years. Since then, there has been a constant number of reported cases. As of 31 July 2023, the country recorded a total of 1534 confirmed cases in 11 states and 137 deaths, with a CFR of 8.9%. The majority (66.4%) of the confirmed cases occurred among children aged 1–14 years, with only 18.1% of the 1534 confirmed cases previously vaccinated. In this era of globalization, if prompt action is not taken, diphtheria will become a major threat not only to Nigeria but also globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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241 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Human Risks Due to Acanthamoeba spp. in Grass from Public Parks across Leicester City, England
by Umar Anjum, Angela Magnet, Fernando Izquierdo and Antonio Peña-Fernández
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16459 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Acanthamoeba spp., an emerging opportunistic human parasite, has been previously detected in open-water systems across Leicester city and surrounding rural areas (Leicestershire, England), suggesting a potential risk for the population. A total of 190 grass samples were collected over a year (June 2017 [...] Read more.
Acanthamoeba spp., an emerging opportunistic human parasite, has been previously detected in open-water systems across Leicester city and surrounding rural areas (Leicestershire, England), suggesting a potential risk for the population. A total of 190 grass samples were collected over a year (June 2017 to August 2018) to study the temporal variation, in and around Leicester city and adjacent rural areas. After appropriate pre-treatment to resuspend potential cysts/amoebas present in the grass avoiding potential soil contamination, DNA was extracted from each pre-concentrated sample using the Fast DNA® Spin kit. Acanthamoeba spp. were detected using a triplex real-time TaqMan PCR assay in 22 grass samples (11.57%). The seasonal study revealed the following prevalence percentages from summer 2017 to summer 2018: 15.7, 10.5, 13.1, 7.89, and 10.5%. To our knowledge, this is the first report reporting the presence and seasonal distribution of Acanthamoeba spp. in grass across Leicestershire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
1113 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Rhizospheric Streptomyces Strains as Potential Biopesticides for Further Applications on Wheat Crops
by Wiem Alloun, Hadjer Kecis and Noreddine Kacem Chaouche
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16463 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 226
Abstract
Actinobacteria species, especially Streptomyces, are well known and widely studied as promising biocontrol and phytostimulation agents. They constitute an eco-friendly substitute for chemical fungicides. Streptomyces-like strains were isolated from wheat fields to suppress the growth of Fusarium, the leading wheat [...] Read more.
Actinobacteria species, especially Streptomyces, are well known and widely studied as promising biocontrol and phytostimulation agents. They constitute an eco-friendly substitute for chemical fungicides. Streptomyces-like strains were isolated from wheat fields to suppress the growth of Fusarium, the leading wheat root-rot-associated fungi, and to stimulate plant growth. The isolates were characterized morphologically and biochemically and subjected to a comprehensive in vitro screening for various plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits. The potential beneficial effects of these strains on wheat plants were evaluated upon their inoculation (germination rate, shoot and root lengths). Among 32 isolates, the strain Act 02 was positive in inhibiting Fusarium growth and showing vigorous antifungal activity. In vitro assays demonstrated the ability of Act 02 to produce ammonia and indole-acetic acid (IAA). The strain showed extracellular enzyme production, such as Chitinases, Cellulases, and solubilized phosphate (Ca3PO4). The strain Act 02 tolerated high concentrations of NaCl with a considerable interval of [1–8]% (w/v), with optimum ranges between [1–3]%. 16s RNA gene barcoding and phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain Act 02 belongs to S. lividans with a 99.04% similarity. Seed germination and pot experiments were conducted by inoculating Triticum durum seeds with a selected isolate extract. Act 02 was able to significantly increase plant lengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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255 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Plant Species within the Asteraceae Family
by Angelo Randriatsalama, Njakarinala Ranarivelo, Vahinalahaja Razafintsalama and Rianatiana Ranaivoarisoa
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16410 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 267
Abstract
The Asteraceae family is the largest family of flowering plants, comprising over 25,000 species grouped into 16,000 genera and distributed around the world. This research aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of 12 native plants from the Asteraceae family. Their efficacy was tested [...] Read more.
