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Biol. Life Sci. Forum, 2024, IOCAG 2023

The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture

Online | 1–15 November 2023

Volume Editor: Bin Gao, University of Florida, USA

Number of Papers: 30
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture—Research Achievements and Challenges (IOCAG2023) provided an online open forum for agricultural scientists and engineers to discuss these [...] Read more.
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234 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessing the Optimum Harvesting Stage of Tithonia diversifolia as Climate Smart Soil Amendment for Coconut Plantations
by Tharindu D. Nuwarapaksha, Wimarshani K. Dissanayake, Wasantha S. Gunathilaka, Shashi S. Udumann, Nuwandhya S. Dissanayaka and Anjana J. Atapattu
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-15967 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Tithonia diversifolia is often grown as a cover crop or as a green manure crop in climate-smart agriculture practices. This plant can be harvested at various growth stages, and the biomass can be incorporated into the soil. The decomposition of plant biomass enhances [...] Read more.
Tithonia diversifolia is often grown as a cover crop or as a green manure crop in climate-smart agriculture practices. This plant can be harvested at various growth stages, and the biomass can be incorporated into the soil. The decomposition of plant biomass enhances the soil’s nutrients, organic matter content, and crop productivity. This study aimed to determine the best harvesting stage of T. diversifolia to be used as an efficient soil amendment for coconut plantations. Samples were collected at one-, two-, three-, and four-month harvesting stages from an existing T. diversifolia field at Rathmalagara Research Station of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka. In the study, both plant-growth parameters and the nutrient composition of each plant part were individually evaluated for every section of the plant. Biochar was prepared from hardwood stems of T. diversifolia using them as the feedstock under five different temperatures from 300 ℃ to 700 ℃, and a proximate analysis was performed for the characterization of produced biochar. The mean values of measured parameters of T. diversifolia and the properties of biochar were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different growth stages and temperatures, respectively. Considering all the measured parameters of T. diversifolia, the three-month harvesting stage can be suggested as the best growth stage for it to be used as green manure. According to the proximate-analysis results, and by observing the half-burning of produced biochar, 500 ℃ can be proposed as the ideal temperature to produce biochar from hardwood stems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
524 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Variability of Genomic Profile of ypr-10 Gene in Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck
by Dagmar Moravčíková and Jana Žiarovská
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-15888 - 7 Nov 2023
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Citrus fruits enjoy widespread consumption globally, being among the most popular fruits. They are highly regarded for their nutritional composition, offering a range of beneficial nutrients. However, it is important to acknowledge that they can also elicit allergic reactions in sensitized individuals, which [...] Read more.
Citrus fruits enjoy widespread consumption globally, being among the most popular fruits. They are highly regarded for their nutritional composition, offering a range of beneficial nutrients. However, it is important to acknowledge that they can also elicit allergic reactions in sensitized individuals, which presents a contrasting aspect. The Bet v 1 cross-reacting allergen is a major birch pollen allergen, and it is the most commonly sensitizing allergen in central Europe. Bet v 1 belongs to the group of PR-10 proteins in the plant kingdom that cause various allergic reactions. The Bet v 1 allergen has a number of isoforms and homologs. These homolog genes are inherited from a common ancestor and subsequent amino acid similarity. They can cause the phenomenon of cross-reactivity in food allergies. The aim of the study was to analyze the length of polymorphism variability of the Bet v 1 homolog in orange varieties by using degenerated and nondegenerated primers. A total of eight varieties of Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck were used in the analysis. The BBAP technique (Bet v 1 based amplified polymorphism) was used to detect the length variability of fingerprints of allergen encoding genes of Bet v 1 homologs. Degenerated primer combinations and only one of the nondegenerated variants of primers provided fingerprints that were unique for every individual variety of analyzed oranges. By using other primer variants, from two up to the four varieties generated by the same BBAP profile, indicate a higher degree of Bet v 1 homolog sequential conservativity when compared to other fruit species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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225 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Can Precision Agriculture Be the Future of Indian Farming?—A Case Study across the South-24 Parganas District of West Bengal, India
by Panchali Sengupta
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-16680 - 26 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 504
Abstract
Agricultural practices such as tilling, sowing, cropping, It’s duty but arvesting, and land-use patterns in any agrarian economy depend on climate. Therefore, any adverse climatic conditions can seriously affect the production or yield of crops. Increased temperature enhances the susceptibility of crops to [...] Read more.
Agricultural practices such as tilling, sowing, cropping, It’s duty but arvesting, and land-use patterns in any agrarian economy depend on climate. Therefore, any adverse climatic conditions can seriously affect the production or yield of crops. Increased temperature enhances the susceptibility of crops to pests and various plant diseases. Weeds are also known to multiply rapidly and decrease the nutritive value of soil, negatively affecting crop production. Our present study is designed to address similar problems faced by the farming community in the South-24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India, and suggest several probable technological solutions. Importantly, West Bengal is included in one of the six agro-climatic zones. Major crops from this study site are rice, wheat, maize, jute, green gram, black gram, pigeon pea, lentils, sugarcane, pulses, rapeseed, mustard, sesame, linseed, and vegetables. Significantly, cultivable land area has decreased in comparison to the overall crop area in this region. Reduced interest in agriculture, irrigation problems, increased profit in the non-agricultural economy, and rapid conversion of agricultural land for commercial purposes (construction of plots, hatcheries for fishing practices), along with uncertainties associated with rainfall patterns and frequent cyclones, are matters of grave concern in this study area. Agricultural scientists, researchers, environmentalists, local bodies, and government organizations are suggesting alternatives to benefit farmers. Thus, precision agriculture or crop management is required to recognize site-specific variables within agricultural lands and formulate strategies for improving decision-making regarding crop sowing, appropriate use of herbicides, weedicides, and precision irrigation, along with innovative harvesting technologies. Thus, the present paper provides a vision for the farming community in our study area to overcome their traditional practices and adopt different techniques of precision agriculture to increase flexibility, performance, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness. Soil temperature, humidity, and moisture monitoring sensors could be beneficial. Precision soil management, precision irrigation, crop disease management, weed management, and harvesting technologies are the different modules considered for discussion in this paper. Machine learning algorithms, such as decision tree, K-nearest neighbor (KNN), Gaussian naïve Bayes (GNB), K-means clustering, artificial neural network (ANN), fuzzy logic system (FLS), and support vector machine (SVM), could prove helpful for progressive farmers. The use of AI-powered weeding machines, drones, and UAVs for rapid weed removal and the localized application of herbicides and pesticides could also improve the accuracy and efficiency of agriculture. Utilizing drones fitted with high-resolution cameras could help gather precision field images, proving to be quite helpful in crop monitoring and crop health assessment. Unmanned driverless tractors and harvesting machines using robotics integrated with data from GPS/GIS sensors or radars could also be considered an effective and time-saving option. Thus, machine learning, along with innovative agricultural technologies, could contribute to improving the livelihoods of the farming fraternity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
252 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Enhancing Vegetative Growth of Quinoa and Soil Properties under Water Shortage through Targeted Organic Amendments
by Muhammad Zubair Akram, Angela Libutti and Anna Rita Rivelli
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-16532 - 1 Dec 2023
Viewed by 307
Abstract
The scarcity of water resources is considered a major threat and challenge for agriculture. Water limitations could strongly affect the growth and development of many crops including quinoa, a nutrition-rich, climate-resilient crop that is gaining attention globally. Organic amendment application has been reported [...] Read more.
