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Biol. Life Sci. Forum, 2021, IECAG 2021

The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy

Online | 3–17 May 2021

Volume Editors:
Youssef Rouphael, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Gianni Bellocchi, Université Clermont Auvergne, France
Giuseppe Colla, University of Tuscia, Italy
Priti Krishna, Western Sydney University, Australia
Peter Langridge, University of Adelaide, Australia
Annalisa Milella, National Research Council, Italy
Cornelia Rumpel, Institute of Ecology and Environmental Sciences of Paris, France
Leslie A. Weston, Charles Sturt University, Australia

Number of Papers: 63
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume aims to gather the proceedings presented at the 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy, held on 3–17 May 2021 online. The world’s agricultural systems face a [...] Read more.
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178 KiB  
Abstract
Regolith as Baseline to a Future Space Farm
by Luigi Giuseppe Duri, Antonio Giandonato Caporale, Paola Adamo and Youssef Rouphael
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09702 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 715
Abstract
In the last decade, a great deal of attention has been paid and many resources have been invested in space colonization. Indeed, many space agencies, perhaps most notably NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), have created programs that aim to establish a stable [...] Read more.
In the last decade, a great deal of attention has been paid and many resources have been invested in space colonization. Indeed, many space agencies, perhaps most notably NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), have created programs that aim to establish a stable settlement on the Moon (ideally in the next few years), with additional future goals of a conducting the first manned mission to Mars. Bioregenerative Life-Support Systems (BLSS) will play a key role in these endeavors because it is unrealistic and incredibly difficult to provide all of the consumables that are necessary to keep the crew members on these missions alive due high production costs and the amount of planning that is required to ensure that these products maintain their quality. An alternative solution that can reduce the associated costs and that can support delivery can be provided through the implementation of BLSS with in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Specifically, this technology aims to improve the use of the regolith (the “soil” of a planet or a satellite) on the Moon and on Mars and to promote the re-use of the waste materials that are produced either during the journey or while living in these future colonies, such as human excreta and food residues. At present, little research has investigated the feasibility of use of these resources for crop production or the effects of these resources on crop yield and nutritional quality. Our work aims to fill this gap by using regolith simulants that have been mixed at different rates (0%, 30% or 50%) with a monogastric manure that has been sieved to 2 mm as plant growth substrates to evaluate their long-term effects on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). No synthetic fertilizers were delivered to the plants during the entire cultivation period, and the specimens were only provided deionized water. Our results show that the germination rate was around 97% under pure simulant conditions, whereas germination was inhibited in the substrates that contained the monogastric manure. Figure 1 shows the effects of monogastric manure, which was demonstrated to improve the fresh yield by 23% and 17% for the 30% and 50% of amendment treatments, respectively, compared to pure simulant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
228 KiB  
Abstract
Transcriptomic Profiling of Fruits from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), Variety Padrón (Mild Hot), at Two Ripening States
by Salvador González-Gordo, José M. Palma and Francisco J. Corpas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09913 - 6 May 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits are one of the most consumed vegetables worldwide. This produce has a great agro-economical relevance, since it is extensively cultivated. These fruits are characterized by their high content of vitamins C and A [1]. Capsicum annuum has [...] Read more.
Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits are one of the most consumed vegetables worldwide. This produce has a great agro-economical relevance, since it is extensively cultivated. These fruits are characterized by their high content of vitamins C and A [1]. Capsicum annuum has many varieties, whose fruits differ in size, shape, color, and pungency, this last characteristic being due to the presence, in different degrees, of capsaicinoids and alkaloids, which are exclusive to the genus Capsicum [2]. The present study focuses on the transcriptomic profiling of an autochthonous Spanish variety called “Padrón” (mild hot) [3]. Pepper “Padrón” plants were grown in farms under the local conditions (42°44′05″ N 8°37′42″ W), and fruits at both green and red ripe ripening stages were collected. The transcriptome profiling was carried out in both types of fruits by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) using the NextSeq550 system (Illumina®) [4,5]. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the expression of more than half of the 17,499 identified transcripts was modulated during ripening. Comparing to green fruits, 5626 and 5241 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in red fruits. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) have been analyzed to determine the functional categories that orchestrate the ripening process at the genetic level of this non-climacteric fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
176 KiB  
Abstract
Low-Input Agriculture as a Chance to Preserve Endangered Species of Segetal Flora
by Małgorzata Haliniarz, Sylwia Chojnacka and Ewa Kwiecińska-Poppe
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09740 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 554
Abstract
As a result of human activity, the rate of extinction of species is now 100 to 1000 times faster than under natural conditions [1]. According to the FAO, 75% of the genetic diversity of agricultural crops worldwide has been lost since [...] Read more.
As a result of human activity, the rate of extinction of species is now 100 to 1000 times faster than under natural conditions [1]. According to the FAO, 75% of the genetic diversity of agricultural crops worldwide has been lost since 1990. In Poland, about 100 species of field weeds are in danger of extinction. Archaeophytes growing on heavy calcareous soils, which are characteristic of the Lathyro-Melandrietum noctiflori, Caucalido-Scandicetum, Kicxietum spuriae communities, and weeds associated with the cultivation of flax, are particularly endangered. Halting the loss of rural biodiversity is a priority for the EU’s environmental protection strategy. Research aimed at assessing the infestation status of the weed agrophytocoenoses, located on rendzinas in the Lublin Province (Poland), has been conducted since 1997. The research was carried out using the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological method. Lublin Province is located in the south-eastern part of Poland. Here, there are good conditions for agricultural production. Agricultural land covers 57.9% of the total area of the voivodeship, of which 99.3% is agricultural land suitable for a good standard of farming. In such favorable environmental conditions, agriculture in the Lublin Province is characterized by an unfavorable structure of farms: 55.6% of more than 180,000 farms are those with an area under 5 ha. Such a large fragmentation of farms results in a low profitability of the agricultural sector, which results from extensive farming. Research has shown that low-input agriculture is conducive to the preservation of rare and endangered species of segetal flora [2]. Muscari comosum—a critically endangered (ER) species under strict protection—were found on several sites in the study area. Several sites of Caucalis platycarpos and Galium tricornutum, also recognized as ER species, were found in heavy rendzinas. Moreover, numerous sites of such rare species as Adonis aestivalis, Anthemis tinctoria, Thymelaea passerina, Lysimachia arvensis, Chaenorhinum minus and Euphorbia exigua were also identified. Research on the state of the population of rare species is a key challenge for scientists, because only knowledge about this will provide a basis for future relevant actions aimed at maintaining biodiversity and restoring degraded ecosystems [The poster presentation]. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
186 KiB  
Abstract
Antifungal Properties of Urtica dioca against Six Phytopathogenic Fungi
by Cláudia Ferreira and Rui Oliveira
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09730 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Several phytopathogenic fungi greatly affect the production of important crops across the globe, as they lead to huge losses. To control diseases caused by fungal phytopathogens, a wide range of synthetic fungicides are applied in the fields. However, these agrochemicals are harmful for [...] Read more.
Several phytopathogenic fungi greatly affect the production of important crops across the globe, as they lead to huge losses. To control diseases caused by fungal phytopathogens, a wide range of synthetic fungicides are applied in the fields. However, these agrochemicals are harmful for ecosystems (aerial, aquatic and terrestrial), non-target organisms and humans. In addition, since these antifungals have one specific cellular target, fungi can acquire resistance to them via the accumulation of mutations. Plant extracts provide natural alternatives to the use of synthetic fungicides in agriculture. Several plants are rich in secondary metabolites, including alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids and saponins, which confer antifungal activity. This sustainable option is biodegradable, environmentally friendly and proves to be safer, and it is less prone to development resistance since they often have several cellular targets. This study was conducted to investigate the antifungal activity of Urtica dioica extract against Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum godetiae, Colletotrichum nymphaeae, Diplodia corticola and Phytophthora cinnamomi. Urtica dioica extract was prepared with 50% (v/v) ethanol, the solvent was evaporated at a low pressure, and the residue was dissolved in water. The extract was incorporated into PDA medium at different concentrations (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/mL) and mycelial discs were placed in the center of each Petri dish. Growth was measured in terms of radial mycelial growth in the third, sixth and ninth days of incubation, at 25 °C and in the dark. Urtica dioica extract was able to inhibit the growth of all strains except C. nymphaeae. Growth inhibition was around 20% at 2000 µg/mL for the remaining Colletotrichum species. An inhibition of growth was also observed with D. corticola in a concentration-dependent manner, from 100 µg/mL to 2000 µg/mL and revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between these concentrations. Regarding the growth of P. cinnamomi, significant differences were observed between the 100 µg/mL and 2000 µg/mL extract (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 on day 3 and 6, respectively). The most pronounced mycelial growth reduction (39.9%) was observed on day 3, an effect that is significantly different from (24.9%; p < 0.05) the result observed on the sixth day of incubation. Overall, the results of this work suggest U. dioca as a potential, ecologically sustainable alternative to conventional fungicides to protect crops from damage caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
200 KiB  
Abstract
Mediterranean Lupines as an Alternative Protein Source to Soybean
by André Monteiro, Carla Miranda and Henrique Trindade
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09911 - 6 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
Soybean is the most commonly used protein supplement of plant origin in animal diets. However, its high price and environmental impacts of production and transport to global markets stimulate producer’s interest in alternative use of locally produced feed ingredients including grain legumes. Lupin [...] Read more.
Soybean is the most commonly used protein supplement of plant origin in animal diets. However, its high price and environmental impacts of production and transport to global markets stimulate producer’s interest in alternative use of locally produced feed ingredients including grain legumes. Lupin is one of the major grain legumes economically cultivated in Europe. Their seeds are characterized by high protein and dietary fiber content, presenting a high nutritional value for animal feeding. There is the need for screening new alternatives that can replace soybean by traditional protein sources with nutritional and commercial value for human and animal consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sowing date on the potential of 3 lupines varieties well adapted to Mediterranean climatic conditions and soils from North Portugal as an alternative protein source to human and animal feed. The species and varieties tested were white lupine (Lupinus albus L.), cv. Estoril, narrow-leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.), cv. Tango, and yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.), cv. Cardiga. Four sowing dates with 3-weeks interval were tested from early September to November. The sowing was performed manually in a split-plot completed randomized block design with plots of 10m2 each and 4 replications. The harvest was carried out during the month of June. Agronomic parameters like plant growth indicators, weed infestation, grain yield and protein content were evaluated. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), using the Statistix 10 (Analytical Software 10). When the effects of the factors or their interactions were significant (p < 0.05), the means were separated using multiple comparisons of the Tukey test. Early sowing of Estoril yield more grain than Cardiga (1766 and 1552 kg ha−1, respectively). Late sowing dates significantly reduced (59–62%) yields compared to early sowing. In contrast, Tango showed always the lowest grain yield in all sowing dates with a reduction of 91% and the highest weed infestation on the last date compared to the first one. The highest crude protein yield was obtained with Cardiga (618 kg ha−1) and Estoril (588 kg ha−1), while the lowest was in Tango (144 kg ha−1). The grain protein content decreased from first to last sowing date, with a reduction to half in Estoril and Tango and Cardiga showing 59% less, in last sowing. In conclusion, Cardiga followed by Estoril showed more adaptability to the region and may constitute an alternative protein source for the feed industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
177 KiB  
Abstract
The Impact of Si Fertilization on Healthy Attributes and Yield of Grains of Wheat Plants Grown under P Deficiency
by Isis Vega, Sofia Pontigo and Paula Cartes
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09701 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the major limiting factors of wheat production worldwide. Although silicon (Si) is known to improve plant growth under low phosphorus (P) conditions, the impact of Si supply on the nutritional quality of wheat grains at field conditions [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the major limiting factors of wheat production worldwide. Although silicon (Si) is known to improve plant growth under low phosphorus (P) conditions, the impact of Si supply on the nutritional quality of wheat grains at field conditions remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the impact of Si fertilization on the healthy attributes and yield of grains of wheat plants grown under a P deficiency. A field experiment on an Andisol with low available P content never amended with Si fertilizer was conducted. Two wheat cultivars with contrasting tolerance to P deficiency (cv. Púrpura, sensitive to P deficiency; and cv. Fritz, tolerant to P deficiency) were used during two growing seasons. Three P doses (0, 200, and 400 mg P kg−1 soil; as triple superphosphate) were applied in combination with three Si doses (0, 250, and 500 mg Si kg−1 soil; as magnesium silicate). At the mature grain stage, Si and P concentration, total phenols, phenolic acids, radical scavenging activity, and yield components were evaluated. At both growing seasons, Si supply enhanced the grain P concentration of cv. Púrpura grown in the absence of P, whereas grain Si concentration increased in both cultivars along the gradient of P supply. Interestingly, increasing Si doses augmented the phenol concentration and antioxidant capacity in grains of cv. Púrpura grown without P in both growing seasons. In contrast, Si decreased grain phenol concentration of cv. Fritz under P deficiency. A slight increment of phenolic acids induced by 250 mg kg−1 Si was also detected in grains of both wheat cultivars grown without P. A positive effect of Si fertilization on the grain yield of both wheat cultivars was also found. In the first growing season, Si added to P deficient plants increased grain yield by about 23% and 47% in cv. Púrpura and cv. Fritz, respectively. A significant increase in grain yield was also observed in both wheat cultivars in the second year of the field assay. Taken together, our finding showed that Si fertilization improved the P concentration, phenols production, antioxidant capacity and yield of wheat grains under low P conditions. In this way, Si fertilization could be used as a potential strategy to improve crop production in soils with low P availability. Acknowledgments. FONDECYT Regular Project N°1201257. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
177 KiB  
Abstract
Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum Essential Oil as Inhibitors of Fusarium Dry Rot of Potato
by Slavtcho Slavov and Milena Nikolova
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09912 - 6 May 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Fusarium dry rot on potato, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium solani, is characterized by an internal light to dark brown or black and usually dry rot of potato tubers. The disease progresses noticeably faster during the latter half of the storage [...] Read more.