The Asteraceae family is the largest family of flowering plants, comprising over 25,000 species grouped into 16,000 genera and distributed around the world. This research aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of 12 native plants from the Asteraceae family. Their efficacy was tested against 11 bacterial strains using the liquid microdilution technique to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). MIC values ranged from 0.125 to 4 mg/mL, and MBC values ranged from 0.25 to 4 mg/mL, against six bacterial strains. These results describe the potential antibacterial activity attributes of Asteraceae species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
753 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Study on the Antimicrobial Activity of Algae Extract: The Fucales Order Case
by Aurora Silva, Maria Carpena, Stephanie Lopes Morais, Clara Grosso, Lucia Cassani, Frank Chamorro, Maria Fátima Barroso, Jesus Simal-Gandara and Miguel A. Prieto
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16695 - 9 Jan 2024
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Over the years, foodborne pathogens have caused countess health problems and massive financial losses. Therefore, an essential goal for the food industry is to prevent food contamination and the related foodborne illnesses as microbial contamination of food items during their acquiring and distribution [...] Read more.
Over the years, foodborne pathogens have caused countess health problems and massive financial losses. Therefore, an essential goal for the food industry is to prevent food contamination and the related foodborne illnesses as microbial contamination of food items during their acquiring and distribution processes is still a hygienic issue. Moreover, there is an important movement leading to the pursuit of more natural and safe food supplies and ingredients with a special emphasis on the vegan and vegetarian community; as a result, there has been a resurgence in demand for natural and eco-friendly products as a replacement for synthetic ingredients. In this context, and due to their active substances, macroalgae stand out as they are known for possessing antibacterial qualities among other abilities. Because of this, the current study updates our understanding of microbial pollutants in the food industry and compiles the latest updates on the scientific reports on antimicrobial activity of the edible brown algae species with special attention to the algae Bifurcaria bifurcata, Fucus spiralis, and Ascophyllum nodosum. These species which belong to the Phaeophyceae class and order Fucales are reportedly rich in active compounds and are still an undervalued resource. So, the ability of algal extracts to stop the growth of various significant food pathogens is reviewed herein, while considering their advantageous effects on food safety and quality issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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253 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Intestinal Microbiota in the Clinical Results of Cancer and Its Modulation as Auxiliary Therapy
by Lara Régia Freitas Claudino and Sávio Benvindo Ferreira
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16583 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 188
Abstract
Dysbiosis has been related to the inflammation that precipitates tumorigenesis and to the mediation of the anticancer immune response. Results suggest that ecological imbalance and changes in microbial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), influence tumor progression and metastasis. Regarding the clinical [...] Read more.
Dysbiosis has been related to the inflammation that precipitates tumorigenesis and to the mediation of the anticancer immune response. Results suggest that ecological imbalance and changes in microbial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), influence tumor progression and metastasis. Regarding the clinical response to chemotherapy/immunotherapy, it has been demonstrated that Escherichia coli is one of the main strains related to the increased metabolism of chemotherapy drugs, such as gemcitabine, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, it is proposed that, despite the harmful examples regarding tumor progression, the intestinal microbiota can also have a positive impact on anticancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
1406 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Isolation and Characterization of Agricultural Soil Bacteria with Biotechnological and Biological Control Potential Applications
by Beatriz Meza-Manzaneque, Marta Pérez-Díaz, Elena G. Biosca and Belén Álvarez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16683 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Unsustainable agricultural practices eventually have an impact on soil conditions and microbiological diversity. To regain balance, ecologically sound strategies can be an alternative. In this work, a collection of bacteria was isolated from agricultural soil and characterized to evaluate their capacity for phosphorus [...] Read more.
Unsustainable agricultural practices eventually have an impact on soil conditions and microbiological diversity. To regain balance, ecologically sound strategies can be an alternative. In this work, a collection of bacteria was isolated from agricultural soil and characterized to evaluate their capacity for phosphorus and iron biofertilization, exoenzyme production, and biocontrol of several phytopathogenic fungi. Bacterial identification pointed out to a majority of Bacillus spp. along with other several minority genera. Isolates globally displayed a high proportion of the biological activities tested, especially concerning production of hydrolytic enzymes. Inhibition on fungal growth was variable among the soil bacterial isolates by production of diffusible compounds and/or VOCs (volatile organic compounds). Evidence from this work provides promise for the application of soil bacteria to improve agricultural soil management and crop production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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556 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ultrastructural Changes in Candida albicans Induced by Benzyl Isothiocyanate (BITC)
by Ana Calado, Cheila Pereira and Ana C. Sampaio
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16469 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 174
Abstract
The search for new antifungal substances is increasingly relevant due to growing antifungal resistance. Candida albicans is the most common pathogen yeast in humans, primarily in immuno-compromised individuals. Isothiocyanates, derived from glucosinolates, are compounds with an antimicrobial effect at low concentrations. The purpose [...] Read more.