The scarcity of water resources is considered a major threat and challenge for agriculture. Water limitations could strongly affect the growth and development of many crops including quinoa, a nutrition-rich, climate-resilient crop that is gaining attention globally. Organic amendment application has been reported as a suitable option to mitigate the detrimental impacts of water shortage on soil and plant growth. In this context, two experiments were conducted on Chenopodium quinoa “Titicaca”; in the first experiment, we investigated the effect of different organic amendments, namely woodchips biochar (Bw), vineyard pruning biochar (Bv), and vermicompost (V), applied (alone and mixed) at 2% soil dry weight, on soil properties and the plant biomass of quinoa subjected to a water stress period during vegetative development. Among organic amendments tested, Bw and Bw+V increased plant biomass on average by 15%, while Bv and Bv+V reduced the plant biomass by 62% compared to non-amended soil (C). A significant reduction in soil pH was observed with Bw (7.61), while BV increased pH (8.04) compared to C (7.76). The Bw and Bv also reduced soil bulk density (BD) (1.19 g/m3 and 1.13 g/m3, respectively) compared to C (1.28 g/m3). As Bw performed better in the first experiment, the second experiment assessed only Bw at different doses, i.e., 0%, 2%, and 4% under water shortage by restoring only 50% evapotranspiration losses, when soil water content reached the 50% of available water content. Considering the Bw rates, the plants treated with Bw2% showed 34% and 19% more biomass and 36% and 66% more panicles than Bw0% and Bw4%, respectively. The Bw2% decreased the soil pH (7.79 versus 7.85) and electrical conductivity (286 versus 307 µS/cm) compared to Bw0%, which was not different from Bw4%. No differences were observed in BD between Bw0% and Bw2% (on average 1.28 g/m3), while BD decreased in Bw4% (1.06 g/m3). The findings of both experiments highlighted that the appropriate type and dose of biochar could improve soil properties and help quinoa plants to grow better under water-limited conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
558 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cropping System and Nitrogen Supply Interfere in Sustainability of Maize Production in the Dry Season
by Karina Batista, Alessandra Aparecida Giacomini, Luciana Gerdes and Waldssimiler Teixeira de Mattos
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-15828 - 6 Nov 2023
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Diversification in cropping systems can increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Thus, we studied maize production as a function of the cropping system and the nitrogen rates applied as side-dressing. The experimental design involved randomized blocks with four replications in a split-plot scheme. [...] Read more.
Diversification in cropping systems can increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Thus, we studied maize production as a function of the cropping system and the nitrogen rates applied as side-dressing. The experimental design involved randomized blocks with four replications in a split-plot scheme. The main plots were maize monoculture; maize intercropped with Congo grass (Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comum); and maize intercropped with Aruana Guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus cv. Aruana). The subplots were four nitrogen rates (0; 50; 100 and 150 kg ha−1) applied as side-dressing. The maize and grasses row were fertilized with nitrogen. Maize intercropped with grasses needs an adequate nitrogen supply to be applied as side-dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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3357 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
YOLO-AppleScab: A Deep Learning Approach for Efficient and Accurate Apple Scab Detection in Varied Lighting Conditions Using CARAFE-Enhanced YOLOv7
by Joseph Christian Nouaze and Jordane Sikati
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-16688 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Plant and fruit diseases significantly impact agricultural economies by diminishing crop quality and yield. Developing precise, automated detection techniques is crucial to minimize losses and drive economic growth. We introduce YOLO-AppleScab, integrating Content-Aware ReAssembly of FEature (CARAFE [...] Read more.
Plant and fruit diseases significantly impact agricultural economies by diminishing crop quality and yield. Developing precise, automated detection techniques is crucial to minimize losses and drive economic growth. We introduce YOLO-AppleScab, integrating Content-Aware ReAssembly of FEature (CARAFE) architecture into YOLOv7 for enhanced apple fruit detection and disease classification. The model achieves impressive metrics: F1, recall, and precision of 89.75%, 85.20%, and 94.80%, and a mean average precision of 89.30% at IoU 0.5. With 64% efficiency, this model’s integration with YOLOv7 improves detection, promising economic benefits by accurately detecting apple scab disease and reducing agricultural damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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532 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Qualities and Origins of Out-of-Home Food Products: Midday Meals in the Cities of Southeastern Gabon
by Ranaud Allogo Abessolo, Christian Moupela, Fabio Berti, Philippe Burny and Philippe Lebailly
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-15827 - 6 Nov 2023
Viewed by 239
Abstract
The place of local products in out-of-home catering and the growth of non-communicable metabolic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa raise questions. To identify the influence of the economic and social environments on this phenomenon, this study analyzes the foods and consumers concerning the main [...] Read more.