Fusarium dry rot on potato, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium solani, is characterized by an internal light to dark brown or black and usually dry rot of potato tubers. The disease progresses noticeably faster during the latter half of the storage season. Biological control of dry rot is an intriguing concept, but currently, no products are available commercially. It was found that the essential oil of a number Lamiaceae species, including oregano, have strong biocidal properties. A significant antifungal activity of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum essential oil against different phytopatogens in in vitro experiments has been demonstrated. In this study, the effect of oregano essential oil on potato tubers infected with Fusarium solani was evaluated. For this purpose, potato slices cut at thicknesses of 8–10 mm were inoculated with mycelium plugs of F. solani in the center of the slices. The oregano oil was tested using two approaches: contact and air impact. In the first approach, the essential oil was applied as an aqueous solution with a concentration range of 1–3 µg/mL on the potato tuber slices. In the second approach, the essential oil was placed in the Petri dishes with tuber slices in amounts from 5 to 50 µL without contact between them. A strong reduction in micellar growth on tuber tissue was observed at air impact during application of the essential oil in amounts of 25 μL and higher. The result showed that the Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum essential oil shows antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and has the potential for application in storage rooms of potato tubers, especially during the last half of the storage season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
205 KiB  
Abstract
Short-Term Reaction of Dionaea muscipula J. Ellis Photosynthetic Apparatus after UV-A Radiation Treatment
by Karolina Miernicka, Barbara Tokarz, Wojciech Makowski, Rafał Banasiuk, Aleksandra Królicka and Krzysztof Michał Tokarz
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09743 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Dionaea muscipula J. Ellis is a South and North Carolina carnivorous endemic plant with medicinal properties. Its natural habitat is characterized by low availability of nutrients and poor plant cover, resulting in Venus flytrap exposure to various stress factors (especially UV-A radiation). To [...] Read more.
Dionaea muscipula J. Ellis is a South and North Carolina carnivorous endemic plant with medicinal properties. Its natural habitat is characterized by low availability of nutrients and poor plant cover, resulting in Venus flytrap exposure to various stress factors (especially UV-A radiation). To evaluate the response of Dionaea muscipula photosynthetic apparatus to increased levels of UV-A radiation, plants cultivated in controlled conditions (30–40 % air humidity, temperature 23 ± 1 °C, light intensity 290 μmol m–2 s–1, 16 h light/8 h dark) (Control) were treated additionally with 50 μmols m–2s–1 UV-A radiation for 24 h (Treated). Measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment content were conducted immediately after the exposure, both in the Control and Treated plants. Additionally, the same parameters were evaluated in the next 24 hours (Recovery). UV-A treatment (Treated) did not change chlorophyll a + b content and chlorophyll a/b ratio. Furthermore, an increased level of electron carriers (Area, Sm) and increased efficiency of electron transport between QA and PSI (ΦR0, δR0, ρR0) was observed. Further, PSI and electron acceptors demonstrated an increased ability to oxidize reduced plastoquinone pool (VI decrease). As a consequence, the rate of net photosynthesis increased significantly. After 24h from the exposure (Recovery), the chlorophyll a + b content declined but the ratio of chlorophyll a/b did not alter, which indicates a decrease in the size of photosynthetic antennas and the number of active PSII centers. Additionally, inactivation of the reaction centers (F0 decrease, VJ and VI increase) and a decrease in the amount of electron carriers, especially PQ poll (Sm), was observed. Moreover, a decrease of electron flux and efficiency of electron transport between QA and PSI occurred (decrease of: ΦE0, ψE0, ET0/RC, ET0/CS0, ΦR0, ρR0). These results may indicate the decrease of PSII photochemical efficiency. Simultaneously, PSI reactions remained unchanged and the rate of net photosynthesis increased significantly. This can be connected with the activation of alternative pathways of electron transport. Activation of these pathways leads to the limitation of NADPH synthesis and an increase in ATP synthesis, what enables the plant’s effective acclimatization to stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
204 KiB  
Abstract
Silicon Induces the Biosynthesis of Lignin in Wheat Cultivars Grown under Phosphorus Stress
by Sofia Pontigo, Isis Vega and Paula Cartes
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09706 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 654
Abstract
Although silicon (Si) and lignin are accumulated on plant cell walls and both confer resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses [1,2], the impact of Si on lignin production in plants grown under phosphorus (P) stress still remains unknown. [...] Read more.
Although silicon (Si) and lignin are accumulated on plant cell walls and both confer resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses [1,2], the impact of Si on lignin production in plants grown under phosphorus (P) stress still remains unknown. We evaluated the effect of Si on the lignin accumulation pattern and expression of lignin biosynthesis-related genes in wheat plants grown at different P levels. Two wheat cultivars differing in tolerance to P deficiency (Púrpura-sensitive and Fritz-tolerant) were hydroponically grown in a continuously aerated nutrient solution, as proposed by [3]. Ten days later, plants were treated with P (0, 0.01 or 0.1 mM) in combination with Si (0, 1 or 2 mM). Twenty-one days after the initiation of treatments, plants were harvested and lignin concentration, the lignin distribution pattern and the gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (TaPAL) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (TaCAD) were analyzed in shoots. The lignin concentration of both wheat cultivars did not vary at different P doses; nevertheless, 2 mM Si increased lignin accumulation mainly at either 0 mM P (cv. Púrpura) or 0.01 mM P (cv. Fritz), with a more noticeable effect in Púrpura than in Fritz. This increase was in agreement with the stronger intensity of Safranine O staining observed after Si was added to both cultivars grown at sufficient or deficient P levels and supports previous findings showing the alleviative role of Si by increasing lignin production under stressful conditions [4,5,6,7,8]. Such an effect may be related to either increased hydrogen peroxide production or peroxidase activity in cell walls, as well as to the modulation of the activity and/or gene expression of some key enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis. In this way, we also found that Si induced the expression of lignin biosynthesis genes. The up-regulation of TaPAL was detected in cv. Púrpura grown at low P levels, with a further increase observed in plants treated with Si. Similar to Si addition to P-stressed plants of cv., Fritz caused a 1.5-fold increase in the transcript level of TaPAL. Similarly, the expression level of TaCAD increased 1.7-fold as a result of the Si supply to both cultivars grown at low P. Overall, our results show that Si induced the biosynthesis of lignin in shoots of wheat plants grown under P stress. Acknowledgments. FONDECYT Regular Project N° 1201257 and FONDECYT Postdoctoral Project N° 3200901. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
219 KiB  
Abstract
Evaluation of Fruit Quality, Chromatic Parameters and Anthocyanin’s Content Under Foliar Application of Magnesium and Potassium on Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. Burlat
by Marlene Santos, Helena Ferreira, Marcos Egea-Cortines, João Ricardo Sousa, Fernando Raimundo, Manuela Matos and Berta Gonçalves
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09905 - 6 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 647
Abstract
Sweet cherries are seasonal fruits, considered one of the most popular spring and summer fruits in temperate regions of Europe due to their attractive appearance, taste, colour and sweetness, having a high economic importance [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
193 KiB  
Abstract
Metagenomic and Culturomic Approaches for Blueberry Biofertilizer Design
by José David Flores Félix, Fernando Sanchez-Juanes, Luis R. Silva and Gilberto Alves
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09668 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
Some decade ago, the blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) crop was introduced in Portugal and is widespread along the North and Center of Portugal. It has great relevance as an exportation product, taking advantage of the climatic conditions they allow to produce when [...] Read more.
Some decade ago, the blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) crop was introduced in Portugal and is widespread along the North and Center of Portugal. It has great relevance as an exportation product, taking advantage of the climatic conditions they allow to produce when the market does not have entrances from the producing countries of Northern Europe. However, this climate condition could create problems shortly since, if climate change models are correct, an increase in temperature and a reduction in precipitation will happen. In this work, we study the rhizospheric and endophytic population of wild blueberry plants in three locations of mainland Portugal intending to determine the core bacterial populations of these plants in Portugal to design new biofertilizers to improve the adaptation of this crop. The metagenomic approach revealed that the rhizospheric populations are influenced by temperature and climate, but the plant modulates the endophytic populations of Vaccinium. From this plant s total of 318 bacterial strains were isolated, and their infraspecific diversity has been analyzed using RAPD-M13, obtaining 66 different fingerprints, which were identified employing MALDI-TOF MS methodology and a comparison against the MALDI Biotyper 3.0 database. A 64% of the strains were identified at genus level and the remaining ones by 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacillus, Serratia, Streptomyces, Paenibacillus, Pantoea, or Pseudomonas were some of the identified genera. Most strains were able to grow at pH 5.5, in presence of 2% NaCl and were psychoresistant. Plant growth promotion potential of these strains was analyzed revealing that most isolates were capable of solubilizing dicalcium phosphate, and only 17% of the isolates produced siderophores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
186 KiB  
Abstract
Silicon Differentially Modulates Phenolic Metabolism and Antioxidant Capacity of Barley Cultivars Subjected to Phosphorus Deficiency
by Paula Cartes, Isis Vega and Sofia Pontigo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09707 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Current evidence shows that silicon (Si) can alleviate multiple plant stresses by inducing the antioxidant defense and phenolic metabolism of plants. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these responses remain unclear. We investigated the Si effect on the phenolic metabolism of two barley cultivars differing [...] Read more.
Current evidence shows that silicon (Si) can alleviate multiple plant stresses by inducing the antioxidant defense and phenolic metabolism of plants. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these responses remain unclear. We investigated the Si effect on the phenolic metabolism of two barley cultivars differing in their tolerance to phosphorus (P) deficiency (cv. Sebastian, P-deficiency-tolerant and cv. Traveler, P-deficiency-sensitive). Plants were hydroponically grown with P (0, 0.01 or 0.1 mM P; applied as Na2HPO4) in combination with Si (0, 1 or 2 mM Si; applied as Na2SiO3). At harvest, total phenols, antioxidant capacity, individual phenolics, and the gene expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of soluble phenolic compounds (including phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HvPAL) and chalcone synthase (HvCHS)) were analyzed in shoots. In cv. Sebastian grown without P, Si reduced both total phenols and antioxidant capacity to levels comparable to plants supplied with an optimal P dose. In contrast, increasing Si doses triggered an enhancement of total phenols and antioxidant ability in cv. Traveler cultivated in the absence of P. Seven flavonoids were identified, with the most relevant being derivatives of apigenin and lutonarin. Although we did not observe a clear effect of Si on the content of individual phenolics in cv. Sebastian exposed to P stress, an increment in the concentration of apigenin–pentoxide–hexoside was detected in cv. Traveler as a consequence of Si application to P-deficient plants. Differential expression of genes associated with the synthesis of phenolics was also induced by Si under P-stress. The transcript level of HvPAL diminished in cv. Sebastian and augmented in cv. Traveler due to Si supply under P limitation. Likewise, Si decreased HvCHS expression in cv. Sebastian grown without P, whereas an up-regulation of HvCHS was observed when Si was applied to cv. Traveler grown with low P. Acknowledgments. FONDECYT Regular Project N°1201257 and FONDECYT Postdoctoral Project N°3200901. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
219 KiB  
Abstract
Analysis of Fusarium graminearum Antifungal Protein’s and Latrodectin-II’s Effect on Growth and Toxigenesis of Aspergillus Fungi with Agrofood Impact
by Jorge Iribarren, Jessica Gil-Serna, Alvaro Martínez del Pozo and Belén Patiño
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09700 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Colonization of crops by toxigenic fungi causes important economic losses, which are expected to increase with global change. The presence of mycotoxins in crops affects food security by reducing the edible yield and nutritional values and making cereal consumption unsafe. An efficient method [...] Read more.
Colonization of crops by toxigenic fungi causes important economic losses, which are expected to increase with global change. The presence of mycotoxins in crops affects food security by reducing the edible yield and nutritional values and making cereal consumption unsafe. An efficient method to reduce mycotoxin content is to avoid the appearance of fungi or toxigenesis. This has been traditionally achieved with antifungal chemicals that negatively affect soil and ecosystem health. Current research aims for methods that less harmful for the environment, such as natural proteins or biocontrol. We tested crop-associated fungi against two possible growth-inhibiting proteins: Fusarium graminearum Antifungal Protein (Fg-AFP) and Latrodectin-II (Ltd-II). The first is produced by Fusarium graminearum to compete with other fungi, and the latter is found in Latrodectus hesperus venom and has just recently been correctly purified. In a first assay, we exposed four Aspergillus strains cultured on PDA (potato dextrose agar) against on-surface cellulose discs with 10 µL of different Fg-AFP and Ltd-II concentrations (7 µg/µL, 3.5 µg/µL, 1.4 µg/µL, and 0.7 µg/µL). All tests were carried out in triplicate. Results show that Fg-AFP inhibited development of three of the strains, while Ltd-II did not but may have affected secondary metabolism due to a variation in spore production and pigmentation (no further analysis regarding this event was fulfilled). We subsequently selected Aspergillus niger and A. flavus strains based on their importance in maize crops and sensitivity to the proteins, for a second assay, in which we evenly extended 30 µL of the proteins (1.5 µg/µL) separately on plaques containing PDA. The growth surface was represented over time, the specific growth rate corresponded with the curve slope, and latent period was calculated by obtaining the equation of the line from the slope and the intersection point. An initial diameter of 4 mm was assumed for 2 µL of spore suspension (105 spores/mL) inoculated on the center of the plaque. All tests were carried out in triplicate. Results show that Fg-AFP reduced A. niger and A. flavus growth by 46.3% and 24.3%, respectively, extending fungal latent period by 68.4% and 52.6%, respectively. Ltd-II had no effect on A. flavus, but increased A. niger growth by 18.4%, prolonging the latent period by 67.5%. Toxin production was assessed by thin-layer chromatography under UV light after following a toxin extraction protocol with chloroform and toluene:acetonitrile for quantifying ochratoxin A, and chloroform and methanol for aflatoxin B1 production. Regarding toxigenesis results, ochratoxin A production by A. niger did not vary when it was exposed to the proteins, but aflatoxin B1 synthesis by A. flavus increased with both treatments. Though these proteins have growth-limiting potential, they must be evaluated under wider concentration ranges to assess their effect on toxigenesis and usage as an alternative to harmful chemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)

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785 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Essential Oils and Volatiles as Nematodicides against the Cyst Nematodes Globodera and Heterodera 
by Jorge M. S. Faria and Cláudia Vicente
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09689 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
The cyst nematodes of the genera Heterodera (HET) and Globodera (GLO) are among the most damaging obligate plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) that parasitize cereals, rice, potatoes and soybean. In the absence of resistant crops, soil fumigation of pesticides provides a good strategy for [...] Read more.