The search for new antifungal substances is increasingly relevant due to growing antifungal resistance. Candida albicans is the most common pathogen yeast in humans, primarily in immuno-compromised individuals. Isothiocyanates, derived from glucosinolates, are compounds with an antimicrobial effect at low concentrations. The purpose of this study was to analyse the ultrastructural changes in three C. albicans isolates after exposure to benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) at different lengths of exposure time (2.5, 5 and 24 h). Before exposure to BITC, cells presented a regular round or oval shape, with a uniform cell wall. After exposure to BITC, cell wall damage and loss occurred in the three strains. The cells developed extensive indentations, and a band of electrodense material was formed in the cortical cytoplasm. Although, for one isolate, no intact cells were detected, at the highest exposure time, two of the isolates showed a relevant response, regaining almost normal cell shape with nearly complete cell wall recovery. Cell lysis led to the deposition of a melted and unmixed mass with two apparently distinct fractions, the cell wall fraction and the cytoplasmic fraction. The present work demonstrates that, through targeting the C. albicans cell wall, BITC may prove to be a promising antifungal compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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272 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Incidence, Species Distribution, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Bloodstream Infections in a Tertiary Algerian Hospital
by Assia Meradji, Stéphane Ranque, Fayza Bachtarzi, Nabil Mosbah and Tayeb Moulahem
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16684 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Candida infections are the most frequent invasive fungal diseases. To date, few studies have been conducted on candidemia in Algeria. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, species distribution, and antifungal susceptibility for Candida bloodstream infections. This prospective, monocentric study [...] Read more.
Candida infections are the most frequent invasive fungal diseases. To date, few studies have been conducted on candidemia in Algeria. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, species distribution, and antifungal susceptibility for Candida bloodstream infections. This prospective, monocentric study covered all cases of candidemia diagnosed in the ICU at Setif hospital in Algeria. Yeast isolates were identified using MALDI TOF. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using Sensititre YeastOne. The incidence rate was 7.03 cases per admission in the ICU. Five Candida species were isolated: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. pelliculosa. Overall, 78.6% of isolates were sensitive to all antifungals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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Proceeding Paper
Unraveling Phylogenetic Relationships via A. carbonarius and A. tubingensis Sequence Analyses
by Sabah Ben Fredj Melki, Ehi Sheena Omoregie and Ahmed Mliki
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 31(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECM2023-16445 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 142
Abstract
The aspergilli comprise a diverse group of filamentous fungi spanning over 200 million years of evolution. In this work, we report a clarification of the phylogenetic relationship between A. carbonarius and A. tubingensis via the screening of ITS-5.8RDNA, (niiA-niaD), ß-tubulin, and eEF-1 [...] Read more.
The aspergilli comprise a diverse group of filamentous fungi spanning over 200 million years of evolution. In this work, we report a clarification of the phylogenetic relationship between A. carbonarius and A. tubingensis via the screening of ITS-5.8RDNA, (niiA-niaD), ß-tubulin, and eEF-1 genes. The phylogenetic analysis of aspergilli ITS-5.8rDNA sequences divided A. carbonarius and A. tubingensis into two coherent clusters and showed a close intergeneric relationship, which is in keeping with the existing morphological and taxonomic classification. Herein, A. carbonarius exhibits a complete similarity (100%) for the three target genes: intergenic region of (niiA-niaD), ß-tubulin, and eEF-1. The tree resulting from a bootstrap analysis indicates branch points when the significance is 98% minimum for each gene (ß-tubulin and eEF-1). The phylogenetic analysis of the aspergilli genome structure provided a quantitative evaluation of the forces driving long-term eukaryotic genome evolution. It also led to an experimentally validated model of mating-type locus evolution, suggesting the potential for sexual reproduction in A. carbonarius and A. tubingensis. This is the first work describing the evolutionary relationship between both species. Nevertheless, this discovery might be viewed as typical during the process of new taxonomic evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Microbiology)
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