The place of local products in out-of-home catering and the growth of non-communicable metabolic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa raise questions. To identify the influence of the economic and social environments on this phenomenon, this study analyzes the foods and consumers concerning the main meal of the day. A survey of 180 customers from seventy-three catering establishments in the province of Haut Ogooué in southeastern Gabon was conducted. They were interviewed between 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. over a month using a semi-structured questionnaire providing socio-demographic variables, foods, side dishes, cooking methods, prices, and food additives consumed in restaurants and at home. The results show that clients are disadvantaged young people (30.3 ± 9.7 years) who consume animal proteins that are less available at home. Low prices, imported food, proximity, the availability of food additives rich in oils and salts, and the possibility of consuming local side foods explain the success of out-of-home catering. The cooking and consumption patterns are conducive to the development in the long-term of non-communicable metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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605 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Planting Techniques and Nutrient Management on Crop Productivity and Profitability of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
by G. Naveen Kumar, P. K. Singh, R. K. Naresh and Mandapelli Sharath Chandra
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-15874 - 7 Nov 2023
Viewed by 243
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.), India, during the kharif season (June–September) in 2019 to study the impact of planting techniques and nutrient management on the crop productivity and profitability of rice ( [...] Read more.
A field experiment was conducted at Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.), India, during the kharif season (June–September) in 2019 to study the impact of planting techniques and nutrient management on the crop productivity and profitability of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The treatment comprised four planting techniques as the main (M) treatments and six fertility levels as subplot (S) treatments in a split-plot design with three replications. The results of the experimentation revealed that Conventional Tillage Transplanted rice and the combination of nitrogen chemical fertilizer with organic nitrogen from FYM (farmyard yard manure) resulted in the highest effective tillers, grains per panicle and grain yield. Conventional Tillage Transplanted rice (M2) stood out with the highest gross returns (USD 1151.27 per ha) and net returns (USD 690.03 per ha) due to its superior yield. The Reduce Tillage Transplanted rice (M1) and Unpuddled Transplanted rice (M4) techniques produced good yields, with net returns of USD 564.97 per ha and USD 634.93 per ha, respectively. Among the fertility levels, 75% NPK + 25% N FYM (S5) led with the highest gross returns (USD 1257.74 per ha) and net returns (USD 815.90 per ha). The treatment with 100% NPK + 25% N from FYM (S6) also performed well, with net returns of USD 837.70 per ha, emphasizing the value of combining chemical fertilizers and organic sources for optimal results. Among the planting techniques, M2 resulted in the highest benefit-cost ratio (1.5), while S5 yielded the highest benefit-cost ratio (1.85), indicating their economic viability Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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746 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Contribution of Tribal Women Entrepreneurs to Long-Term Economic Growth: A Bibliometric Analysis and Prospects for Future Study
by Sonam Prabhakar, Pawan Prabhakar, Suraj Kumar, Ashok Nimesh and Mamoni Banerjee
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-16686 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Tribal women entrepreneurship has gained significant attention in recent years as a means to empower women from indigenous communities and foster sustainable development within their societies. However, with the recognition of their unique skills, knowledge, and cultural heritage, tribal women are increasingly embracing [...] Read more.
Tribal women entrepreneurship has gained significant attention in recent years as a means to empower women from indigenous communities and foster sustainable development within their societies. However, with the recognition of their unique skills, knowledge, and cultural heritage, tribal women are increasingly embracing entrepreneurship as a pathway to economic self-sufficiency and empowerment. Our research analysed bibliometric data from 2002 to 2023 to see how the field of study on tribal women entrepreneurs has evolved. This study looked at a wide range of factors, including publication details, authorship details, country of origin, and author-related keywords. The R studio Bibliometrix programme was used to make the visuals. The annual output of publications increased by 9.82% after the COVID-19 pandemic, and there was a notable increase in the number of publications on tribal women entrepreneurship. Possible causes include supportive technological development, a thriving environment for new businesses, and government initiatives. India and the United States have produced the most comprehensive studies of entrepreneurship followed by the United Kingdom, but researchers from all over the world have worked together on similar projects. This study has shown that there has been a significant increase in entrepreneurial research activity, as well as demonstrating the breadth and interdisciplinary character of this research. However, more work needs to be carried out to bring together scholars from different fields to examine how different organisations have impacted the study of tribal women entrepreneurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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1516 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Biochar Production from Wastewater Sludge for Application in Sustainable Lettuce Plant Cultivation and Climate Change Mitigation
by Derrick Dadebo, Mona G. Ibrahim, Manabu Fujii and Mahmoud Nasr
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-15934 - 9 Nov 2023
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Compared with conventional soil additives, biochar has found successful application as an organic soil amendment to improve crop productivity coupled with climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. This study investigated the synthesis of biochar from wastewater sludge, followed by its application for lettuce [...] Read more.
Compared with conventional soil additives, biochar has found successful application as an organic soil amendment to improve crop productivity coupled with climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. This study investigated the synthesis of biochar from wastewater sludge, followed by its application for lettuce plant growth. Biochar was added to the soil at three rates of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (w/w) using pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Biochar application demonstrated an economic feasibility scenario with a payback period of 0.89 years. Hence, the study outcomes can contribute to eco-friendly crop management, soil conservation, and combat climate change, providing a reliable strategy for achieving targets of SDG 2 “Zero hunger,” SDG 13 “Climate action,” and SDG 15 “Life on land.” Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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1189 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Agriculture Revolutionized by Artificial Intelligence: Harvesting the Future
by Muhammad Bilal, Farva Rubab, Mubashir Hussain and Syyed Adnan Raheel Shah
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-15875 - 7 Nov 2023
Viewed by 340
Abstract
According to the United Nations FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), the world population will expand by another 2 billion in 2050, but extra land area under cultivation will account for only 4% of the total land area at that time. In such cases, [...] Read more.