The cyst nematodes of the genera Heterodera (HET) and Globodera (GLO) are among the most damaging obligate plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) that parasitize cereals, rice, potatoes and soybean. In the absence of resistant crops, soil fumigation of pesticides provides a good strategy for population control. However, synthetic nematicides can cause negative environmental and public health impacts and are feared to lead to the development of resistance and immunity. The use of essential oils (EOs) could be a viable environmentally friendly alternative, which has been poorly explored on cyst nematodes but has shown very good results on other PPNs. The present work reviews the existing bibliography on the biological activity of EOs against GLO and HET. EOs from Allium sativum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Salvia officinalis were the most active against GLO egg hatching. The EOs extracted from Hyssopus cuspidatus, Kaempferia galanga, Menthacanadensis, Ocimum basilicum, and Valeriana amurensis had the highest activity against HET J2 juveniles. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate, a phenylpropanoid ester, was the EO volatile with the highest toxicity against HET, showing lower EC50 values than the nematodicide fosthiazate. The study of EOs against cyst nematodes is still preliminary in comparison to other PPNs. Future works must expand this line of research and explore greener practices in cyst nematode pest management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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704 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Case Study about the Use of Precision Agriculture Technology Applied to a Zn Biofortification Workflow for Grapevine Vitis vinifera cv Moscatel
by Diana Daccak, Inês Carmo Luís, Ana Coelho Marques, Ana Rita F. Coelho, Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Maria Manuela Silva, Manuela Simões, Fernando H. Reboredo, Maria Fernanda Pessoa, Paulo Legoinha, Maria Graça Brito, José Carlos Kullberg, José António Almeida, Paula Scotti Campos, José C. Ramalho, João Caleiro and Fernando C. Lidon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09663 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 831
Abstract
As the human population is growing worldwide, the food demand is sharply increasing. Following this assumption, strategies to enhance the food production are being explored, namely, smart farming, for monitoring crops during the production cycle. In this study, a vineyard of Vitis vinifera [...] Read more.
As the human population is growing worldwide, the food demand is sharply increasing. Following this assumption, strategies to enhance the food production are being explored, namely, smart farming, for monitoring crops during the production cycle. In this study, a vineyard of Vitis vinifera cv. Moscatel located in Palmela (N 38°35′47.113′′ O 8°40′46.651) was submitted to a Zn biofortification workflow, through foliar application of zinc oxide (ZnO) or zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) (at a concentration of 60% and 90%—900 g·ha−1 and 1350 g·ha−1, respectively). The field morphology and vigor of the vineyard was performed through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) images (assessed with altimetric measurement sensors), synchronized by GPS. Drainage capacity and slopes showed one-third of the field with reduced surface drainage and a maximum variation of 0.80 m between the extremes (almost flat), respectively. The NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) values reflected a greater vigor in treated grapes with treatment SZn90 showing a higher value. These data were interpolated with mineral content, monitored with atomic absorption analysis (showing a 1.3-fold increase for the biofortification index). It was concluded that the used technologies furnishes specific target information in real time about the crops production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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720 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Monitoring a Calcium Biofortification Workflow in an Orchard of Pyrus communis var. Rocha Applying Precision Agriculture Technology
by Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Diana Daccak, Inês Carmo Luís, Ana C. Marques, Ana Rita F. Coelho, João Caleiro, Maria Manuela Silva, José Carlos Kullberg, Maria Graça Brito, Paulo Legoinha, Manuela Simões, Maria F. Pessoa, Fernando H. Reboredo, Maria José Silva, José N. Semedo, Isabel P. Pais, Ana P. Rodrigues, Paula Scotti Campos, José C. Ramalho and Fernando C. Lidon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09661 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
Smart farming techniques can be used to maximize food production. This can be achieved by the rapid detection of variations in crops and clever use of resources such as water and fertilizers, which might minimize crop stress through direct target practices. In an [...] Read more.
Smart farming techniques can be used to maximize food production. This can be achieved by the rapid detection of variations in crops and clever use of resources such as water and fertilizers, which might minimize crop stress through direct target practices. In an orchard located in the West region of Portugal (GPS coordinates 39°23′28.997″ N; 9°4′52.483″ W), a Ca biofortification workflow with seven foliar sprays of CaCl2 (4 kg ha−1 and 8 kg ha−1) was used to increase Ca contents in “Rocha” pear trees. During the biofortification process, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, synchronized by GPS, was used to characterize the orchard regarding its morphology (slope) and to monitor trees (NDVI—Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). These data were correlated with Ca content (assessed by X-ray fluorescence analysis) and photoassimilate synthesis (assessed by leaf gas exchange measurements). The orchard showed no major slopes and after four sprays with CaCl2, NDVI values revealed no major differences between the control and sprayed trees. Accordingly, leaf gas exchange parameters did not reveal negative impacts in the photoassimilate synthesis of the sprayed trees, although in the leaves Ca content significantly increased. The use of precision agriculture techniques in correlation with other analyses to assess plant stress is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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917 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Multispectral Images to Monitor the Productive Cycle of Vines Fortified with Zinc
by Diana Daccak, Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Ana Rita F. Coelho, Ana Coelho Marques, Inês Carmo Luís, João Caleiro, Maria Manuela Silva, Manuela Simões, Fernando H. Reboredo, Maria Fernanda Pessoa, Paulo Legoinha, Maria Graça Brito, José Carlos Kullberg, José António Almeida, Paula Scotti Campos, José C. Ramalho and Fernando C. Lidon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09665 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 742
Abstract
In the context of an exponentially growing population and resource limitations, precision agriculture techniques can improve efficiency in the agricultural sector. This can be achieved by monitorization and quick detection of changes in crops, resulting in smart resource use, waste reduction and maximization [...] Read more.
In the context of an exponentially growing population and resource limitations, precision agriculture techniques can improve efficiency in the agricultural sector. This can be achieved by monitorization and quick detection of changes in crops, resulting in smart resource use, waste reduction and maximization of production. In a field located in Palmela (Portugal), three foliar sprays of ZnO and ZnSO4 were performed in Vitis vinifera variety Fernão Pires, for production of biofortified single-vine wine. Field characterization was performed with soil sampling and UAVs (with altimetric measurement sensors), synchronized by GPS. Vegetations indexes and characterization of drainage capacity and slopes were then interpolated with mineral content, monitored with X-ray Fluorescence analysis. Morphologically, the experimental parcel had a slight slope (maximum of 1.10 m) with irrigation and nutrient availability in soil requiring special attention (i.e., just one-third of the parcel had higher capacity to water drainage). NDVI values reflected better physiological values in the N–NE region. Zinc increases in leaves were directly proportional with the applied concentrations in vines sprayed with ZnSO4 and ZnO; the concentration of 60% (900 g ha−1) revealed a greater vigor. In conclusion, the use of smart farm techniques and their crossing with analytical procedures allows the characterization and monitoring of vines, and a higher potential for optimization of wine production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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4761 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparison of LAI Estimates from High Resolution Satellite Observations Using Different Biophysical Processors
by Federico Filipponi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09683 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
Earth observation provides timely and spatially explicit information about crop phenology and vegetation dynamics that can support decision making and sustainable agricultural land management. Vegetation spectral indices calculated from optical multispectral satellite sensors have been largely used to monitor vegetation status. In addition, [...] Read more.
Earth observation provides timely and spatially explicit information about crop phenology and vegetation dynamics that can support decision making and sustainable agricultural land management. Vegetation spectral indices calculated from optical multispectral satellite sensors have been largely used to monitor vegetation status. In addition, techniques to retrieve biophysical parameters from satellite acquisitions, such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI), have allowed to assimilate Earth observation time series in numerical modeling for the analysis of several land surface processes related to agroecosystem dynamics. More recently, biophysical processors used to estimate biophysical parameters from satellite acquisitions have been calibrated for retrieval from sensors with different high spatial resolution and spectral characteristics. Virtual constellations of satellite sensors allow the generation of denser LAI time series, contributing to improve vegetation phenology estimation accuracy and, consequently, enhancing agroecosystems monitoring capacity. This research study compares LAI estimates over croplands using different biophysical processors from Sentinel-2 MSI and Landsat-8 OLI satellite sensors. The results are used to demonstrate the capacity of virtual satellite constellation to strengthen LAI time series to derive important cropland use information over large areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1225 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Classification of Hyperspectral Images with CNN in Agricultural Lands
by Eren Can Seyrek and Murat Uysal
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09739 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Hyperspectral images (HSI) offer detailed spectral reflectance information about sensed objects through provision of information on hundreds of narrow spectral bands. HSI have a leading role in a broad range of applications, such as in forestry, agriculture, geology, and environmental sciences. The monitoring [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral images (HSI) offer detailed spectral reflectance information about sensed objects through provision of information on hundreds of narrow spectral bands. HSI have a leading role in a broad range of applications, such as in forestry, agriculture, geology, and environmental sciences. The monitoring and management of agricultural lands is of great importance for meeting the nutritional and other needs of a rapidly and continuously increasing world population. In relation to this, classification of HSI is an effective way for creating land use and land cover maps quickly and accurately. In recent years, classification of HSI using convolutional neural networks (CNN), which is a sub-field of deep learning, has become a very popular research topic and several CNN architectures have been developed by researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the classification performance of CNN model on agricultural HSI scenes. For this purpose, a 3D-2D CNN framework and a well-known support vector machine (SVM) model were compared using the Indian Pines and Salinas Scene datasets that contain crop and mixed vegetation classes. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that use of 3D-2D CNN offers superior performance for classifying agricultural HSI datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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873 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Differently Matured Compost Produced from Willow (Salix viminalis L.) on Growth and Development of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
by Jakub Bekier, Elżbieta Jamroz, Andrea Kałuża-Haładyn, Józef Sowiński and Katarzyna Adamczewska-Sowińska
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10067 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
Soil amendments from peats, brown coals and composts produced from segregated biodegradable waste or biomass from fallow land can increase soil fertility and improve soil productivity. The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of using willow (Salix viminalis L.) [...] Read more.
Soil amendments from peats, brown coals and composts produced from segregated biodegradable waste or biomass from fallow land can increase soil fertility and improve soil productivity. The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of using willow (Salix viminalis L.) biomass composts as a substrate component in horticulture. The objects of the research were composts produced from willow chips (A), willow mixed with hay (B) and willow mixed with hay and mineral nitrogen (Nmin) fertilizer (C). Composting was carried out in a pile under aerobic conditions. In order to determine the properties and fertilizing value of the composts, basic chemical parameters were analyzed (pH; total contents of C, N and P), and a pot experiment was established to analyze germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Changes in pH, total nitrogen content (TN), phosphorus (TP) and a decrease in TOC were observed in the investigated samples. The results of the experiment showed that the highest yield was obtained from the pots with the mixture of willow, hay and Nmin. Matured composts significantly stimulated the germination and growth of the test plants. It can be concluded that the addition of hay and Nmin significantly increased the fertilizing value of the investigated composts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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419 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Response of Hardy Ferns to Drought Stress
by Piotr Salachna, Iga Siemińska, Anna Pietrak, Agnieszka Zawadzińska, Rafał Piechocki and Roksana Dymek
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09723 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Drought-tolerant perennials are intensively sought-after plants for decorative purposes. Perennial ferns are cold-hardy cultivars that are great for shady to partially shaded areas of the garden, but their response to drought stress is unknown. In this study, we examined how reduced watering altered [...] Read more.
Drought-tolerant perennials are intensively sought-after plants for decorative purposes. Perennial ferns are cold-hardy cultivars that are great for shady to partially shaded areas of the garden, but their response to drought stress is unknown. In this study, we examined how reduced watering altered the growth of Athyrium niponicum ‘Red Beauty’, Cyrtomium fortunei ‘Clivicola’, Dryopteris atrata, Dryopteris erythrosora, Dryoperis filix-mas, Dryoperis filix-mas ‘Linearis Polydactylon’, and Polystichum setiferum ‘Proliferum’ in comparison with optimal watering conditions. From among the seven fern taxa, Athyrium niponicum ‘Red Beauty’ and Dryoperis filix-mas turned out to be the most sensitive to reduced watering, and they demonstrated leaf browning and drying. Little visual leaf damage was observed in Cyrtomium fortunei ‘Clivicola’, Dryopteris erythrosora, and Polystichum setiferum ‘Proliferum’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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531 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Innovation with Lagoon Sediments for Soil Conservation and Sustainable Intensification in the Ecuadorian Andes
by Alexander Tituaña, Marco Heredia-R., Bolier Torres, Luis Valencia, Jorge Vanegas, Otilia Vanessa Cordero-Ahiman, Theofilos Toulkeridis, Diego Puerres, Carlos G. H. Diaz-Ambrona and Jhenny Cayambe
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10026 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 923
Abstract
Agricultural production outlines the constant antagonism between the quest to achieve the highest yields and the need to preserve the physical/chemical properties of soils. The constantly increasing global demand for food prompts producers to apply more agrochemicals in order to increase their production, [...] Read more.
Agricultural production outlines the constant antagonism between the quest to achieve the highest yields and the need to preserve the physical/chemical properties of soils. The constantly increasing global demand for food prompts producers to apply more agrochemicals in order to increase their production, generating soil degradation, which is a costly and complex issue to solve. Based on this context, we targeted a variety of objectives such as (a) to evaluate the effectiveness of lagoon sediments in soil recovery; (b) to analyze the effect of sediment on the yield of the coriander crop; and (c) to determine soil reclamation costs. The experiment was developed in the province of Imbabura, located in northern Ecuador. For this, we occupied a surface area per plot of 3 m2 and used a completely randomized block experimental design. Four doses of sediment were applied, being mixed with soil. The benefits of the use of lagoon sediments are evidenced in the nutritional quality of the soil after its application, determined by the physical and chemical analysis that reveals an increase of 3.9 ppm of the initial N, even after vegetative consumption. Similarly, the best electric conductivity (E.C) was 0.85 mS/cm, which promoted a higher crop yield compared to the control treatment, becoming an innovative alternative for soil recovery. This activity allowed reconciliation of the intensive agriculture with soil conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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249 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Response of Baby Leaf Lettuce to Selenium Biofortification under Different Lighting Conditions
by Aušra Brazaitytė, Jurga Miliauskienė, Viktorija Vaštakaitė-Kairienė, Rūta Sutulienė, Kristina Laužikė, Kamilė Stašytė, Pavelas Duchovskis and Giedrė Samuolienė
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10010 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential microelement for human health and has antioxidant and anticancerous properties. One of the ways to increase its concentration in plants is biofortification through various agronomic practices including artificial lighting. The aim of this study was to determine the [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is an essential microelement for human health and has antioxidant and anticancerous properties. One of the ways to increase its concentration in plants is biofortification through various agronomic practices including artificial lighting. The aim of this study was to determine the responses of baby leaf lettuce to various Se content in hydroponic solution at different ratios of blue (B) and red (R) light of light-emitting diodes (LED) lighting. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, ‘Little Gem’) was grown hydroponically under B:R light ratios–10%B:90%R, 75%B:25%R. The photon flux density (PFD), photoperiod, temperature, and relative humidity in the growth chamber were maintained at 220 μmol m−2 s−1, 18 h, 21/17 ± 2 °C, and 60 ± 5%, respectively. Two experiments with Se were performed using natrium selenate (Na2SeO4). Results of the first experiment (Se–0, 1, 3 ppm) showed that the content of Se in lettuce was about 15 times higher at 3 ppm compared to 1 ppm. Similar trends were observed for both B and R ratios. However, even the lowest dose of Se in hydroponic solution inhibited lettuce growth and reduced photosynthesis and chlorophyll content. Therefore, a second experiment was performed with lower Se doses (0, 0.5, 1 ppm) at different growth stages (11th and 17th days after sowing (DAS)). It was found that, when Se exposure was initiated at the 17th DAS, the lettuce accumulated a lower content of Se compared to the 11th DAS, but this did not have a negative effect on their growth. The B:R ratio of 10B:90R% resulted in a higher content of Se in the leaves. Overall, these results suggest that properly composed doses of Se, LED lighting and application time could be a suitable way for cultivation of selenium-biofortified baby leaf lettuces without any adverse effects on growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
623 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
LCA of Soybean Supply Chain Produced in the State of Pará, Located in the Brazilian Amazon Biome
by Thyago Brito, Rui Fragoso, Pedro Marques, Anabela Fernandes-Silva and José Aranha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10072 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 1626
Abstract
Recently, Brazil became the biggest soybean producer and exporter in the world. The state of Pará, located in the Brazilian amazon biome, became one of the last agricultural frontiers of the country, which positively increased the soybean cultivation along it is territory. However, [...] Read more.
Recently, Brazil became the biggest soybean producer and exporter in the world. The state of Pará, located in the Brazilian amazon biome, became one of the last agricultural frontiers of the country, which positively increased the soybean cultivation along it is territory. However, it is necessary to know the associated environmental impacts along the supply chain. Thus, we are applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology using openLCA software to two producing regions: northeast pole (Paragominas) and south pole (Redenção). Based on the cradle to grave scope, the Recipe Midpoint (H) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methods of the environmental impact categories were used. To calculate the land use change (LUC), we used the BRLUC regionalized model (v1.3). The obtained results showed that LUC was mainly responsible for the global warming potential (GWP) along all soybean supply chains, especially when land occupied with tropical forests was adapted for growing soybeans. Despite the largest distance between the origin and destiny (road + railway = 1306 km), the soybean produced in the south pole (Redenção) is better shipped through the TEGRAM port of São Luis–Maranhão due to the use of multimodal platforms (lorry + train), allowing for a more efficient logistical performance (greater loads of grains transported and less environmental impact). The soybean produced in northeast pole (Paragominas) is better shipped through the ports around Barcarena–Pará due to the short distance by road (average 350 km) and hence less environment impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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410 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of the Sensitivity of Spring Wheat and White Mustard Seedlings to the Essential Oil of Parsley Seeds
by Beata Jop, Karolina Wawrzyńczak, Karolina Polaszek and Agnieszka Synowiec
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09710 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
Essential oils are a rich source of compounds for botanical pesticides. This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of essential oil from parsley seeds and its phytotoxicity against the germination and initial growth of wheat and mustard. The main compounds of the [...] Read more.
Essential oils are a rich source of compounds for botanical pesticides. This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of essential oil from parsley seeds and its phytotoxicity against the germination and initial growth of wheat and mustard. The main compounds of the oil were α-pinene, β-pinene, and apiol. In a Petri dish experiment, the oil inhibited germination of seeds of both species. However, the growth of seedlings of both species was more inhibited, especially for wheat. In conclusion, parsley oil displays phytotoxic potential against the studied species, which should also be tested in soil conditions and against weeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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242 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Phytotoxic Effect of Essential Oil from Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) against Spring Wheat and White Mustard
by Beata Jop, Agnieszka Krajewska, Karolina Wawrzyńczak, Karolina Polaszek and Agnieszka Synowiec
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09711 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
Hyssop essential oil is a rich source of biologically active compounds. This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of essential oil from the hyssop herb and its phytotoxicity against germination and initial growth of wheat and mustard. The main compounds of the [...] Read more.
Hyssop essential oil is a rich source of biologically active compounds. This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of essential oil from the hyssop herb and its phytotoxicity against germination and initial growth of wheat and mustard. The main compounds of the oil were identified as isopinocamphone and pinocamphone. In a Petri dish experiment, the oil mainly inhibited the germination and initial growth of wheat, whereas mustard was less affected. In conclusion, hyssop oil displays phytotoxic potential against the studied species and should be tested further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
243 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Results of Oilseed Poppy Breeding and Production Potential of New Varieties
by Jozef Fejér, Ľuboš Nastišin and Janka Majdanová
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09681 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Breeding of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for food use of poppy seeds has a long tradition in Slovakia. Conventional breeding methods have brought several successes in the form of registration of new varieties with better yield parameters. In the breeding process, the [...] Read more.
Breeding of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for food use of poppy seeds has a long tradition in Slovakia. Conventional breeding methods have brought several successes in the form of registration of new varieties with better yield parameters. In the breeding process, the methods of crossing and selection of offspring were used. In the years 2016–2018, the testing of selected poppy seeds was performed at the Central Control and Testing Institute in Agriculture with the aim to register new varieties. Testing was carried out according to the valid methodology in five localities of the Slovak Republic. The experiments were based on the block method on plots with an area of 10 m2 in four replications. The obtained poppy seed yield and empty dry capsules were compared to the parameters of standard—control varieties (‘Opal’ and ‘Major’). In the year 2019, four new food poppy varieties—‘Azurit’, ‘MS Diamant’, ‘MS Topas’, and ‘MS Zafir’—were registered. On average, the obtained poppy seed yield during three years from five experimental localities ranged from 1.77 t·ha−1 ± 0.16 (‘Azurit’) to 1.90 t·ha−1 ± 0.17 (‘MS Diamant’). For comparison, the average yield of control varieties was 1.76 t·ha−1 ± 0.12. An important additional indication in evaluation of the variety economic value is the yield of empty dry capsules. This ranged from 0.98 t·ha−1 ± 0.12 and 0.98 t·ha−1 ± 0.09 (‘Azurit’ and ‘MS Diamant’, respectively) to 1.09 t·ha−1 ± 0.21 and 1.09 t·ha−1 ± 0.16 (‘MS Topas’ and ‘MS Zafir’, respectively). The average dry capsule yield of control varieties was 0.93 t·ha−1 ± 0.13. Statistical evaluation by analysis of variance did not reveal significant differences in seed yield between the tested and control varieties (p = 0.661). The difference was significant in the yield of dry capsules (p = 0.048). The locality had a statistically significant effect on the yield of seeds and capsules (p < 0.001). A statistically significant difference on the yield of seeds (p = 0.050) and capsules (p < 0.001) was also found in the experimental year. New poppy varieties showed a generally higher seed yield potential compared to standard varieties. Based on the knowledge on soil and climatic conditions of individual experimental localities and test years, it is possible to choose a suitable variety for specific growing conditions in order to be able to maximize its genetic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
1696 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Innovative Films Used for the Production of Silage on Biochemical and Microbial Product Qualities
by Paulina Supel, Paweł Kaszycki, Mirosław Kasperczyk and Piotr Kacorzyk
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09731 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
The production of silage is carried out in cylindrical bales covered with polyethylene foils. In this study, a novel approach was tested towards obtaining an innovative composition of these films. In the first stage of the experiment, different additives, including microcellulose and nanosilver [...] Read more.
The production of silage is carried out in cylindrical bales covered with polyethylene foils. In this study, a novel approach was tested towards obtaining an innovative composition of these films. In the first stage of the experiment, different additives, including microcellulose and nanosilver particles, were analyzed. The second stage was aimed at testing the applicability of recycled polyethylene as a film component. The forage value after ensiling was assessed during storage. In order to evaluate the microbial forage quality, the abundance of lactic acid bacteria was determined and compared with the number of aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The foil properties were also analyzed with the appropriate chemical and microbiological methods. The results showed no significant differences (p < 0.05) between the standard commercial films and tested formulae. In the second stage, obtained results suggested that the film with the addition of nanosilver may be successfully used in agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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959 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Monitoring of a Calcium Biofortification Workflow for Tubers of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Picasso Using Smart Farming Technology
by Ana Rita F. Coelho, Inês Carmo Luís, Ana Coelho Marques, Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Diana Daccak, João Caleiro, Maria Brito, José Kullberg, Maria Manuela Silva, Manuela Simões, Fernando H. Reboredo, Maria F. Pessoa, Paulo Legoinha, Maria J. Silva, Ana P. Rodrigues, José C. Ramalho, Paula Scotti-Campos, José N. Semedo, Isabel P. Pais and Fernando C. Lidon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09660 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
Due to the rapid growth of the population worldwide and the need to provide food safety in large crop productions, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) are being used in agriculture to provide valuable data for decision making. Accordingly, through precision agriculture, efficient management of [...] Read more.
Due to the rapid growth of the population worldwide and the need to provide food safety in large crop productions, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) are being used in agriculture to provide valuable data for decision making. Accordingly, through precision agriculture, efficient management of resources, using data obtained by the technologies, is possible. Through remote sensed data collected in a crop region, it is possible to create NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) maps, which are a powerful tool to detect stresses, namely, in plants. Accordingly, using smart farm technology, this study aimed to assess the impact of Ca biofortification on leaves of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Picasso. As such, using an experimental production field of potato tubers (GPS coordinates: 39°16′38,816′′ N; 9°15′9128′′ W) as a test system, plants were submitted to a Ca biofortification workflow through foliar spraying with CaCl2 or, alternatively, chelated calcium (Ca-EDTA) at concentrations of 12 and 24 kg·ha−1. A lower average NDVI in Ca-EDTA 12 kg·ha−1 treatment after the fourth foliar application was found, which, through the application of the CieLab scale, correlated with lower L (darker color) and hue parameters, regarding control plants. Additionally, a higher Ca content was quantified in the leaves. The obtained data are discussed, and it is concluded that Ca-EDTA 12 kg·ha−1 triggers lower vigor in Picasso potatoes leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Application of Dairy Manure Amended with Mineral Fertilizer on Stubble-Covered Soil: Effects on Ammonia Emissions
by Arejacy A. Silva and David Fangueiro
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10017 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
The reduction in the manure application rates through enrichment with mineral fertilizer has the potential to reduce costs, decrease environmental pollution, and extend the manure benefits to greater acreage. A pot experiment was carried out to assess ammonia emissions from dairy manure amended [...] Read more.
The reduction in the manure application rates through enrichment with mineral fertilizer has the potential to reduce costs, decrease environmental pollution, and extend the manure benefits to greater acreage. A pot experiment was carried out to assess ammonia emissions from dairy manure amended with mineral fertilizers applied on wheat stubble. The treatments were: control (no fertilization), urea (U), calcium ammonium nitrate (AN), dairy manure (MAN), urea + dairy manure (UMAN), and calcium ammonium nitrate + dairy manure (ANMAN). A dynamic chamber system was used to measure NH3 emissions during seven days after soil application. UMAN and ANMAN treatments led to higher NH3 emissions than each isolated component. This might be motivated by the manure pH. Thus, the enrichment of dairy manure with U or AN for application on stubble-covered soil should not be recommended. Nevertheless, some manure pre-treatments, such as acidification, or the use of other mineral fertilizers might improve such solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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512 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Phytotoxic Effect of Caraway Essential Oil and Its Main Compounds against Germination of Spring Wheat, Wild Oat and Chamomile
by Beata Jop, Anna Wajs-Bonikowska and Agnieszka Synowiec
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09713 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
Caraway oil is a promising botanical herbicide. This study tested the phytotoxic potential of caraway oil, carvone and d-limonene on germination and seedlings’ growth of spring wheat, wild oat and chamomile. As a result, an inhibiting effect of caraway oil and carvone on [...] Read more.