According to the United Nations FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), the world population will expand by another 2 billion in 2050, but extra land area under cultivation will account for only 4% of the total land area at that time. In such cases, more efficient farming practices can be achieved by utilizing recent technical developments and solutions to current farming bottlenecks. Crop metrics could be constructed over hundreds of acres of cultivable land using remote sensing (RS) techniques and 3D laser scanning. AI-based crops produced a 30% increase in average crop output per ha and provided a rapid GTM (go-to-market) approach for crops. This article raises the image of boosting agriculture and analyzes the AI-powered concepts in the future and the obstacles that are expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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571 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Durum Wheat Genotypes at Germination Stage under Salinity Stress
by Mauro Vaccarella, Benedetto Frangipane, Sergio Saia, Luciano Raimondo, Antonino Rigoglioso, Rosa Petralia, Marco Genduso and Claudia Miceli
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-16339 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 235
Abstract
The aim of this work was to investigate several durum wheat genotypes (eleven landraces, two old varieties and seven modern cultivars) for salt tolerance at germination and early growth stages. Seeds were tested under two different concentrations of NaCl solution (50 mM and [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to investigate several durum wheat genotypes (eleven landraces, two old varieties and seven modern cultivars) for salt tolerance at germination and early growth stages. Seeds were tested under two different concentrations of NaCl solution (50 mM and 100 mM) and a control (T) with distilled water. Experiments were laid out in a two-factorial design with three replications. Two-way ANOVA was performed and means were compared with Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Seven parameters were measured under laboratory conditions: germination, mean germination time, shoot length, root length, root number, shoot dry matter and root dry matter. Rusticano, with the highest value of root number (5.44), was statistically different from all other genotypes. Timilia reste bianche, Timilia reste nere, Ciciredda and Cappelli are highlighted for the best root length performance at 100 mM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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534 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Calcium Biofortification in Solanum tuberosum L.: Assessing the Influence of Calcium Nitrate and Calcium Chloride on Yield
by Ana Rita F. Coelho, Inês Carmo Luís, Ana Coelho Marques, Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Diana Daccak, Carlos Galhano, Manuela Simões, Maria Manuela Silva, Maria F. Pessoa, Fernando H. Reboredo, Paulo Legoinha, José C. Ramalho, Paula S. Campos, Isabel P. Pais, José N. Semedo and Fernando C. Lidon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-15920 - 8 Nov 2023
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a widely consumed and essential food crop globally, making it an ideal food matrix for biofortification. Agronomic biofortification is one of the strategies used to enhance Ca content in edible parts of crops, considering the adverse health [...] Read more.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a widely consumed and essential food crop globally, making it an ideal food matrix for biofortification. Agronomic biofortification is one of the strategies used to enhance Ca content in edible parts of crops, considering the adverse health issues associated with Ca deficiency. This study aims to investigate the impact of Ca agronomic biofortification through four foliar applications after the beginning of tuberization on the yield of tubers of Solanum tuberosum L. (Picasso variety) produced in Lourinhã (Portugal) in 2018, focusing on the application of calcium chloride or, alternatively, calcium nitrate at different concentrations (calcium chloride—1, 3, 6 and 12 kg/ha or calcium nitrate—0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kg/ha). Control plants and plants subjected to the different Ca treatments were placed in plots of 20 × 24 m; the treatments were carried out in quadruplicate (compass 60–80 cm). As such, the Ca content in tubers was quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the different treatments. The Ca biofortification index with calcium chloride or calcium nitrate ranged between 5 and 40%, with the treatment with 6 kg/ha CaCl2 being the one which presented the highest Ca content in tubers at harvest and 1 kg/ha CaCl2 being the treatment with the lowest Ca biofortification index. However, 6 kg/ha CaCl2, despite presenting the highest Ca content, was not the treatment that presented the highest yield. Indeed, all the calcium nitrate treatments demonstrated a substantial increase in tubers yield, which varied between 2.3 (4 kg/ha Ca(NO3)2) and 24.3% (2 kg/ha Ca(NO3)2). Statistical analysis was carried out in all the analyses using one-way ANOVA to assess differences among treatments in Solanum tuberosum L. (Picasso variety), followed by Tukey’s analysis for mean comparison, with a 95% confidence level. Furthermore, these findings emphasize the potential of Ca biofortification, especially calcium nitrate treatments, in enhancing the yield of Solanum tuberosum L. tubers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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5091 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Survey of Effective Parameters in Biomass Separation Using Vacuum Membrane Filtering: A Case Study of Pectin Acidic Solution
by Shoaib Gholami, Saeid Minaei, Alireza Mahdavian and Pourya Bazyar
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-16340 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Pectin, which is made from citrus peel and waste, is one of the most commonly used compounds in the food industry. For large-scale production, a combination of membrane-vacuum filtering has been suggested as an alternative to traditional methods of purifying the acidic solution [...] Read more.
Pectin, which is made from citrus peel and waste, is one of the most commonly used compounds in the food industry. For large-scale production, a combination of membrane-vacuum filtering has been suggested as an alternative to traditional methods of purifying the acidic solution for pectin extraction. This study investigates the main factors involved in the membrane filtering system for the separation of fibrous materials from an acidic pectin solution under vacuum. These factors include filter aid particle size, the amount of filter aid (perlite) added to the solution, and the vacuum level. They affect separation quality, volumetric flow rate, and energy consumption. A vacuum separation device was developed for this purpose to separate the fibrous material dissolved in the solution. The independent variables were examined at three levels, and the data were analyzed. The optimum value for each variable was determined using the response surface method (RSM). Results revealed that increasing the vacuum level from 0.2 to 0.4 bar increases the flow rate 6.5-fold, while further increase in the vacuum level decreases the flow rate. This indicates clogging of the paper filter and decreased flow rate at a vacuum level of 0.6 bar and perlite particle size of 100 microns. The evaluation results showed that the thickness of the perlite layer has the greatest effect on the separation efficiency. When increased from 1 to 2 cm, it increases the efficiency 2.5-fold. The maximum value of separation efficiency was obtained at a vacuum level of 0.2 bar, a particle size of 20 microns, and a perlite thickness of 2 cm. The energy consumption of 60-micron perlite was 0.74 Wh in the optimal state, while the larger and smaller sizes of perlite had 4.5 times the energy consumption. These findings are applicable in the industrial-scale implementation of a biomaterial separation system using vacuum membrane filtering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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377 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluating the Synergistic Effects of Foliar Boron and Magnesium Application for Mitigating Drought in Wheat
by Abdallah Aldahadha and Yahya Bani Khalaf
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-15964 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 242
Abstract
The grain yield of wheat is primarily limited by drought. To increase the level of productivity under these conditions, a pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of foliar fertilizer with boron and magnesium under drought at either tillering or anthesis [...] Read more.
The grain yield of wheat is primarily limited by drought. To increase the level of productivity under these conditions, a pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of foliar fertilizer with boron and magnesium under drought at either tillering or anthesis stages on some physiological parameters and yield components of two varieties of durum wheat. Foliar application with combined boron and magnesium significantly improved the transpiration rate, relative water content, and total chlorophyll content. Foliar application with combined boron and magnesium significantly increased the grain weight of wheat varieties at tillering and anthesis drought by 25% and 36%, respectively. Our findings showed the significance of foliar application at anthesis drought rather than at tillering for improvement of grain yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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644 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Predicting Maturity of Coconut Fruit from Acoustic Signal with Applications of Deep Learning
by Farook Sattar
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-16880 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 396
Abstract
This paper aims to develop an effective AI-driven method to predict the maturity level of coconut (Cocos nucifera) fruits using acoustic signals. The proposed sound-based autonomous approach exploits various deep learning models, including customized CNN pretrained networks, i.e., the ResNet50, InceptionV3, [...] Read more.
This paper aims to develop an effective AI-driven method to predict the maturity level of coconut (Cocos nucifera) fruits using acoustic signals. The proposed sound-based autonomous approach exploits various deep learning models, including customized CNN pretrained networks, i.e., the ResNet50, InceptionV3, and MobileNetV2, models for maturity level classification of the coconuts. The proposed study also demonstrates the effectiveness of various deep learning models to automatically predict the maturity of coconuts into three classes, i.e., premature, mature, and overmature coconuts, for inspecting the coconut fruits by using a small amount of input acoustic data. We use an open-access dataset containing a total of 122 raw acoustic signals, which is the result of knocking 122 coconut samples. The results achieved by the proposed method for coconut maturity prediction are found to be promising, which enables producers to accurately determine the yield and product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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578 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Diseased Three-Species Harvesting Food Web Model with Various Response Functions
by Thangavel Megala, Thangaraj Nandha Gopal, Manickasundaram Siva Pradeep and Arunachalam Yasotha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-16876 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 329
Abstract
The purpose of this work is to present a three-species harvesting food web model that takes into account the interactions of susceptible prey, infected prey, and predator species. Prey species are assumed to expand logistically in the absence of predator species. The Crowley–Martin [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work is to present a three-species harvesting food web model that takes into account the interactions of susceptible prey, infected prey, and predator species. Prey species are assumed to expand logistically in the absence of predator species. The Crowley–Martin and Beddington–DeAngelis functional responses are used by predators to consume both susceptible and infected prey. Additionally, susceptible prey is consumed by infected prey in the formation of a Holling type II response. Both prey species are considered when prey harvesting is taken into account. Boundedness, positivity, and positive invariance are considered in this study. The investigation covers all the equilibrium points that are biologically feasible. Local stability is evaluated by analyzing the distribution of eigen values, while global stability is evaluated using suitable Lyapunov functions. Also, Hopf bifurcation is analyzed at the harvesting rate H1. At the end, we evaluate the numerical solutions based on our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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2120 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Legal Protection of New Plant Varieties: Lamiaceae Patent Cases Based on International Patent Classification
by Reda El Boukhari and Ahmed Fatimi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-16882 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 310
Abstract
This study aims to analyze patents relating to new plant varieties of Lamiaceae, a plant family recognized for the interest of these genera in the medicinal and aromatic fields. The study also seeks to identify the genera and species most exploited in [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze patents relating to new plant varieties of Lamiaceae, a plant family recognized for the interest of these genera in the medicinal and aromatic fields. The study also seeks to identify the genera and species most exploited in innovative applications. To identify the latest trends in this area, we systematically reviewed patents concentrating on new varieties of Lamiaceae. The relevant patent documents were identified within a specialized database using the International Patent Classification. The United States encompasses all plant patents in this area, and it is considered the leading jurisdiction. This is also confirmed by the American organizations, which led the way with the most applicants. The Lamiaceae genera concerned with the legal protection of new plant varieties comprise 23 genera. Among them are Plectranthus, Salvia, and Lavandula, which present 55.4% of total patent documents in this area. The essential objective claimed by the majority of patent documents analyzed in this study is ornamental. Furthermore, other inventive purposes are also claimed in the patent documents, but with a low percentage, such as genetic engineering, the selection of a compound, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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1386 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Light-Weight CNN Based Multi-Task Architecture for Apple Maturity and Disease Classification
by Li Zhang and Jie Cao
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-16881 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Quickly and accurately judging the quality grades of apples is the basis for choosing suitable harvesting date and setting a suitable storage strategy. At present, the research of multi-task classification algorithm models based on CNN is still in the exploration stage, and there [...] Read more.
Quickly and accurately judging the quality grades of apples is the basis for choosing suitable harvesting date and setting a suitable storage strategy. At present, the research of multi-task classification algorithm models based on CNN is still in the exploration stage, and there are still some problems such as complex model structure, high computational complexity and long computing time. This paper presents a light-weight architecture based on multi-task convolutional neural networks for maturity (L-MTCNN) to eliminate immature and defective apples in the intelligent integration harvesting task. L-MTCNN architecture with diseases classification sub-network (D-Net) and maturity classification sub-network (M-Net), to realize multi-task discrimination of the apple appearance defect and maturity level. Under different light conditions, the image of fruit may have color damage, which makes it impossible to accurately judge the problem, an image preprocessing method based on brightness information was proposed to restore fruit appearance color under different illumination conditions in this paper. In addition, for the problems of inaccurate prediction results caused by tiny changes in apple appearance between different maturity levels, triplet loss is introduced as the loss function to improve the discriminating ability of maturity classification task. Based on the study and analysis of apple grade standards, three types of apples were taken as the research objects. By analyzing the changes in apple fruit appearance in each stage, the data set corresponding to the maturity level and fruit appearance was constructed. Experimental results show that D-Net and M-Net have significantly improved recall rate, precision rate and F1-Score in all classes compared with AlexNet, ResNet18, ResNet34 and VGG16. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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690 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Variability of Allergen-Based Length Polymorphism of Glycine max L. Varieties
by Adam Kováčik, Jana Žiarovská and Lucia Urbanová
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-16879 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Food allergies are an increasingly common phenomenon across all age groups and can be called an epidemic of modern times. Legumes are a nutritionally attractive crop because of their high protein content and well-balanced nutritional value. However, in addition to nutritionally valuable components, [...] Read more.