Caraway oil is a promising botanical herbicide. This study tested the phytotoxic potential of caraway oil, carvone and d-limonene on germination and seedlings’ growth of spring wheat, wild oat and chamomile. As a result, an inhibiting effect of caraway oil and carvone on all the tested species was found. Contrary, d-limonene displayed selective toxicity against chamomile and wild oat, which should be investigated further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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961 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Alternative Crops for Adaptation to Climate Change: The Importance of Conserving the Diversity of Lathyrus cicera L. Landraces Adapted to the Morocco Mountains
by Salama El Fatehi, Mohammed Ater and Younes Hmimsa
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09734 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
A Global climate change has raised serious concerns about food security and the sustainability of agriculture, particularly in developing regions of the world. In response to these concerns, attention should be called to the global importance of conservation of some neglected and underutilized [...] Read more.
A Global climate change has raised serious concerns about food security and the sustainability of agriculture, particularly in developing regions of the world. In response to these concerns, attention should be called to the global importance of conservation of some neglected and underutilized crops, such as Lathyrus species, which are nutrient-rich and already adapted to harsh environments and low-input agriculture. L. cicera L., known in Morocco as ‘ikiker’, ‘kiker’ or ‘ichicher’, is marginally cultivated in the region. Landraces of this crop species, which are maintained locally by traditional agricultural practices, correspond to ecotypes adapted to local agroclimatic conditions. We have surveyed the traditional cultivation sites of this crop to identify specific associated agroecosystems in the Middle and High Atlas Mountains of Morocco. We have evaluated the diversity of ecotypes of L. cicera L. by a set of characters associated with the socioeconomic and agromorphological aspects of their cultivation. The results confirmed that their cultivation is very old in the area, and that its maintenance until today is important as the local farmers have started to master the uses for human and animal food. In addition, from a biology point of view, we have demonstrated the existence of variability depending on the trait considered but which demonstrates a differentiation between the ecotypes. From adaptive potential of these ecotypes with respect to tolerance to aridity and increased temperatures, the ecotypes studied showed promising prospects for selection. Thus, despite the limitation of the territory and the regression of the culture, the studied ecotypes have a very interesting stand. This result can be explained by cultural practices. These ecotypes are maintained in traditional agroecosystems which play the role of conservatory of the neglected resources. Therefore, the conservation of these genetic resources depends on the conservation of the traditional agroecosystem and local knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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329 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Yield Loss in Green Gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) Cultivation and Estimation of Weed-Free Period for Eco-Friendly Weed Management
by Pubudu Kumara, Kandiah Pakeerathan and Liyanage P. P. Deepani
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09691 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) is one of the most economically important grain legumes of the traditional farming systems of Sri Lanka because it is a cheap source of protein and animal feed, and sustains soil fertility by fixing atmospheric [...] Read more.
Green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) is one of the most economically important grain legumes of the traditional farming systems of Sri Lanka because it is a cheap source of protein and animal feed, and sustains soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Weeds are one of the major problems in green gram cultivation, reducing the yield through competition, interference with harvest and harboring pests and diseases. Controlling of weeds by applying herbicides would definitely cause unexpected damage to human health and the abundant biodiversity of Sri Lanka. Therefore, an investigation was planned to evaluate the yield loss due to weeds and to determine the optimum weed free period to minimize the yield losses. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different weed functional groups on the yield of green gram. In the second experiment, weeds were continuously hand weeded and areas kept weed free. In the third, weeds were allowed to compete with green gram until 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 weeks after cultivation. All the treatments were conducted in randomized complete block design with three replicates. The data collected on types of weed, number of pods and pod weight at 3–6 weeks after planting (WAP) were analyzed using the SAS 9.4 statistical package, and DMRT was performed to determine the best treatment combination. The results from the first experiment showed that average yield loss due to total weed populations was 54.77%. Yield loss due to grasses alone was 46.56%, far worse than broad leaves (16.49%) and sedges (18.01%) at p < 0.05. Crop stand count at 3–4 WAP was not significantly different among treatments. However, biomass weight of 50 plants, number of pods in 50 plants and grain weight of 10 plants were found to be significantly different after 3–4 WAP in weed free conditions at p < 0.05%. When the weed free period increased, the yield was increased until 3 WAP; thereafter, not significant yield increment was observed. In contrast, yield steeply declined in plots that had weeds until 3 WAP. According to the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the critical weed free period from the planting of green gram is 3 WAP. Maintaining a weed free period for 3–4 weeks is recommended to minimize the yield loss of green gram at minimal weed management cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1862 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Variability of Selected Traits in Meadow Fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) Plants with Different Susceptibility to Seed Shattering
by Tomasz Wójtowicz and Andrzej Zieliński
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09910 - 6 May 2021
Viewed by 637
Abstract
In meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), a perennial fodder grass plant characterized by high quality and yield potential, seed shattering makes seed production difficult. The objective of the research was to compare two subpopulations, differing in a tendency to seed shattering, with [...] Read more.
In meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), a perennial fodder grass plant characterized by high quality and yield potential, seed shattering makes seed production difficult. The objective of the research was to compare two subpopulations, differing in a tendency to seed shattering, with respect to their variability in the beginning of the heading and flowering stages, their morphological traits (plant height and panicle length), and changes occurring at the site of the bonding between the caryopsis and the pedicel. The subpopulations were obtained by divergent selection carried out on four meadow fescue cultivars. Significant variability in years and subpopulations in respect of the tested traits was found. The subpopulation with a low tendency to seed shattering was characterized by a 2–3 day delay in the beginning of the heading and flowering stages. However, in both the subpopulations, a good flowering stage synchronization was found, with its variability being several times smaller when compared with the heading stage. Between the starting dates of these stages, a significant correlation was found (r = 0.828; p < 0.01). The clones with a high tendency of seed shattering were approximately 7 cm shorter, while the length of panicles was similar in both the subpopulations. The analysis, which was performed with the use of a scanning microscope, showed that, in genotypes with a low tendency to shattering, the formation of the abscission layer was four days late, which may confirm the effectiveness of the carried out selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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626 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bio-Remediation of Agro-Based Industries’ Wastewater and Mass Production of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler 1925)
by Jerentulina Vijayarasa, Kandiah Pakeerathan, Nagarathnam Thiruchchelvan and Gunasingham Mikunthan
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09716 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Spirulina (Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler 1925) is a cyanobacteria used as an ecologically sound, nutrient-rich dietary supplement. These microalgae have the capability to produce the least-cost protein per unit area compared to livestock and are therefore being investigated to address malnutrition and [...] Read more.
Spirulina (Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler 1925) is a cyanobacteria used as an ecologically sound, nutrient-rich dietary supplement. These microalgae have the capability to produce the least-cost protein per unit area compared to livestock and are therefore being investigated to address malnutrition and food security. Apart from the variety of components, such as animal feed, fertilizer, and cosmetics, produced from Spirulina, phytoremediation of wastewater using Spirulina is an economically viable and environmentally sound tactic. A study was carried out with the objectives of the quick removal of waste from selected wastewaters produced by agro-based industries and the identification of suitable organic wastes as costless media for growing S. platensis for its powder production. Wastewater from fishponds and poultry units, grain-soaked water, and parboiled rice liquid waste were selected as treatments and inoculated with stock cultures of S. platensis. Treatments were replicated three times along with Zarrouk’s medium as standard control and arranged in a randomized complete block design. The chemical parameters of wastes, such as OD value, pH, and EC (mS/cm), and the growth of Spirulina were measured using a UH5300-Spectrophotometer with a wavelength of 560 nm at two-day intervals. The derived data were analyzed using SAS 9.4, and the significance of results among treatments was determined according to Duncan’s multiple range test, with p < 0.05. The results showed that poultry wastewater was a suitable medium for S. platensis growth, with a harvestable density of 0.8 at a very low concentration (25%) in 7 days compared to standard Zarrouk’s medium. The maximum and significant OD value of 1.313 was observed on day 15 in poultry wastewater and was non-significant among other treatments at p < 0.05. For fishpond wastewater, the maximum OD value of 0.567 was obtained on day 15. The pH value of poultry wastewater declined from 9.28 to 7.5 after 15 days. The EC values among the treatments were not significant. Among the selected liquid media, poultry wastewater promotes growth of S. platensis better than other locally available wastewaters tested. This experiment concludes that agro-based industries’ wastewater can be bio-remediated by Spirulina and that nutrient-enriched wastewater can be used for the mass culture of Spirulina without nutrient supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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772 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Essential Oils as Potential Biopesticides in the Control of the Genus Meloidogyne: A Review
by Jorge M. S. Faria and Ana Margarida Rodrigues
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09687 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Meloidogyne spp., commonly known as root-knot nematodes (RKN), are among the most economically damaging plant-parasitic nematodes to horticultural and field crops, mainly due to their pathogenic effect, worldwide distribution, and wide host range. RKN pest management relies on the use of commercial synthetic [...] Read more.
Meloidogyne spp., commonly known as root-knot nematodes (RKN), are among the most economically damaging plant-parasitic nematodes to horticultural and field crops, mainly due to their pathogenic effect, worldwide distribution, and wide host range. RKN pest management relies on the use of commercial synthetic pesticides, such as broad-spectrum fumigants and nervous system toxins, which kill or disrupt the feeding or reproductive behavior of nematodes. These active chemicals can cause negative environmental and public health impacts and are feared to lead to resistance and immunity. As a sustainable alternative, the use of essential oils (EOs) as nematicides has shown great promise. These natural products are mostly biodegradable and subjected to less strict regulatory approval mechanisms for their exploration. The present work reviews the existing bibliography on the direct biological activity of EOs against RKNs. A total of 49 publications from 1995 to 2020 were identified to have reported on the anti-RKN activity of EOs. Plants from the Lamiaceae and Compositae families make up more than 50% of the source material for EO extraction. The highest activities were reported for EOs of the Monarda, Artemisia, Filipendula, and Satureja genus. These taxa show potential that can be further explored for highly active anti-RKN phytochemicals with practical applications in sustainable pest management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Land Surface Temperature Responses to Land Use Land Cover Dynamics (District of Taroudant, Morocco)
by Abdelmejid Rahimi, Zahra Khalil, Abdelkrim Bouasria, Ikram El Mjiri and Mohammed Bounif
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09726 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Land surface temperature plays an essential role in estimating radiation budgets, in heat balance studies, as a control for climate dynamics and for soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer modeling, and in studying the impact of land use/land cover (LULC) changes at the regional level. This study [...] Read more.
Land surface temperature plays an essential role in estimating radiation budgets, in heat balance studies, as a control for climate dynamics and for soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer modeling, and in studying the impact of land use/land cover (LULC) changes at the regional level. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the relationship between land use and land surface temperature (LST), through a landscape dynamics assessment based on multi-source and multi-sensor remote sensing technologies. In particular, the study was performed using Landsat satellite 5 TM, ETM, and OLI 8 data for three different dates (1985, 2001 and 2017) and aimed to assess the effects of land use/land cover changes on the LST distribution in the region of Taroudant, Morocco. Spatial and statistical analysis and comparison of maps generated from remotely sensed data using GIS indicate the existence of different changes in the Taroudant region between 1985 and 2017. These changes are predominantly characterized by an increase in built-up areas and bare ground and a decrease in natural areas (vegetation, forest, etc.). The average temperatures in 1985, 2001 and 2017 in open forests were 32.74 °C, 34.37 °C and 39.17 °C, respectively. The farming greenhouse temperatures were 24.09 °C, 28.5 °C, 35.58 °C, and barren soils 37.14 °C, 38.38 °C, 40.01 °C. The average land surface temperatures of farming lands were 24.31 °C, 27.87 °C and 28.61 °C, respectively. As a result, soil artificialization and everything associated with it, such as greenhouse gas emissions, and abusive consumption of farming and natural land, are likely to be the origin of environmental problems and climate change marked mainly by these changes in surface temperature, irregular rainfall, and unprecedented periods of drought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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464 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Considering Cloddiness When Estimating Rooting Capacity and Soil Fertility
by Edoardo A. C. Costantini
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09669 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 906
Abstract
The estimate of soil fertility, namely water and nutrient availability, and biological activity, is usually made considering soil as being uniform in the reference layer. The potential fertility is thus estimated for homogeneous soil volumes. However, both the soil profile and its horizons [...] Read more.