Food allergies are an increasingly common phenomenon across all age groups and can be called an epidemic of modern times. Legumes are a nutritionally attractive crop because of their high protein content and well-balanced nutritional value. However, in addition to nutritionally valuable components, they contain a relatively high amount of antinutritional factors such as glycosides, lectins, inhibitors of digestive enzymes, and antinutritional proteins, including allergens. Different genomic-based analyses of allergen-coding parts are relevant in research into legume gene resources. Here, a total of thirty different soybean varieties were analyzed for polymorphism based on the specific homologous sequences of genes for vicilin and profilin; products of both of these genes belong to allergenic molecules of this species. A total of 16 different amplicons were obtained when profilin was used as marker and 17 different amplicons were obtained when vicilin was used. Comparing both of the used techniques, vicilin provided more polymorphic profiles, but in five of analyzed varieties no amplicons were obtained. Profilin fingerprints provided a higher degree of similarity coefficients among individual varieties of the soybean. Both of used PCR-based techniques proved to be applicable for genomic-based screening of allergen homologs in the genetic resources of Glycine max L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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911 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Irrigation Water Management and Quality in Two Rocha Pear Orchards
by Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Ana Coelho Marques, Ana Rita F. Coelho, Diana Daccak, Inês Carmo Luís, Manuela Simões, Paulo Legoinha, Maria Manuela Silva, Fernando H. Reboredo, Paula Scotti-Campos, Isabel P. Pais, José N. Semedo, José C. Ramalho and Fernando C. Lidon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-17341 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 110
Abstract
Tackling human malnutrition resulting from mineral deficits in foods is currently an agro-industrial problem. To address this problem, an agronomic workflow to enrich Rocha pears with calcium (Ca) was considered in two orchards in Portugal. This study aims to assess quality differences in [...] Read more.
Tackling human malnutrition resulting from mineral deficits in foods is currently an agro-industrial problem. To address this problem, an agronomic workflow to enrich Rocha pears with calcium (Ca) was considered in two orchards in Portugal. This study aims to assess quality differences in the irrigation water of two orchards (of Rocha pear) where an agronomic Ca enrichment workflow would be performed and identify possible conditioning to Ca increases in fruits. Thus, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, pHs, cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+), and anions (HCO3, Cl, and SO42−) were attained to calculate the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) index and the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and assess the agricultural use. The values of EC, pH, pHs, SAR index and LSI of both orchards varied between 1198 and 1211 µS/cm, 7.4 and 7.5, 7.7 and 8.1, 3.5 and 7.4, and −0.69 and −0.21, respectively. Regarding Piper classification, irrigation waters were classified as sodium bicarbonate (orchard 1) and sodium chloride bicarbonate (orchard 2). Both orchards presented different classifications regarding agricultural use, namely C3S1 (orchard 2) and C3S2 (orchard 1). The water of both orchards presented the same salinity hazard (C3), but the use of these irrigation waters is enabled since these trees can be considered salt-tolerant. However, regarding the alkalinization hazard to soils, the irrigation water from orchard 2 offers less danger (S1) in comparison to orchard 1 (S2). Meanwhile, a slightly inferior LSI (orchard 1) can favor a higher tendency to dissolve calcium carbonate. In conclusion, although slightly different, analysis indicated that the waters of both orchards did not induce toxicity in Rocha pear trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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1085 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Management and Quality Assurance of Irrigation Water in the Sustainable Production of Selenium-Enriched Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
by Ana Coelho Marques, Diana Daccak, Inês Carmo Luís, Ana Rita F. Coelho, Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Manuela Simões, Paula Scotti-Campos, Ana Sofia Almeida, Maria Graça Brito, José Carlos Kullberg, Carlos Galhano, Fernando Reboredo, Paulo Legoinha, José C. Ramalho, José Manuel N. Semedo, Isabel P. Pais, Maria Manuela Silva, Maria Fernanda Pessoa, Lourenço Palha, Cátia Silva and Fernando C. Lidonadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-17335 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 102
Abstract
There is a growing need for strategic actions involving efficient water use, sustainable agricultural production, and food security. Agricultural productivity can be improved through good agricultural practices based on water-quality management, new genetically modified resources, and using precision agriculture. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
There is a growing need for strategic actions involving efficient water use, sustainable agricultural production, and food security. Agricultural productivity can be improved through good agricultural practices based on water-quality management, new genetically modified resources, and using precision agriculture. This study aimed to monitor the crop water (supply, irrigation, and flooding) of an advanced rice (Oryza sativa L.) line of the breeding program (OP 1509) subjected to Selenium (Se) enrichment. Water lines in a paddy rice field were monitored by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The parameters of pH, pHs, electrical conductivity, temperature, HCO3, Cl, SO42−, PO43−, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ were analyzed. According to the Piper diagram, the samples were classified as sodium chloride bicarbonate (supply) and sodium bicarbonate chloride (irrigation and flooding). The Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) was calculated and indicated that waters are good to use in agricultural practices. According to the Wilcox classification, regarding agriculture use, the samples were classified as C2S1 (supply and irrigation) and C3S1 (flooding). The Selenium contents were analyzed by atomic absorption and significant differences were observed in rice grains, with a maximum content of 10 mg.kg−1. In conclusion, the water quality is in accordance with the parameters for use in this crop and the workflow used improved the grain quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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735 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ammonium and Lanthanum Impact Methane Oxidation and Methanotrophic Communities in Agricultural Soils
by Irina K. Kravchenko
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-17339 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 112
Abstract
An ever-increasing amount of research is being performed on the stability and recovery of soil methane-oxidizing bacteria since this is one of the fundamental processes controlling the amount of methane in the atmosphere. Mineral fertilizers may alter the methane oxidation processes in agricultural [...] Read more.
An ever-increasing amount of research is being performed on the stability and recovery of soil methane-oxidizing bacteria since this is one of the fundamental processes controlling the amount of methane in the atmosphere. Mineral fertilizers may alter the methane oxidation processes in agricultural soils when they are introduced. Although ammonium (NH4+) is believed to have a significant impact on aerobic methane oxidation activity in soils, there is still little data on how it reacts with lanthanum (La). The recent identification of a novel class of lanthanum-containing enzymes in methanotrophic bacteria may be the foundation for controlling the function of the soil “methane filter” and related microbiota. In the current study, microcosms with agricultural sod-podzolic soils were created and incubated in air or 20% CH4 in the gas phase with the addition of NH4+ (100 µg/g) and La (5 µg/g) to the soil. Using GC analysis and high-performance 16S rRNA sequencing, the methane oxidation potential and composition of soil bacterial communities were studied over the month of incubation. A negative impact of NH4+ on the oxidation of methane was observed, whereas La had a somewhat beneficial effect. Ammonium had an impact on the composition of methanotrophs, and a significant shift was observed upon La addition. Proteobacteria made up a larger share of the soil microbial community, and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the methanotrophic populations. Methylobacter, a methanotroph, and Methylotenera, an obligatory methylotroph, were the two absolute dominants in the La-amended variants. These findings could help evaluate how lanthanum regulates methanotrophic communities in agricultural soils and lead to the creation of new strategies for controlling the “methane filter” in soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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1457 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Solid Grain Waste Digestate on Biometrics and Photosynthetic Parameters of Tomato (L. Lycopersicon esculentum) Seedlings
by Samanta Kaupaitė, Julė Jankauskienė and Kristina Laužikė
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-17343 - 18 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Anaerobic digestate has been commonly used for the cultivation of vegetable seedlings and as one of the measures for improving peat substrate. Studies have shown that there has been further research conducted on the effect of anaerobic digestate on greenhouse vegetable seedlings. The [...] Read more.
Anaerobic digestate has been commonly used for the cultivation of vegetable seedlings and as one of the measures for improving peat substrate. Studies have shown that there has been further research conducted on the effect of anaerobic digestate on greenhouse vegetable seedlings. The main objective was to investigate the effect of the additional insertion of different rates of solid grain waste digestate into peat substrate on tomato seedling quality. The results showed that 10% of solid grain waste digestate (peat digestate) application with transplanted seedlings had better biometrical measures and photosynthetic parameters for tomato seedlings compared with the control variant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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441 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Potential of Achyrocline satureioides Ethanolic Extract in the Control of Spodoptera littoralis
by Rafaela Regina Fantatto and Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues Pietro
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-17338 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 108
Abstract
The species Spodoptera littoralis is one of the most destructive agricultural pests in tropical and subtropical areas, causing significant losses to farmers; alternative forms of control are therefore necessary. This study aims to evaluate ethanolic extracts from leaves and inflorescences of Achyrocline satureioides [...] Read more.
The species Spodoptera littoralis is one of the most destructive agricultural pests in tropical and subtropical areas, causing significant losses to farmers; alternative forms of control are therefore necessary. This study aims to evaluate ethanolic extracts from leaves and inflorescences of Achyrocline satureioides as a potential control agent for Spodoptera littoralis. The ethanolic extract was prepared via maceration and a bioassay was carried out in five replications with sixth instar S. littoralis larvae, using the Food Deterrence methodology; the larvae continued to feed until they had eaten 75% of the control or sample. The results demonstrated that the extracts from A. satureioides leaves and inflorescences at a concentration of 10 mg/mL inhibited 37.23% and 22.72% of S. littoralis feeding, respectively, indicating that the extracts have an inhibitory effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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213 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Organic Amendments for Growth, Yield and Quality of Green Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)
by Mausum Kumar Nath
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-17342 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 109
Abstract
Fresh and green leafy vegetables are an inevitable part of human nutrition. Leafy coriander is one of the most important condiments in the world and requires adequate fertilizer input for higher production. Expanding population constraints have compelled many countries to use pesticides and [...] Read more.
Fresh and green leafy vegetables are an inevitable part of human nutrition. Leafy coriander is one of the most important condiments in the world and requires adequate fertilizer input for higher production. Expanding population constraints have compelled many countries to use pesticides and fertilizers in order to boost farm production and fulfil their ever-increasing food demands. To stimulate the rapid and sumptuous growth of leafy vegetables like coriander, farmers apply a lot of nitrogenous fertilizers, resulting in poor quality and shelf lives. The application of organic amendments can solve this issue by improving the quality of coriander, as well as prolonging its shelf life. Moreover, various research work has been carried out in India and abroad on coriander as a seed spice, but limited research has been conducted on coriander as a condiment. Hence, this investigation was taken up. The experiment was prepared with seven treatments in a randomized block design and was replicated three times in the organic block of the Experimental Farm at Assam Agricultural University, India. The data from the respective field experiment were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis, as per the procedure proposed by Panse and Sukhatme. The result of the present investigation revealed that T7 (enriched compost @ 5 t ha−1) could produce the maximum yield with the highest benefit–cost ratio of 3.18, along with the best performance in terms of the quality of produce. Therefore, T7 can be inferred as farmer-friendly for sustainable production due to its efficiency, higher net return in comparison to other treatments, and minimal impact on the environment (and thus its adoption can be taken into consideration under field conditions). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
494 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Different Carriers and Storage Temperatures on the Viability of Bacillus thuringiensis B9 and Bacillus pacificus B11 Isolated from Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Rhizosphere
by Idriss Djoko Kouam, Laverdure Tchamani, Germain Ntsoli, Marie Amperes Bedine, Roland Wilfried Titti and Aoudou Yaouba
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-17337 - 18 Apr 2024
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Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the use of agricultural waste as carriers in the bioformulation of two plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), Bacillus thuringiensis B9 and Bacillus pacificus B11 isolated from the tomato rhizosphere, and to determine the effect of different carriers [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the use of agricultural waste as carriers in the bioformulation of two plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), Bacillus thuringiensis B9 and Bacillus pacificus B11 isolated from the tomato rhizosphere, and to determine the effect of different carriers and storage temperatures on bacterial survival. Three carriers, namely palm nut shell biochar, coffee pulp and soil, were inoculated with one of the strains, dehydrated and stored at ambient and refrigeration temperatures (4 °C). Bacterial survival was evaluated for 150 days at 30-day intervals. The results showed that the number of bacterial cells present in the bioformulations decreased progressively with storage time at room temperature, but at refrigeration temperature, the bacterial population initially decreased before increasing until reaching its maximum population at 90 days and gradually decreasing afterward. Although the coffee pulp and biochar carriers stored at 4 °C retained the viability of the bacterial strains as well as possible, the formulations stored at room temperature also remained viable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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628 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Impact of Regenerative Agriculture on Provisioning Ecosystem Services: An Example in Southeast Spain
by Mistral Van Oudenhove, María Martínez-Mena, María Almagro, Elvira Díaz-Pereira, Efraín Carrillo, Joris de Vente, Cristina Fernández-Soler, Raquel Luján-Soto and Carolina Boix-Fayos
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-17336 - 18 Apr 2024
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Abstract
The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of regenerative agriculture alternatives in rainfed almond crops on a range of ecosystems services. A Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) was conducted to evaluate the different land management alternatives integrating different quantitative and qualitative indicators [...] Read more.