The estimate of soil fertility, namely water and nutrient availability, and biological activity, is usually made considering soil as being uniform in the reference layer. The potential fertility is thus estimated for homogeneous soil volumes. However, both the soil profile and its horizons are often not homogeneous for many characteristics and properties. The soil rooting volume, in particular, can be limited by the presence of obstacles, such as bedrock, cemented layers, and stones, but also by soil masses, or clods, that are so dense that they cannot be penetrated by roots. Clods can not only occur at the soil surface but also throughout the soil profile and within a horizon, especially after the deep soil cultivation of clayey, poorly structured soils. The presence of clods is usually considered for the soil surface, but is always overlooked in the estimation of soil fertility. This bias can deeply affect the estimation of available water and nutrients, influencing irrigation, dosing of fertilizers, and the choice of rootstocks for tree crops. This work shows an innovative method that considers the presence of clods in the volume of soil horizons when estimating the potential soil rooting capacity. A reference soil under viticulture was used as an example. Visual soil assessment, bulk density and particle size were used to estimate the volume occupied by clods. The values of available water-holding capacity were then corrected according to the potential rooting capacity. The correction increased markedly the estimation of potential water stress and explained vine phenology and the agronomic result. Considering effective rooting capacity could be relevant to improve crop yield and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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758 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
One Plant-Based Biostimulant Stimulates Good Performances of Tomato Plants Grown in Open Field
by Silvana Francesca, Amalia Barone and Maria Manuela Rigano
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09703 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 724
Abstract
Most agricultural practices have evolved towards biological and sustainable systems. The purpose of modern agriculture is to reduce inputs without reducing yield and quality. This objective can be achieved through the identification of organic molecules capable of activating plant metabolism. Biostimulants contain a [...] Read more.
Most agricultural practices have evolved towards biological and sustainable systems. The purpose of modern agriculture is to reduce inputs without reducing yield and quality. This objective can be achieved through the identification of organic molecules capable of activating plant metabolism. Biostimulants contain a wide range of mostly still unknown bioactive compounds. These products are generally able to improve a plant’s nutrient utilization efficiency and increase tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The aim of this study was to determine biometric measurements and metabolic profiling of two tomato genotypes grown in open field and treated or not with a plant-derived biostimulant named CycoFlow (Agriges). The application of the biostimulant stimulated growth (plants up to 55.06% higher) and yield per plant (up to 111.66%). In plants treated with the biostimulant, ascorbic acid and carotenoids contents in fruit were higher compared to non-treated plants. In particular, the content of β-carotene increased after treatments with the biostimulant. The present study proves that the effect of the biostimulant was dependent on genotype. Altogether, we demonstrated that the application of a plant-derived biostimulant can increase tomato performance in the field and that results are maximized on the appropriate genotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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468 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Higher Yield and Fruit Quality of a Solanum pennellii Introgression Line
by Luigia Principio, Silvana Francesca, Amalia Barone and Maria Manuela Rigano
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10013 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important source of antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids and phenolic compounds. Epidemiological results confirm that these antioxidant molecules are associated with a reduced risk of cancer, inflammation and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, one introgression line [...] Read more.
Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important source of antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids and phenolic compounds. Epidemiological results confirm that these antioxidant molecules are associated with a reduced risk of cancer, inflammation and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, one introgression line population deriving from Solanum pennellii has been exploited to identify favorable alleles that can improve fruit quality traits in commercial varieties, including antioxidant content. The aim of this work was to evaluate growth, final yield and content of nutraceutical compounds at the ripe red fruit stage in one subline coded R182, which carries only a small region (448 Kbp) of wild genome in the cultivated genetic background (M82). Analyses carried out on R182 and on the parental line M82 demonstrated that the subline showed better performances in terms of the yield and fruit qualitative traits most considered for tomato processing. Indeed, higher yield (+28.96%), content of soluble sugars (+34.64%) and titratable acidity (+78.94%) were demonstrated for R182 compared to M82. In addition, for the nutritional traits analyzed, an increase in the content of phenols (+69.96%), ascorbic acid (+48.55%), carotenoids (+29.66%), lycopene (+31.22%) and β-carotene (+31.67%) was observed. Therefore, it is possible to assert that the subline R182 can be used as a novel germplasm resource for tomato breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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469 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
SiO2 Applications as an Alternative to Insect Control in Greenhouses
by Sofia Faliagka, Rafailia Germani, Paraskevi Agrafioti, Panagiotis Xidas, Christos G. Athanassiou and Nikolaos Katsoulas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09720 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) has been extensively studied as an alternative method to pest management chemical applications in agriculture. The present work aimed to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of different SiO2 nanoparticle formulations and their effectiveness when integrated into the textiles [...] Read more.
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) has been extensively studied as an alternative method to pest management chemical applications in agriculture. The present work aimed to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of different SiO2 nanoparticle formulations and their effectiveness when integrated into the textiles of an insect-proof net. For this reason, Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium confusum were exposed to three inert dust formulations, namely Sylobloc® S200, S200-OH, and S200MEC, to investigate their effect on the mortality of the aforementioned stored-product insects. The results of a series of bioassays showed that Sylobloc® S200 was the most effective nanoparticle among all the formulations tested. Thus, five samples of the same 50 mesh size insect-proof net were coated with the S200 nanoparticle, followed either by different coating repetitions or by the addition of paraffin. T. confusum was indicated as the most tolerant species, as the recorded mortality rate was significantly low when exposed to all samples tested. However, the mortality rate of S. oryzae was strongly related to the coating repetition, in addition to the exposure intervals. The highest mortality (70%) was detected after seven days of exposure to the net and consisted of three coating repetitions, while no paraffin was added to its surface. The results of the present study underline the insecticidal efficacy of SiO2 treated nets against storage insects, and their subsequent application in greenhouses for the control of more susceptible insects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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2149 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Sand Addition to Heavy Saline-Alkali Soil on the Infiltration and Salt Leaching in Hetao Irrigation District, China
by Qingfeng Miao, Liying Zhou, José Manuel Gonçalves, Isabel Maria Duarte, Ruiping Li and Haibin Shi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10156 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Soil salinity is a matter of great economic and environmental implications. In Hetao Irrigation District, soil salinity limits crop productivity affecting about 69% of its total cultivated land due to natural soil salinisation and salt accumulation caused by irrigation. The goal of this [...] Read more.
Soil salinity is a matter of great economic and environmental implications. In Hetao Irrigation District, soil salinity limits crop productivity affecting about 69% of its total cultivated land due to natural soil salinisation and salt accumulation caused by irrigation. The goal of this study is to contribute to the alleviation of this problem through the technique of adding wind-sand to the top layer of heavy saline-alkali soil, and to evaluate and analyse their effects on the infiltration and salt leaching. The experiment was carried out on a laboratory scale. Clayey soil with 21 g/kg of salts collected at the Ulat Front Banner site was used. Wind-sand was added to the top 30 cm layer of this soil. The infiltration tests were carried out in plastic columns with 9 cm diameter and 45 cm high, loaded with a soil and wind-sand mixture (from 2% to 30% ratio), supplied by a constant hydraulic head. Soil water samples were collected for 15 days for quantification of the soil salt leaching. A significant increase of the infiltration rate was observed in the first infiltration hour, rising from 1 to 9 mm/h, in response to the addition of 8% and 30% of sandy particles, respectively. The effects of wind-sand in salt leaching were relevant in the top 20 cm layer. After 7 days of infiltration there was a decrease in the salt content in soils with 4%, 8%, and 30% of sand particles added, of 35%, 55%, and 95%, respectively, in relation to the control. In conclusion, the practice of adding sandy particles to the topsoil is a soil melioration method that allows a positive impact on soil infiltration and salt leaching. An addition of 8% of sand seems to be a good choice, as it favours an increase in salt leaching of about 55% after 7 days. These results are encouraging and appeal to field studies to assess the impact on a field-scale system, and the effects of this soil melioration on irrigation, drainage, and agronomic aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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11 pages, 707 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Shungite Application on the Temperature Sensitivity of Allium cepa Respiration under Two Soil Water Regimes
by Elena Ikkonen, Svetlana Chazhengina, Olga Bakhmet and Valeria Sidorova
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09688 - 20 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate whether shungite application to Umbric Podzols may affect leaf and root mitochondrial respiratory pathways, and the leaf response to a temperature change. A pot culture experiment was conducted with Allium cepa L. seedlings, using soil shungite concentrations of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate whether shungite application to Umbric Podzols may affect leaf and root mitochondrial respiratory pathways, and the leaf response to a temperature change. A pot culture experiment was conducted with Allium cepa L. seedlings, using soil shungite concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20 g kg−1 and two soil water regimes: well-watered (WW) and drying–wetting (DW) cycles. The soil water deficit increased the total respiration (Vt) of onion leaves, but not roots, under low (13 °C) and high (33 °C) measurement temperatures. Shungite application affected leaf Vt only at 13 °C: it increased the Vt rate under WW and decreased itunder DW. An increase in the measurement temperature to 33 °C enhanced the sensitivity of leaf respiration to the inhibitor of the alternative respiratory pathway (salicylhydroxamic acid, SHAM). Shungite application increased the contribution of theSHAM-sensitive pathway to the leaf Vt rate under WW, but not under the DW regime, regardless of the leaf temperature. In contrast to theSHAM-resistant pathway, the temperature sensitivity of the SHAM-sensitive rate decreased following the decrease in soil water availability. Shungite application increased the temperature sensitivity of both SHAM-sensitive and SHAM-resistant pathways under DW, and significantly decreased these parameters under WW. In summary, the decrease of temperature sensitivity of the alternative SHAM-sensitive respiratory pathway with a decrease of soil water availability or the shungite-related decrease of both SHAM-sensitive and SHAM-resistant leaf respiration may play an important role in enhancing the resistance of plant respiration to stress temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1873 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of the Stabilized Sewage Sludge-Based Granulated Fertilizer on Sinapis alba Growth and Biomass Chemical Characteristics
by Marcin Głodniok, Małgorzata Deska and Paweł Kaszycki
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09736 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Municipal sewage sludge is a problematic waste that needs to be managed. Modern wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) generate stabilized sewage sludge with good chemical and biological parameters. The Central Mining Institute (CMI, Poland) has developed a proprietary technology (patent PL233754) for production of [...] Read more.
Municipal sewage sludge is a problematic waste that needs to be managed. Modern wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) generate stabilized sewage sludge with good chemical and biological parameters. The Central Mining Institute (CMI, Poland) has developed a proprietary technology (patent PL233754) for production of a granulated organo-mineral fertilizer from the stabilized sewage sludge. It is a mixture of municipal WWTP-collected, dewatered sewage sludge, dolomite, lime, gypsum, ammonium carbonate, and microcrystalline cellulose. The sewage sludge contained heavy metals at levels lower than: Cr, 100 mg; Cd, 5 mg; Ni, 60 mg; Pb, 140 mg; Hg, 2 mg, and was free from live eggs of intestinal parasites of the genera Ascaria, Trichuris, and Toxacara as well as from Salmonella bacteria. Micro-field tests were conducted at WWTP in Żory (Poland) on five 5 m2 fields. The effectiveness of plant growth was evaluated based on drone photos showing field coverage upon vegetation, and post-harvest determination of the plant dry mass. The analyses showed significant changes in biomass chemical composition: the N concentration was 289.6% of the control and 98.2% of commercial fertilizer, whereas the respective P content was 145.1% and 300%. The results prove that the innovative fertilizer is highly competitive with other available commercial products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1161 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bioactivity of Essential Oils and Respective Volatile Monoterpenoids against Thaumetopoea pityocampa and T. wilkinsoni
by Jorge M. S. Faria
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09692 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
The pine processionary moth (PPM) is a dangerous parasitic insect pest of several pine species in the Mediterranean basin, causing defoliation and promoting tree decline. Larvae release urticating hairs that cause strong allergic reactions in humans and animals. Pest management practices implemented by [...] Read more.
The pine processionary moth (PPM) is a dangerous parasitic insect pest of several pine species in the Mediterranean basin, causing defoliation and promoting tree decline. Larvae release urticating hairs that cause strong allergic reactions in humans and animals. Pest management practices implemented by national health authorities include the eradication of nests and application of chemical insecticides. However, commercial pesticides can induce PPM resistance and be harmful to the environment and human health. Essential oils (EOs) are environmentally friendlier alternatives to commercial insecticides. The present review analyses the existing body of work on the biological activity against the PPM and highlights the most successful EOs. A total of nine publications were identified, reporting on the biological activity of 38 EOs extracted from 31 plant species against the PPM. The EOs extracted from Achillea arabica, Citrus aurantium, Lavandula angustifolia, Origanum onites and Thymus vulgaris showed the lowest half maximal lethal concentrations (LC50). O. onites EO components with the highest activities were the monoterpenoid isomers carvacrol and thymol. The use of EOs is a potential ecofriendly alternative for successful PPM pest management, however more extensive studies must be performed to pinpoint highly active and easily accessible EOs and respective volatiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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954 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Precision Agriculture as Input for the Rice Grain (Oryza sativa L.) Biofortification with Selenium
by Ana Coelho Marques, Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Diana Daccak, Inês Carmo Luís, Ana Rita F. Coelho, João Caleiro, Paula Scotti Campos, Ana Sofia Almeida, Manuela Simões, Maria Graça Brito, José Carlos Kullberg, Maria Fernanda Pessoa, Fernando Reboredo, José C. Ramalho, José Manuel N. Semedo, Paula Marques, Maria Manuela Silva, Paulo Legoinha, Isabel Pais and Fernando C. Lidon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10019 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
Using two rice genotypes as a test system (OP1505 and OP1509), the aim of this study was to develop an agronomic workflow for Se biofortification through foliar fertilization (with sodium selenate and sodium selenite). During the biofortification process, the state of the culture [...] Read more.