The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of regenerative agriculture alternatives in rainfed almond crops on a range of ecosystems services. A Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) was conducted to evaluate the different land management alternatives integrating different quantitative and qualitative indicators based on long-term field research. Three land management alternatives were analyzed: (i) conventional management, (ii) native cover crops, and (iii) seeded cover crops. MCA was able to evaluate the performance of the three alternatives considering different priorities of two groups of farmers (conventional and regenerative) and score the different scenarios. The alternative of natural cover crops had the best score in almost all the groups of ecosystem services and economic indicators. The sustainability, acceptance, and stability of the scenarios were achieved and provided an integrated view of impacts that can help decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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445 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Agroforestry as a Climate-Smart Strategy: Examining the Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adoption
by Md. Manik Ali, Abinash Chandra Pal, Md. Shafiqul Bari, Md. Lutfor Rahman and Israt Jahan Sarmin
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-17340 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 102
Abstract
Agroforestry production systems have shown growing adoption in Bangladesh, offering ecological and economic benefits in the face of climate change. This study investigates the scale of agroforestry adoption, investment returns, factors influencing uptake, and challenges faced by farmers. Using a multistage random sample [...] Read more.
Agroforestry production systems have shown growing adoption in Bangladesh, offering ecological and economic benefits in the face of climate change. This study investigates the scale of agroforestry adoption, investment returns, factors influencing uptake, and challenges faced by farmers. Using a multistage random sample of 340 respondents, we find that while 75% of farmers are aware of agroforestry, adoption remains limited. Our analysis focuses on specific tree–crop combinations favored by farmers as agroforestry practices. The results demonstrate that, in cropland agroforestry, Eucalyptus tree with rice (69.05% adoption rate) is predominant, while homestead/orchard system agroforestry favors mango tree intercropped with potato (73.33%). Financial and investment analyses using Benefit–Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Value (NPV), and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) prove that agroforestry is a more favorable alternative for farmers considering adoption, as it provides superior BCR, NPV, and IRR. For example, litchi-based agroforestry systems with vegetables like brinjal (eggplant), potato, and chilies offer higher NPVs (19.00, 19.73, and 18.46, respectively) and IRRs (54.45, 68.00, and 47.19, respectively) compared to monocropping where NPV was 14.38. A binary logistic model reveals that larger farm sizes, younger respondents, higher education levels, training experiences, more frequent extension visits, and improved market access positively influence agroforestry adoption. The study also identifies key challenges for farmers using the Problem Facing Index (PFI). The most significant obstacles include lack of training facilities (PFI-894), shortage of skilled labor (PFI-687), and insufficient technical expertise (PFI-647). Therefore, to promote wider adoption, targeted training programs that address the identified challenges are crucial. It will empower farmers to reap the tangible benefits of agroforestry as a sustainable and climate-smart agricultural practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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275 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Increasing Wheat Productivity and Disease Resistance through Combined Use of Polymer Hydrogel and Protein Hydrolysates with Varied Composition and Molecular Weight
by Leonid E. Kolesnikov, Marianna I. Kremenevskaya, Maiya V. Uspenskaya, Bashar A. Hassan, Yuliya R. Kolesnikova, Firdavs Adkhamov and Veronika S. Varik
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2024, 30(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCAG2023-17334 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 138
Abstract
This study explores the effectiveness of protein hydrolysates derived from by-products of farm animal processing. In previous research, we utilized protein hydrolysates with amino acids rich in glycine and with peptides of molecular weight ranging from 200 to 1000 Da. Subsequently, we modified [...] Read more.
This study explores the effectiveness of protein hydrolysates derived from by-products of farm animal processing. In previous research, we utilized protein hydrolysates with amino acids rich in glycine and with peptides of molecular weight ranging from 200 to 1000 Da. Subsequently, we modified the production process, resulting in a new hydrolysate from by-products of meat, chicken, and fish processing, with a molecular weight of 700,000 Da. During the period 2021–2022, we conducted a comparative analysis of protein hydrolysates of diverse nature, both independently and as components of multifunctional compositions with acrylic hydrogel. This analysis focused on their impact on productivity metrics and plant disease severity. Our experimental approach involved pre-soaking wheat seeds in the new protein hydrolysate before sowing while introducing acrylic hydrogel into the soil at rates of 6 g/m2 or 60 kg/ha. This regimen led to a remarkable increase in wheat yield (73.3% higher than the control group). The improvement was attributed to a boost in the field germination of wheat seeds by 21.9%, an elevation in plant height by 17.0%, an increment in the number of spikelets per spike by 7.8%, an enlargement of the pre-flag leaf area by 36.0%, and a reduction in the incidence of critical diseases such as brown rust (21.7%), yellow rust (28.3%), and root rot (5.6%). Our findings underscore the influence of hydrolysate molecular weight and the composition of acrylic hydrogels on their efficacy. Furthermore, these factors contribute to the economic viability of their application in wheat cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Online Conference on Agriculture)
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