Using two rice genotypes as a test system (OP1505 and OP1509), the aim of this study was to develop an agronomic workflow for Se biofortification through foliar fertilization (with sodium selenate and sodium selenite). During the biofortification process, the state of the culture (slope, surface drainage, water lines and normalized differences vegetation index—NDVI), using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles synchronized by global positioning system (GPS) was further assessed. It was found that after sowing, the water-drainage pattern became profoundly altered, following the artificial pattern, created by grooves between plots. NDVI values, compared to the control, did not show significant differences. These data were correlated with physiological monitoring during biofortification. Furthermore, it was found by eco-physiological data obtained through leaf gas exchanges, that the application of 300 g Se ha−1 did not show any toxicity effects in the biofortified plants. In the context of innovation, it was concluded that the application of precision agriculture techniques in conjunction with leaf-gas exchange measurements allow for an efficient monitoring of the experimental field conditions and the development of the rice cycle during the implementation of the biofortification workflow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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764 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Can Precision Agriculture Be Used in the Management of a Fe and Zn Biofortification Workflow in Organic Tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum L.)?
by Ana Rita F. Coelho, Ana Coelho Marques, Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Diana Daccak, Inês Carmo Luís, João Caleiro, Maria Brito, José Kullberg, Maria Manuela Silva, Manuela Simões, Fernando H. Reboredo, Maria F. Pessoa, Paulo Legoinha, Maria J. Silva, Ana P. Rodrigues, José C. Ramalho, Paula Scotti-Campos, José N. Semedo, Isabel P. Pais and Fernando C. Lidon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09662 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 807
Abstract
It is expected that the population worldwide might exceed 9 billion by 2050, therefore it being imperative to increase food production. As such, the development of smart farming technology is an important key food production issue. In fact, through the use of UAVs [...] Read more.
It is expected that the population worldwide might exceed 9 billion by 2050, therefore it being imperative to increase food production. As such, the development of smart farming technology is an important key food production issue. In fact, through the use of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), it is possible to create normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) maps, that can indicate factors, such as health and vegetation vigor. In this context, this study aimed to assess the state of three tomato varieties (beef heart, “chucha”, and apple) in the framework of a biofortification workflow with Fe and Zn, following an organic production mode. In a tomato experimental production field (GPS coordinates—39°41′48.517″ N; 8°35′45.524″ W), six foliar sprayings were carried out during the production cycle, with a mix of Zitrilon (15%) (0.40 and 1.20 kg·ha−1) and Maxiblend (1 and 4 kg·ha−1). NDVI was determined 7 days before the first foliar spraying and showed a maximum of 0.86 (on a scale from −1 to 1). After the 3rd foliar spraying, no changes were detected in the color of freshly harvest tomatoes (assessed through spectrophotometric colorimeter), but an increase of Fe and Zn content was found in the leaves, and of Zn in tomatoes themselves (except in “chucha” variety). The use of precision agriculture techniques in correlation with the other analyses is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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350 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Remote Sensing (NDVI) and Apparent Soil Electrical Conductivity (ECap) to Delineate Different Zones in a Vineyard
by Catarina Esteves, Henrique Ribeiro, Ricardo P. Braga and David Fangueiro
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10021 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
The intensification of agriculture has greatly enhanced crop productivity, but also its potential environmental impact. Nutrient recycling and an increase in resource use efficiency are the key points to keep production at high levels with minimum impact. The present work’s goal was to [...] Read more.
The intensification of agriculture has greatly enhanced crop productivity, but also its potential environmental impact. Nutrient recycling and an increase in resource use efficiency are the key points to keep production at high levels with minimum impact. The present work’s goal was to provide new insight on the spatial variability of soil chemical properties in a vineyard. For this, three different zones were identified in a 6.77 ha parcel, according to the remote sensing of apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECap) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Soil samples from specific locations were then collected and chemically described, and the resulting data were statistically analyzed. ECap and NDVI appeared to be efficient tools to define different zones within the vineyard, with most of the soil chemical properties varying at the highest significance level (p < 0.001) according to the F test, except for extractable phosphorus (Égner-Rhiem) and organic carbon (TOC method). Overall, our results revealed potential for the implementation of site-specific soil fertilization and soil quality management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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779 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Harvesting Driving Modes from Environmental Point of View
by Eglė Jotautienė, Antanas Juostas and Kęstutis Venslauskas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10178 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
Numerous automatic technological processes control systems are implemented in modern agriculture equipment. Automation facilitates technological processes. These control systems help customers to save fertilizer and crop protection products as well as fuel. Machinery performance data is collected and stored via the Telemetry system [...] Read more.
Numerous automatic technological processes control systems are implemented in modern agriculture equipment. Automation facilitates technological processes. These control systems help customers to save fertilizer and crop protection products as well as fuel. Machinery performance data is collected and stored via the Telemetry system can be sent to a customer’s computer for overview and decision-making for the following years. However, a significant quantity of data is not automatically processed by the Telemetry system. Currently, the final decisions are done on the customer’s feelings. Farmers want to be sure that the equipment they use will not only depend on the technological process but also reduce the negative impact on the environment. The aim of this study is to analyze the combine harvester data collected in the Telemetry system during harvesting at manual and auto-steering modes. The study compares the influence of combine harvester steering modes on GHG emissions and diesel fuel consumption using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) modules. The results show that global warming emission, using automatic steering mode, was reduced by 2.45% as compared to the manual driving mode. The diesel fuel consumption at automatic steering mode was reduced by 9.45% compared to manual driving. The working time analysis has shown a more rational and more accurate technological operation during linear steering mode. In summary, the analysis of the structure work process provides detailed information that can increase the overall productivity of the machine and optimize the work process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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952 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Water-Saving Techniques and Practices for On-Farm Surface Irrigation Systems
by José Manuel Gonçalves, Qingfeng Miao, Isabel Maria Duarte and Haibin Shi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09675 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
As surface irrigation systems are one of the most used water management techniques in the world, often working with high water losses, there is an urgency to their improvement. Modern methods that provide water savings and labour reduction require adequate design, management knowledge, [...] Read more.
As surface irrigation systems are one of the most used water management techniques in the world, often working with high water losses, there is an urgency to their improvement. Modern methods that provide water savings and labour reduction require adequate design, management knowledge, and technical decision support. This study aims to improve water saving techniques for on-farm systems through an example of the decision-aid process being applied as a methodology based on the field experimentation and modelling of modern surface irrigation technologies in the Hetao (China) and Lower Mondego (Portugal) case studies. The performance indicators of irrigation water productivity (IWP) and the economic water productivity ratio (EWPR) were applied to compare the performance of several project solutions. The results obtained include a complete description of the latest irrigation solutions at the level basin, graded border, and graded furrows, which are adaptable to those case studies. The results revealed the benefits of a level-basin solution. For example, in Hetao, replacing the traditional system with a 100 m or 200 m long level basin, resulted in an increase in IWP by 40% and 3%, respectively, and in EWPR by 23% and 67%, respectively. The effect of a longer basin enables the reduction in operative costs, with a slight increase in distribution uniformity. In Lower Mondego, the IWP increased by 65% and the EWPR increased by 82%, by adopting graded furrows with 1.0‰ slopes and 200 m lengths. The main drivers of development of these surface irrigation systems were determined, namely, the runoff reuse and the system design and management. The issue that the local markets with equipment and consulting services should be available for farmers is also relevant to the development. It was proven that the effectiveness of modern surface water systems must adapt the solutions of the projects to the local characteristics of plot size and slope, soil type, and water supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1171 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparison of Remote Sensing Soil Electrical Conductivity from PlanetScope and Ground Measured Data in Wheat and Beet Yields
by Ugur Avdan, Gordana Kaplan, Zehra Yigit Avdan, Dilek Kucuk Matci, Firat Erdem, Ece Tugba Mizik and Ilknur Demirtas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09741 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Soil salinity is a major threat to the continuity of sustainable agriculture and food provision and the soil structure deterioration. In this context, determining, reducing and managing soil salinity is very important for creating sustainable modern agriculture. Determining soil salinity is generally carried [...] Read more.
Soil salinity is a major threat to the continuity of sustainable agriculture and food provision and the soil structure deterioration. In this context, determining, reducing and managing soil salinity is very important for creating sustainable modern agriculture. Determining soil salinity is generally carried out in the laboratory environment and devices used in land plots. Remote sensing is one of the important methods used for precise estimation and mapping of salinity. With remote sensing technology, soil salinity maps for large areas can be obtained with low cost and low effort. This study aims to compare remote sensing soil electrical conductivity from PlanetScope and ground measured data in wheat and beet fields in the farming areas of Alpu, Turkey. For that reason, electrical conductivity was measured at several points in wheat and beet fields using in-situ measurements and compared with various soil salinity indices from PlanetScope imagery acquired on the same day. Linear regression analysis was carried out to correlate the electrical conductivity data with their corresponding soil salinity spectral index values. The results show a high correlation (R2 = 0.84) between soil salinity in wheat fields and some of the used indices. This study strengthens the idea that soil salinity maps can be obtained fast and accurately for large areas using remote sensing technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1160 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Chemical Characterization of Rosa canina L. Rosehip Seed: Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography
by Dušan Vasić, Bojana Špirović Trifunović, Ilinka Pećinar, Dragana Paunović and Jelena Popović-Djordjević
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09674 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
Rosehip seeds represent the food industry waste material, in the production of marmalade, jam, beverages, jelly, syrup, tea, etc. Agri-food wastes are rich in bioactive compounds and nutrients that can add value to different fields of agriculture and food production. The aim of [...] Read more.
Rosehip seeds represent the food industry waste material, in the production of marmalade, jam, beverages, jelly, syrup, tea, etc. Agri-food wastes are rich in bioactive compounds and nutrients that can add value to different fields of agriculture and food production. The aim of this study was to assess the chemical composition of seeds from Rosa canina L. hips, with the focus on the seed oil fatty acid profile. In this respect, the analytical methods in situ Raman spectroscopy (RS) and gas chromatography (GC) were used. Fatty acids in the form of methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Raman spectra showed the presence of lipids, fatty acids, polyphenolics and saccharides (including cellulose) as the predominant classes of compounds in seeds. Bands at 1266, 1328, 1369 and 1655 cm−1 were associated with lipids and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). The spectra also indicated cis isomers in the lipid fraction. Seeds contained 5.6% of oil, and GC analysis confirmed the presence of UFAs linoleic acid (ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (ω-3) (29.72 and 4.20%, respectively). Raman spectroscopy was applied as a fast and non-destructive analytical method for the chemical evaluation of rosehip seeds. The results of the GC analysis show that rosehip seeds are a good source of nutritionally valuable fatty acids that might be utilized in products specified as functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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2681 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Diachronic Mapping of Invasive Plants Using Airborne RGB Imagery in a Central Pyrenees Landscape (South-West France)
by Hugo Jantzi, Claire Marais-Sicre, Eric Maire, Hugues Barcet and Sylvie Guillerme
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10008 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
The rapid spread of invasive plant species (IPS) over several decades has led to numerous impacts on biodiversity, landscapes, and human activities. Early detection and knowledge on their spatiotemporal distribution is crucial to better understand invasion patterns and conduct appropriate activities for landscape [...] Read more.
The rapid spread of invasive plant species (IPS) over several decades has led to numerous impacts on biodiversity, landscapes, and human activities. Early detection and knowledge on their spatiotemporal distribution is crucial to better understand invasion patterns and conduct appropriate activities for landscape management. Therefore, remote sensing has great potential for detecting and mapping the spatial spread of IPS. This study presents a mapping of IPS (Reynoutria japonica and Impatiens glandulifera) over the last decade on two sites located in the central Pyrenees in the southwest of France, created using very high-resolution RGB aerial photographs. A supervised classification based on the random forest algorithm was performed using pixel attributes. The original spectral bands (RGB) were used, to which vegetation indices and textures were added to improve detection. The classification models yielded a mean prediction accuracy (F-score) of 0.90 (0.87 to 0.92) at Site 1 and 0.87 (0.81 to 0.91) at Site 2. Results show that the expansion of IPS is closely related to the presence of corridors (e.g., roads, power lines) and to environments disturbed by human activity such as land clearing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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250 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Rhizobium Inoculation on Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Yield in Protected Crops
by Beatriz Toledo Cabrera
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09993 - 8 May 2021
Viewed by 1196
Abstract
The insufficient availability of nutrients in the soil and the non-use of biofertilizers as a strategy in the tomato nutrition process are factors that limit the yield of this crop. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different Rhizobium [...] Read more.
The insufficient availability of nutrients in the soil and the non-use of biofertilizers as a strategy in the tomato nutrition process are factors that limit the yield of this crop. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different Rhizobium strains on the yield of the Aegean hybrid tomato variety. The inoculation of the microorganisms was carried out at the time of sowing and transplantation, in a proportion of 10% with respect to the volume of the root ball. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four treatments and with four replications for each treatment: an uninoculated control and three levels of the inoculation factor with the strains of Rhizobium, Rhizobium etli CE-3, Rhizobium leguminosarum SCR; Rhizobium leguminosarum Semia-4088. The sampling was carried out in a zig zag pattern throughout the field and the following variables were evaluated: dry mass by plant organs, foliar NPK, growth indicators, productive indicators, crop yield, and economic evaluation. The results achieved showed a positive effect on the indicators evaluated in the plants inoculated with the Rhizobium strains with respect to the control without inoculation. With the inoculation of the Rhizobium etli CE-3 strain, the best results were obtained regarding tomato yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
2579 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Remote Sensing of Ecohydrological, Ecohydraulic, and Ecohydrodynamic Phenomena in Vegetated Waterways: The Role of Leaf Area Index (LAI)
by Giuseppe Francesco Cesare Lama and Mariano Crimaldi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09728 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2913
Abstract
Aquatic plants have considerable effects on the hydraulic roughness and the qualitative status of vegetated flows at real scale. Defining the most suitable practice of riparian vegetation control in manmade and natural water flows represents a key point, in both environmental and river [...] Read more.
Aquatic plants have considerable effects on the hydraulic roughness and the qualitative status of vegetated flows at real scale. Defining the most suitable practice of riparian vegetation control in manmade and natural water flows represents a key point, in both environmental and river engineering, particularly considering the ongoing climate change trends. In detail, vegetation elements modify the main fluid dynamic features, with impacts on the transport of pollutants and mixing traits across vegetated flows. This study was carried out to provide deep knowledge of the ecohydrodynamic synergy between plants and water flow at field scale, within a ditch covered by rigid plants. It was possible, assessing the accuracy of drone-based imagery in computing Leaf Area Index (LAI), to further calibrate predictive models of vegetative flow resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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271 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Monitoring a Zinc Biofortification Workflow in an Experimental Field of Triticum aestivum L. Applying Smart Farming Technology
by Inês Carmo Luís, Ana Rita F. Coelho, Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Diana Daccak, Ana Coelho Marques, João Caleiro, Manuel Patanita, José Dôres, Manuela Simões, Ana Sofia Almeida, Maria Fernanda Pessoa, Maria Manuela Silva, Fernando Henrique Reboredo, Paulo Legoinha, Isabel P. Pais, Paula Scotti Campos, José C. Ramalho, José Carlos Kullberg, Maria Graça Brito and Fernando C. Lidon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09724 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
The strong increase of the human population worldwide is demanding a food production meeting quality standards. In this context, the agronomic biofortification with Zn is widely used in staple food crops as a strategy to surpass micronutrient deficiencies. Conversely, as bread wheat is [...] Read more.
The strong increase of the human population worldwide is demanding a food production meeting quality standards. In this context, the agronomic biofortification with Zn is widely used in staple food crops as a strategy to surpass micronutrient deficiencies. Conversely, as bread wheat is one of the most produced and consumed cereal, this staple food biofortification can be an opportunity to create an added value product. In this context, a workflow for Zn biofortification of Triticum aestivum L. (cvs Paiva and Roxo) crops was implemented in an experimental field located in Beja, Portugal, and smart farming techniques were introduced. Images were collected with cameras coupled to an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle before Zn foliar applications. Grain yield, test weight, and thousand kernel weight were analyzed (post-harvest) after two foliar applications of ZnSO4. Three levels of the factor were used (control–0, 8.1 and 18.2 kg.ha−1) at booting and heading stages. In general, when applying higher concentrations of foliar Zn, grain yield, test weight, and thousand kernel weight decreased slightly and Paiva presented higher values compared to Roxo. Nevertheless, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) did not reveal a direct correlation between its higher values or the increase of grain yield. However, it was concluded that using drones coupled with specific cameras is of utmost importance to decide whether an experimental field is qualified to implement a biofortification workflow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
1302 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) Mapping of Element Distribution in Leaves of Wheat Colonized by Intact Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Extraradical Mycelium
by Jorge M. S. Faria, Pedro Barrulas, Dora Martins Teixeira, Ana Paula Pinto, Isabel Brito and Mário Carvalho
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09686 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
In acidic soils with Mn toxicity, the development of an intact arbuscular mycorrhiza extraradical mycelium (ERM) by stress-adapted native plants can promote increased growth and protection against metal toxicity, in subsequent crops. In a recent study, the growth of Ornithopus compressus (ORN) in [...] Read more.
In acidic soils with Mn toxicity, the development of an intact arbuscular mycorrhiza extraradical mycelium (ERM) by stress-adapted native plants can promote increased growth and protection against metal toxicity, in subsequent crops. In a recent study, the growth of Ornithopus compressus (ORN) in acidic soil doubled shoot weight, increased P contents and decreased shoot Mn in successive wheat crops. The biochemical mechanisms involved in this beneficial effect may include the subcellular redistribution of nutrients and of excess Mn. In the present work, shoot Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, K, Si, Na and Zn were mapped through Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), in wheat grown for 3 weeks in undisturbed soil, where ORN previously developed an extensive ERM network. Element mapping allowed for the detection of higher levels of Fe, Mg, Mn, P, K, Na and Zn in the interveinal sections of wheat leaves while Ca and Si showed higher levels in vascular zones of the adaxial side. This preliminary work is part of an ongoing project which aims at identifying biochemical mechanisms responsible for the protective properties of an early AM colonization of crops, by ERM previously developed in association with native plants under Mn toxicity. Future research will determine the subcellular redistribution of these elements and excess Mn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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450 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Root-Knot Nematode Management Using Chitin-Rich Fish Industry By-Product in Organic Brinjal Cultivation
by Sujavanthi Ledchumanakumar, Nirosha Aruchchunan, Pakeerathan Kandiah and Mikunthan Gunasingham
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09693 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 914
Abstract
Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is a silent enemy of brinjal and can cause fruit yield loss of up to 80% in organic brinjal cultivation. Effective management of M. incognita using synthetic nematicide could be detrimental to non-target organisms and the environment. The [...] Read more.
Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is a silent enemy of brinjal and can cause fruit yield loss of up to 80% in organic brinjal cultivation. Effective management of M. incognita using synthetic nematicide could be detrimental to non-target organisms and the environment. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of chitin-rich shrimp and crab exoskeleton soil amendments on M. incognita growth. To this end, a green house experiment was conducted with and without shrimp and crab exoskeleton amendment. We recorded root-knot number, root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight after one month. The findings revealed that crab and shrimp chitin amendment-treated plants exhibited a significant reduction in the number of galls with the values of 15.5 and 25.75, respectively, than the control (35.5) at p < 0.05. The shoot length (14.90 cm), shoot fresh weight (5.39 g) and shoot dry weight (4.46 g) of brinjal were the highest in crab powder-treated plants at p < 0.05, whereas, root fresh (1.53 g) and dry weight (0.14 g) were highest in the control. We conclude that crab and shrimp exoskeleton powders suppress the M. incognita infestation and improve the growth parameters of the brinjal. Extensive field studies are needed to recommend chitin as an alternative to nematicides to manage M. incognita in organic brinjal cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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8925 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cropland Mapping Using Earth Observation Derived Phenological Metrics
by Federico Filipponi, Daniela Smiraglia, Stefania Mandrone and Antonella Tornato
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09732 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Satellite Earth observations provide timely and spatially explicit information on crop phenology that can support decision making and sustainable agricultural land management. Accurate classification and mapping of croplands is primary information for agricultural assessments. This study presents a digital agriculture approach that integrates [...] Read more.
Satellite Earth observations provide timely and spatially explicit information on crop phenology that can support decision making and sustainable agricultural land management. Accurate classification and mapping of croplands is primary information for agricultural assessments. This study presents a digital agriculture approach that integrates Earth Observation big data analytics based on machine learning technologies to classify and map main crop types. Two supervised machine learning models were calibrated using the Random Forest algorithm from phenological metrics, estimated from time series of NDVI and LAI vegetation indices calculated using Sentinel-2 MSI satellite acquisitions. Models were calibrated for the Toscana region in Italy. The results show a satisfactory overall accuracy (~78%) in cropland classification, and the model calibrated using LAI time series performed slightly better than the model calibrated using NDVI time series. The proposed approach offers the potential to accurately map crop types in a way that is useful to support agricultural land management and monitoring systems for large areas over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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829 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Calibration Methodology of a Remote PRI Sensor for Photosynthesis Rate Assessment in Greenhouses
by Angeliki Elvanidi and Nikolaos Katsoulas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-10018 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
Early detection of different types of crop stress under greenhouse cultivations is critical in order to optimize yield and resource use efficiency. The objective of the present work is to develop a system which, based on remote sensing, will recognize plant stress by [...] Read more.
Early detection of different types of crop stress under greenhouse cultivations is critical in order to optimize yield and resource use efficiency. The objective of the present work is to develop a system which, based on remote sensing, will recognize plant stress by combining microclimate and crop physiology data. The innovation of the platform is based on the integration of a remote PRI sensor that is used to correlate PRI measurements and photosynthesis rate (Ps). In this work, the methodology that is used for the PRI sensor calibration and acquisition is presented. The values that were recorded by means of the PRI sensor were correlated with the Ps rate that was obtained with a handheld photosynthesis system. Data of the PRI and Ps values were collected under different lighting, temperature and plant water status conditions of a greenhouse tomato crop. The basic statistical parameters of the mean and standard deviation values are used to estimate the spectral correlation at 530 nm and 570 nm on the interested leaf area. The determination coefficient (R2) of the linear regression that was obtained between the PRI and Ps data was about 0.9. The obtained equation will be integrated in the sensing system and the data will be used to train a machine learning model to detect different type of crop stress under greenhouse conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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2731 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparison of Proximal Remote Sensing Devices of Vegetable Crops to Determine the Role of Grafting in Plant Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita
by Yassine Hamdane, Adrian Gracia-Romero, Ma. Luisa Buchaillot, Rut Sanchez-Bragado, Aida Magdalena Fullana, Francisco Javier Sorribas, José Luis Araus and Shawn C. Kefauver
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09718 - 1 May 2021
Viewed by 764
Abstract
Proximal remote sensing devices are novel tools that enable the study of plant health status through the measurement of specific characteristics, including the color or spectrum of light reflected or transmitted by the leaves or the canopy. Among these, RGB images can provide [...] Read more.
Proximal remote sensing devices are novel tools that enable the study of plant health status through the measurement of specific characteristics, including the color or spectrum of light reflected or transmitted by the leaves or the canopy. Among these, RGB images can provide spatially detailed information about crop status including estimates of biomass, chlorophyll (and chlorosis) and fractional vegetation cover. The aim of this study is to compare the RGB data collected during five years (2016–2020) of four fruiting vegetables (melon, tomato, eggplant and peppers) with trial treatments of non-grafted and grafted onto resistant rootstocks cultivated in a Meloidogyne incognita (a root-knot nematode, RKN) infested soil in a greenhouse. The proximal remote sensing of plant health status data collected were divided into three levels. Firstly, leaf level pigments were measured using two different handheld sensors (SPAD and Dualex). Secondly, canopy vigor and biomass were assessed using vegetation indices derived from RGB images and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) measured with a portable spectroradiometer (Greenseeker). Thirdly, we assessed plant level water stress, as a consequence of the root damage by nematodes, directly using stomatal conductance measured with a porometer, and indirectly using plant temperature with an infrared thermometer and also the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of leaf dry matter. Among the measured parameters, carbon and nitrogen percentage exhibited the highest positive correlation (r = 0.90), whereas flavonoids and NBI (Nitrogen Balance Index) showed the highest inverse correlation (r = −0.87). It was found that the interaction between treatments and crops (ANOVA) was statistically different for only 4 of 17 parameters (flavonoid (p = 0.002), NBI (p = 0.044), NDVI (p = 0.004) and CSI (RGB-based Crop Senescence Index) (p = 0.002). Concerning the effect of treatments across all crops, differences existed only in two parameters, which were flavonoids (p = 0.003) and CSI (p = 0.001). Grafted plants contained less flavonoids (x̄ = 1.37) and showed lower CSI (x̄ = 11.65) than non-grafted plants (x̄ = 1.98 and x̄ = 17.28, respectively, p = 0.020 and p = 0.029) when combining all five years and four crops. We conclude that the grafted plants were less stressed and more protected against nematode attack. Leaf flavonoids and the RGB indexes (CSI) were robust indicators of root-knot nematode impacts across multiple crop types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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818 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Available P Enhancement in Andisols under Pasture and Rock Phosphate Amended with Poultry Manure
by Patricia Poblete-Grant, Rolando Demanet, María de La Luz Mora and Cornelia Rumpel
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09676 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
Poultry manure (PM) is a great nutrient source for plant growth. PM enhances soil properties and increases the crop yield. As an important strategy to decrease the amount of inorganic phosphorus (P) fertilizers, the combined use of rock phosphate (RP) with PM has [...] Read more.
Poultry manure (PM) is a great nutrient source for plant growth. PM enhances soil properties and increases the crop yield. As an important strategy to decrease the amount of inorganic phosphorus (P) fertilizers, the combined use of rock phosphate (RP) with PM has been found to be more advantageous for sustainable agriculture than their single use. The objective was to assess the effect of PM on P availability in Andisols and RP dissolution. In the first incubation, an Andisol was mixed with 100, 200, and 300 mg P kg−1 rate using PM, and Olsen P was determined at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days. In the second experiment, four Andisols were incubated with 200 and 300 mg P kg−1 soil for 20 days and acid phosphatase activity (APase) was measured. In the last experiment, PM and rock phosphate (RP) were mixed at two different rates: 50:50 and 70:30 for 30 days and total inorganic P was determined. We found that Andisols amended with PM increased P availability and APase, and the mixture of PM:RP at 70:30 showed the highest inorganic P. We therefore conclude that PM addition may improve P availability in soil as well as in combination with RP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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598 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Olive Oil Composition of Cv. Cobrançosa Is Affected by Regulated and Sustained Deficit Irrigation
by Anabela Fernandes-Silva, Pedro Marques, Thyago Brito, Luis Canas, Rebeca Cruz and Susana Casal
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 3(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2021-09735 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 647
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation strategies on cv. Cobrançosa olive oil main components, in a semiarid region in the Northeast of Portugal (Alfândega da Fé, 2019)—regulated (RDI) and sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) against well-irrigated controls [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation strategies on cv. Cobrançosa olive oil main components, in a semiarid region in the Northeast of Portugal (Alfândega da Fé, 2019)—regulated (RDI) and sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) against well-irrigated controls (FW). Total polyphenols (Folin) were higher in RDI than SDI and FW treatments. Among the phenolic components, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol derivatives (HPLC, after acid hydrolysis), were higher in olive oils obtained under SDI, potentially complying with the nutrition allegation allowed in Regulation (EU) No 432/2012, (“polyphenols in olive oil contribute to the protection of blood lipids against undesirable oxidation”), while the amounts in FI120 and RDI100 olive oils were 10% lower to the threshold. Olive oil vitamin E (mainly α-tocopherol) was also higher in oils obtained from SDI deficit irrigation treatments while oils from RDI had values very close to FI treatments. Olive oil bitterness, evaluated by K225, was highly positively correlated with TP (r2 = 0.94, p < 0.01). The fatty acidy profile was not affected by the irrigation regime. The results are preliminary and need to be continued to extract solid conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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